Portal:Quran

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Quran

A paper Quran opened halfwise on top of a brown cloth

The Quran (/kɔːrˈɑːn/ kor-AHN; Arabic: القرآن‎, translit. al-Qurʾān Arabic pronunciation: [alqur'ʔaːn], literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah). It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature. The Quran is divided into chapters (Arabic: سورة sūrah, plural سور suwar), which are subdivided into verses (Arabic: آية āyah, plural آيات āyāt).

Muslims believe that the Quran was orally revealed by God to the final Prophet, Muhammad, through the archangel Gabriel (Jibril), incrementally over a period of some 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE, when Muhammad was 40, and concluding in 632, the year of his death. Muslims regard the Quran as Muhammad's most important miracle, a proof of his prophethood, and the culmination of a series of divine messages starting with those revealed to Adam and ending with Muhammad. The word "Quran" occurs some 70 times in the Quran's text, and other names and words are also said to refer to the Quran.

According to tradition, several of Muhammad's companions served as scribes and recorded the revelations. Shortly after his death, the Quran was compiled by the companions, who had written down or memorized parts of it. The codices showed differences that motivated Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version, now known as Uthman's codex, which is generally considered the archetype of the Quran known today. There are, however, variant readings, with mostly minor differences in meaning. Read more...

Selected article

Mus'haf Al Tajwid, coloured letters to facilitate reading the Quraan with Tajwid.
Tajwīd (تجويد) is an Arabic word for elocution, meaning proper pronunciation during recitation, as well as recitation at a moderate speed. It is a set of rules which govern how the Qur'an should be read. It is derived from the triliteral root j-w-d, meaning to make well, make better, or improve. It is required by fard. There are Ten (tawatur) schools of Recitation, the most prevalent of which is the recitation of Imam 'Asim as transmitted by Imam Hafs.

Selected image

A photograph taken in August 2007 at the Bardo Museum in Tunisia of a page of calligraphy Qur'an (example of Islamic art).
Credit: Elcèd77

An example of Islamic art taken in August 2007 at the Bardo Museum in Tunisia featuring a page of calligraphy from the Qur'an.

Selected biography

Ali Husayni Sistani (Arabic: علي الحسيني السيستاني‎), born August 4, 1930, is an Iraqi Usuli marja in Iraq and the head of many of the seminaries (Hawzahs) in Najaf. Sistani was born in 1930 to a family of religious clerics, his father was Muhammad Baqir al-Sistani. Sistani himself claims to have been born in Mashhad, Iran, then moved to Mashhad as a child due to Iran not issuing birth certificates in its eastern provinces until decades later. After doing studies in Mashhad and Qom, In 1951, he traveled to Iraq to study in Najaf under Grand Ayatollah Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei. Sistani rose to the Usooli clerical rank of 'mujtahid' in 1960. When Grand Ayatollah Khoei died in 1992, Sistani ascended to the rank of Grand Ayatollah through traditional peer recognition of his scholarship. His role as successor to Khoei was symbolically cemented when he led funeral prayers for Khoei; he also inherited Khoei's network and following.

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Close-up of the Birmingham Quran manuscript
Close-up of the Birmingham Quran manuscript

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