Portal:South Australia/Selected article

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The Riverwalk Promenade, Adelaide Convention Centre and skyline from the River Torrens.

Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia, with a population of over 1.1 million. It is a coastal city beside the Southern Ocean, and is situated on the Adelaide Plains, north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, between the Gulf St. Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges. It is a roughly linear city: it is 20 km from the coast to the foothills, but it stretches 90 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Aldinga in the south. Named in honour of Queen Adelaide, the consort of King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for the only freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens. Inspired by William Penn and the garden city movement, Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, and entirely surrounded by parkland. Early Adelaide was shaped by religious freedom and a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties, which led to world-first reforms. Adelaidean society remained largely puritan up until the 1970s, when a set of social reforms under the premiership of Don Dunstan resulted in a cultural revival. Today Adelaide is known for its many festivals as well as for its wine, arts and sports revelry.

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The Waterfall Gully waterfall in the Adelaide Foothills.

Waterfall Gully is a small suburb in the South Australian city of Adelaide. It is located in the foothills of the Mount Lofty Ranges around five kilometres east of Adelaide's central business district (CBD). For the most part, the suburb encompasses one long gully with First Creek at its centre and Waterfall Gully Road adjacent to the creek. At one end of the gully is the waterfall for which the suburb was named. Part of the Burnside Council, it is bounded to the north by the suburb of Burnside, to the north-east by Greenhill, to the south-east by Cleland Conservation Park, to the south-west by Leawood Gardens and to the north-west by Mount Osmond. Waterfall Gully is rich in history and has been a popular attraction since Adelaide's early colonists discovered the area in the nineteenth century. Home to a number of residents and increasingly frequented by tourists, Waterfall Gully has undergone extensive developments in recent years.

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The Burnside District Council's old Chambers in 1928 (built 1869)

The history of Burnside, a local government area in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, spans three centuries. Burnside was inhabited by the Kaurna Indigenous people prior to European settlement, living around the creeks of the River Torrens during the winter and in the Adelaide Hills during the summer. The area was first settled in 1839 by Peter Anderson, a Scots migrant, who named it Burnside after his property's location adjacent to Second Creek (in Scots, 'Burn' means creek or stream). The village of Burnside was established shortly after, and the Burnside Council District was gazetted in 1856, separating itself from the larger East Torrens Council. The mainstays of the early Burnside economy were viticulture, mining and olive groves; Glen Osmond boasted substantial mineral deposits, and vineyards were established at Magill. The present council chambers were built in 1926 in Tusmore; the council became a municipality in 1935. With strong growth and development throughout the region, Burnside was then proclaimed a city in 1943. The 1960s brought to Burnside a community library and a swimming centre; both were further expanded and upgraded between 1997 and 2001. Today, Burnside is one of Adelaide's most sought-after regions in which to live.

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A bus on the O-Bahn guide-way.

The O-Bahn Busway is the world's longest, fastest and most heavily patronised guided busway. The O-Bahn (from Latin omnibus meaning "for all people" and German bahn meaning "train") design was originally conceived by Daimler-Benz to make use of former tram tunnels in the German city of Essen. While this plan did not come to fruition, the system was applied in the South Australian capital city of Adelaide to deliver services to its rapidly expanding north-eastern suburbs, replacing an earlier plan to create a tramline extension. The design is unique among public transport systems; typical busways make use of dedicated bus lanes or separate carriageways, while the O-Bahn runs on specially built tracks, combining elements of both bus and rail systems. The track is at a length of 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) and contains one station and two interchanges; Klemzig Station in Payneham, Paradise Interchange in Campbelltown and Tea Tree Plaza Interchange in Tea Tree Gully.

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Don Dunstan (21 September 1926 – 6 February 1999) was an Australian politician. He was Labor Premier of South Australia between 1 June 1967 and 17 April 1968, and subsequently between 2 June 1970 and 15 February 1979. A reformist, Dunstan brought profound change to South Australian society: his progressive reign saw Aboriginal land rights recognised, homosexuality decriminalised, the first female judge appointed and anti-discrimination legislation introduced. He is recognised for his role in reinvigorating the social, artistic and cultural life of South Australia during his nine years in office, remembered as the Dunstan Decade. Entering politics as the Member for Norwood in 1953, he became infamous in Parliament for his vigorous debating skills and for his unique flair. Dunstan rose through the Labor Party to become leader of the opposition, and then, in 1967 and after elections in 1970, premier.

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Façade of the Parliament of South Australia.

