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Somaliland portal

The Somaliland Portal

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Somaliland (Somali: Somaliland, Arabic: صوماليلاند‎‎ Ṣūmālīlānd or أرض الصومال Arḍ aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Republic of Somaliland (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland, Arabic: جمهورية صوماليلاند‎‎ Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd), is a self-declared state internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia.[1][2] The government of Somaliland regards itself as the successor state to the former British Somaliland protectorate, which as the State of Somaliland united as scheduled on 1 July 1960 with the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic (Somalia).[3]

Somaliland lies in northwestern Somalia, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Aden. It is bordered by the autonomous region of the Puntland State of Somalia to the east, Djibouti to the northwest, and Ethiopia to the south and west.[4] Its claimed territory has an area of 137,600 square kilometres (53,100 sq mi), with approximately 4 million residents. The capital and the largest city is Hargeisa, with the population of around 1,200,000 residents.[5]

In 1988, the Siad Barre regime launched a crackdown against the Hargeisa-based Somali National Movement (SNM) and other militant groups, which were among the events that led to the Somali Civil War.[6] The conflict left the country's economic and military infrastructure severely damaged. Following the collapse of Barre's government in early 1991, local authorities, led by the SNM, declared independence from Somalia on 18 May of the same year and reinstated the borders of the former short-lived independent State of Somaliland.[7][8]

Since then, the territory has been governed by democratically elected governments that seek international recognition as the Government of the Republic of Somaliland (Somali: Dowlada Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland, Arabic: جمهورية صوماليلاند‎‎ Dawlat Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd).[9][10][11][12] The central government maintains informal ties with some foreign governments, who have sent delegations to Hargeisa.[7][13][14] Ethiopia also maintains a trade office in the region.[15] However, Somaliland's self-proclaimed independence remains unrecognised by any country or international organisation.[7][16][17] It is a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, whose members consist of indigenous peoples, minorities, and unrecognised or occupied territories.

Selected article

Somalis (Somali: Soomaaliyeed, Arabic: الصوماليون‎‎) are an ethnic group located in the Horn of Africa, also known as the Somali Peninsula. The overwhelming majority of Somalis speak the Somali language, which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Ethnic Somalis number around 15-17 million and are principally concentrated in Somalia (more than 9 million[18]), Ethiopia (4.6 million[19]), Yemen (a little under 1 million), northeastern Kenya (about half a million), Djibouti (350,000), and an unknown but large number live in parts of the Middle East, North America and Europe.

Did you know...

  • ...that the Laas Geel cave paintings, located near Hargeisa, are 4,000–11,000 years old?
cave paintings, located near Hargeisa, are 4,000–11,000 years old
  • ...that the Berbera Airport The Berbera airport has a 4,140 m (13,582 ft) runway, one of the longest on the continent.[2] The runway was built by the Soviet Union (USSR) in the mid-1970s in order to counter the United States' military presence in the region.[3] It was rented by NASA at a cost of $40 million USD per year, and used as an emergency landing site for the Space Shuttle from 1980 until 1991, when the government of former President of Somalia Siad Barre collapsed.?
  • ...that Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (pictured), a Somali religious and nationalist leader and commander of the Dervish State, led a resistance war against British, Italian and Ethiopian forces for over two decades?
  • ...that Somalia was and still is known as the Nation of Poets?

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The Berbera landscape.

Berbera (Somali: Barbara, Arabic: بربرة‎‎) is a city in the northwestern Berbera District of Somaliland, a self-declared republic internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia. It is situated in the Woqooyi Galbeed province.[20]

In antiquity, Berbera was part of a chain of commercial port cities along the Somali seaboard. It later served as the capital of the British Somaliland protectorate from 1884 to 1941, when it was replaced by Hargeisa. In 1960, the British Somaliland protectorate gained independence as the State of Somaliland and united as scheduled five days later with the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic (Somalia).[21][3] Located strategically on the oil route, the city has a deep seaport, which serves as the region's main commercial harbor.


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  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Tukpmorttsep was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ "The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic" (PDF). University of Pretoria. 1 February 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  3. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.835
  4. ^ "Analysis: Time for jaw-jaw, not war-war in Somaliland". Retrieved 28 March 2016. 
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference geography was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Locsg was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ a b c Lacey, Marc (5 June 2006). "The Signs Say Somaliland, but the World Says Somalia". New York Times. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  8. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Somaliland" (PDF). Government of Somaliland. 1 May 2001. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  9. ^ "Country Profile". Government of Somaliland. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  10. ^ "De Facto Statehood? The Strange Case of Somaliland". Yale University, Journal of International Affairs. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 April 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  11. ^ Schoiswohl, Michael (2004). Status and (Human Rights) Obligations of Non-Recognized De Facto Regimes in International Law. University of Michigan: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 351. ISBN 978-90-04-13655-7. 
  12. ^ "Regions and Territories: Somaliland". BBC News. 25 September 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  13. ^ "Chronology for Issaq in Somalia". Minorities at Risk Project. United Nations Refugee Agency. 2004. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  14. ^ "Interview with Ambassador Brook Hailu Beshah". International Affairs Review. 8 November 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  15. ^ Trade office of The FDRE to Somaliland- Hargeysa Archived March 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ "Reforming Somaliland's Judiciary" (PDF). United Nations. 9 January 2006. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  17. ^ "Arab League condemns Israel over Somaliland recognition". Ethjournal.com. 7 March 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  18. ^ CIA World Factbook: Somalia, people and Map of the Somalia Ethnic groups (CIA according de Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection). The first gives 15% non-Somalis and the second 6%. Used 90% of current population of Somalia.
  19. ^ Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency. "2007 Ethiopian census, first draft" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  20. ^ Somaliland’s Quest for International Recognition and the HBM-SSC Factor
  21. ^ Somalia