The red, white, and blue Republican elephant
, still used a primary logo for many state GOP committees
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party. The party is named after republicanism, a major ideology of the American Revolution. Founded by anti-slavery activists, economic modernizers, ex-National Republicans, ex-Free Soilers and Whigs in 1854, the Republicans largely dominated politics nationally and in the majority of northern states between 1860 and 1932.
Originally, the GOP subscribed to what is referred to as classical liberalism with ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. The party was usually dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran as a candidate. He called for many social reforms, some of which were later championed by New Deal Democrats in the 1930s. He lost the election and when most of his supporters returned to the GOP, they were at odds with the new conservative economic stance, leading to them leaving for the Democratic Party and an ideological shift to the right in the Republican Party. The liberal New Deal Democrats dominated the Fifth Party System at the national level. The liberal Republican element was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 and fulfilled during the Reagan Era.
Currently, their ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing. The GOP's political platform supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, free enterprise, a strong national defense, gun rights, deregulation and restrictions on labor unions. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is socially conservative and seeks to uphold traditional values based largely on Judeo-Christian ethics. The GOP was strongly committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest. Since 1952, there has been a reversal against protectionism and for free trade. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic. After the 1960s, whites increasingly identified with the Republican Party. After the Roe v. Wade 1973 Supreme Court ruling, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among Evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican party was firmly aligned with Christian conservatism. The party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. Catholics were long the backbone of the Democratic Party, but since the 1970s have split about evenly, as well as racially, with white Catholics moving to the Republicans. Mormons are heavily Republican.
Along with the GOP winning 24 of the last 40 presidential elections there have been a total of 19 Republican Presidents, the most from any one party. The first was 16th President Abraham Lincoln, who served from 1861 until his assassination in 1865; the most recent being the 45th and current president Donald Trump, who took the oath of office on January 20, 2017. However, the Republicans have lost the popular vote in six out of the last seven Presidential elections, as its traditional demographic is reducing as a proportion of the US population.
The Tea Party movement
is an American fiscally conservative political movement
within the Republican Party
. Members of the movement have called for lower taxes
, and for a reduction of the national debt of the United States
and federal budget deficit
through decreased government spending
. The movement supports small-government principles and opposes government-sponsored universal healthcare
. The Tea Party movement has been described as a popular constitutional movement composed of a mixture of libertarian
, right-wing populist
, and conservative
activism. It has sponsored multiple protests
and supported various political candidates
since 2009. According to the American Enterprise Institute
, various polls in 2013 estimate that slightly over 10 percent of Americans identify as part of the movement.
The movement began following Barack Obama's first presidential inauguration (in January 2009) when his administration announced plans to give financial aid to bankrupt homeowners. A major force behind it was Americans for Prosperity (AFP), a conservative political advocacy group founded by businessmen and political activist David H. Koch. It is unclear exactly how much money is donated to AFP by David and his brother Charles Koch. Following a February 19, 2009 call by CNBC reporter Rick Santelli on the floor of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange for a "tea party," over fifty conservative activists agreed by conference call to coalesce against Obama's agenda and scheduled series of protests, including the 2009 Taxpayer March on Washington. Supporters of the movement subsequently have had a major impact on the internal politics of the Republican Party. Although the Tea Party is not a party in the classic sense of the word, some research suggests that members of the Tea Party Caucus vote like a significantly farther right third party in Congress.
The movement's name refers to the Boston Tea Party of December 16, 1773, a watershed event in the launch of the American Revolution. The 1773 event demonstrated against taxation by the British government without political representation for the American colonists, and references to the Boston Tea Party and even costumes from the 1770s era are commonly heard and seen in the Tea Party movement. Read more...
John Calvin Coolidge Jr. (; July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933) was an American politician and the 30th President of the United States (1923–1929). A Republican lawyer from New England, born in Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor. His response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. Soon after, he was elected Vice President of the United States in 1920, and succeeded to the presidency upon the sudden death of Warren G. Harding in 1923. Elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small government conservative and also as a man who said very little, although having a rather dry sense of humor.
Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, and left office with considerable popularity. As a Coolidge biographer wrote: "He embodied the spirit and hopes of the middle class, could interpret their longings and express their opinions. That he did represent the genius of the average is the most convincing proof of his strength".
From 1948 to 2018, mainstream scholars have ranked Coolidge as a below-average president. He is praised by advocates of smaller government and laissez-faire, while supporters of an active central government generally view him less favorably, though most praise his stalwart support of racial equality. Read more...
Things to do
- Suggest new feature articles and pictures.
- Contribute to the wikiprojects