Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib
: أبو عبد الله الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب
, 10 January 626 – 10 October 680, also known as Husayn ibn Ali
or Imam Husayn
, was a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
and a son
of Ali ibn Abi Talib
and Muhammad's daughter Fatima
, as well as a younger brother of Hasan ibn Ali
. He is the third Shia Imam after his brother, Hasan, and before his son, Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin
. He is considered a member of the Ahl al-Bayt
as well as the Ahl al-Kisa
, and he was a participant in the event of Mubahala
. The prophet Muhammad described Husayn and his brother, Hasan, as "the masters of the youth of Paradise."
During the caliphate of Ali, Husayn accompanied him in wars. After the assassination of Ali
, he obeyed his brother in recognizing Hasan–Muawiya treaty
, in spite of being suggested to do otherwise. In the nine-year period between Hasan's abdication in AH 41 (660 AD) and his death in AH 49 (669 AD), Hasan and Husayn retreated to Medina, trying to keep aloof from political involvement for or against Mu'awiya
. After the death of Hasan, when Iraqis turned to Husayn, concerning an uprising, Husayn instructed them to wait as long as Mu'awiya was alive due to Hasan's peace treaty with him.
Prior to his death, Mu'awiya appointed his son Yazid
as his successor, contrary to the Hasan–Muawiya treaty
When Mu'awiya died in 680, Yazid demanded that Husayn pledge allegiance to him. Husayn refused to do so. As a consequence, he left Medina
, his hometown, to take refuge in Mecca
in AH 60 (679 CE). There, the people of Kufa
sent letters to him, invited him to Kufa and asked him to be their Imam and pledged their allegiance to him.
On Husayn's way to Kufa with a retinue of about 70 men, his caravan was intercepted by a 1,000-strong army of the caliph at some distance from Kufa. He was forced to head north and encamp in the plain of Karbala on 2 October, where a larger Umayyad army of 4,000 arrived soon afterwards. Negotiations failed after the Umayyad governor Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad
refused Husayn safe passage without submitting to his authority, a condition declined by Husayn. Battle ensued on 10 October during which Husayn was killed along with most of his relatives and companions, while his surviving family members were taken prisoner. The battle was followed by the Second Fitna
, during which the Iraqis organized two separate campaigns to avenge the death of Husayn; the first one by the Tawwabin
and the other one by Mukhtar al-Thaqafi
and his supporters. (Full article...