Scientology is a body of religious beliefs and practices launched in May 1952 by American author L. Ron Hubbard (1911–86). Hubbard initially developed a program of ideas called Dianetics, which was distributed through the Dianetics Foundation. The foundation soon entered bankruptcy, and Hubbard lost the rights to his seminal publication Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health in 1952. He then recharacterized the subject as a religion and renamed it Scientology, retaining the terminology, doctrines, the E-meter, and the practice of auditing. Within a year, he regained the rights to Dianetics and retained both subjects under the umbrella of the Church of Scientology.
Hubbard describes the etymology of the word Scientology as coming from the Latin word "scio", meaning know or distinguish, and the Greek word “logos”, meaning “the word or outward form by which the inward thought is expressed and made known”. Hubbard writes, “thus, Scientology means knowing about knowing, or science of knowledge”.
Hubbard's groups have encountered considerable opposition and controversy. In January 1951, the New Jersey Board of Medical Examiners brought proceedings against Dianetics Foundation on the charge of teaching medicine without a license. Hubbard's followers engaged in a program of criminal infiltration of the U.S. government.
Hubbard-inspired organizations and their classification are often a point of contention. Germany classifies Scientology groups as an "anti-constitutional sect". In France, they have been classified as a dangerous cult by some parliamentary reports.
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(born Bek David Campbell
, July 8, 1970) is a Grammy Award
-winning American musician
, and multi-instrumentalist
, known by his simple stage name
. With his pop
collage of musical styles, oblique, ironic
lyrics, and post-modern
arrangements incorporating samples
, drum machines
, live instrumentation and sound effects, Beck has been hailed by critics and the public throughout his musical career as being amongst the most idiosyncratic artists of 1990s alternative rock
. Beck rose to underground popularity with his earliest works, which combined social criticism (as in "MTV Makes Me Want to Smoke Crack
" and "Deep Fried Love") with musical and lyrical experimentalism. He first came to wider public attention with his breakthrough single
", a hit in 1994, which some described as a novelty song
. However, Beck was not easily categorized into a single genre. Some likened his absurd
, free-flowing lyrical style and the lo-fi folk songs
of his early career to Bob Dylan
, and his later eclecticism sparked comparisons to Prince
. His 1996 album Odelay
was awarded Album of the Year by Rolling Stone
, and nominated for a Grammy
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