Legislative elections for the 51st Parliament of South Australia were held in the state of South Australia on 18 March 2006, and were conducted by the independent State Electoral Office. The centre-left Australian Labor Party, in government since 2002 under Premier Mike Rann, gained a 7.7 percent statewide swing, resulting in the first Labor majority government since the 1985 election, with 28 of the 47 House of Assembly (lower house) seats. The centre-right Liberal Party of Australia, led by Rob Kerin, achieved their worst lower house result in any South Australian election, with 31.9% of seats. In addition to the major party results, all three sitting independents and a sitting Nationals SA member retained their lower house seats. In the Legislative Council (upper house), both major parties each finished with a total of eight seats, with Labor winning four and the Liberals winning three. No Pokies independent Nick Xenophon polled an unprecedented (for an independent or minor party) 20.5 percent, resulting in both Xenophon and his running mate, Ann Bressington being elected. Family First had a second member elected, the Democrats vote collapsed leaving one remaining member, and the SA Greens won a seat for the first time.

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Sir Thomas Playford (July 5, 1896 – 16 June 1981) was a prominent South Australian politician and farmer. He served continuously as Premier of South Australia from 5 November 1938 to 10 March 1965, the longest term of any democratically elected leader in the history of the Commonwealth of Nations. His tenure as premier was marked by a period of population and economic growth unmatched by any other Australian state. Born into an old political family, he grew up on the family farm in Norton Summit before enlisting in the Australian Imperial Force in World War I, fighting in Gallipoli and Western Europe. In office, Playford used his negotiating skills to encourage industry to relocate to South Australia during World War II, and built upon this in the post-war boom years. Playford took a unique, strong and direct approach to the premiership and personally oversaw his industrial initiatives. His string of election wins were assisted by a system of electoral malapportionment that bore his name, the 'Playmander'. However, Playford and his party failed to adapt to changing social mores and eventually lost office in the 1965 election.

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Façade of the Parliament of South Australia.

The Liberal Movement, usually referred to as the LM, was a minor South Australian political party that flourished in the 1970s. Stemming from discontent within the ranks of the Liberal and Country League, it was first formed by former Premier Steele Hall as an internal group in 1972 in response to a lack of reform within its parent. A year later, when tensions heightened between the LCL's conservative wing and the LM, it was established on its own as a progressive liberal party. When still part of the league, it had eleven representatives; on its own, it initially had three. In the federal election of 1974, it succeeded in electing Hall to the Australian Senate, and in the 1975 state election, it gained an additional member, narrowly failing to dislodge the incumbent Don Dunstan-led Labor Government in coalition with other non-Labor parties. The limited success of the LM and internal decline led to it being absorbed back into the LCL in 1976, newly renamed as the Liberal Party of Australia. A wing of the LM did not rejoin the Liberals and instead formed a new party, the New LM. The New LM, along with the Australia Party and Don Chipp, went on form the nucleus of the Australian Democrats, which subsequently went on to hold the balance of power in both federal and state upper houses. The LM and its successor parties were an early voice for what is termed small-l liberalism in Australia.

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The river in summer at base of the Adelaide Hills, Athelstone.

The River Torrens is the most significant river of the Adelaide Plains and was one of the reasons for the siting of Adelaide, South Australia. It flows 85 kilometres (53 mi) from its source in the Adelaide Hills near Mount Pleasant, across the Adelaide Plains, past the central business district and empties into Gulf St. Vincent at Henley Beach South. The upper stretches of the river and reservoirs in its watershed supply a significant part of the city's water supply. The river's long linear parks and a constructed lake in the lower stretch are iconic of the city.

The river's flora and fauna have been both deliberately and accidentally impacted since settlement. Native forests have been cleared, gravel removed for construction and many foreign species introduced. With construction of the linear parks, many species native to the river have been replanted and introduced species controlled as weeds. Since European settlement the river has been a frequently touted tourist attraction. It has also acted as the city’s primary water source, and main sewer leading to outbreaks of typhus and cholera.

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The Mount Osmond Interchange on the South Eastern Freeway.

Mount Osmond is a small suburb of 2,497 people in the South Australian capital city of Adelaide. It is part of the City of Burnside Local Government Area and located in the foothills of the Adelaide Hills, five kilometres south east of the city centre. The suburb is high on the hill of the same name, which is the last hill on the right when approaching Adelaide down the South Eastern Freeway before the road levels out onto the Adelaide Plains. It is bounded to the north by the suburb of Beaumont, to the north-east by Burnside, to the east by Waterfall Gully, to the south by Leawood Gardens/Eagle on the Hill, to the south-west by Urrbrae, to the west by Glen Osmond and to the north-west by St. Georges.

The suburb is at a high elevation in the Mount Lofty Ranges, and provides views over Adelaide as well as containing a renowned golf course and Country Club. Mining operations in the 19th century gave the area notoriety, but it has since developed slowly into a small, quiet and secluded suburb.

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The rear façade of Beaumont House.

Beaumont House, occasionally known as Claremont, is an eclectic Romanesque-Classical brick residence located at 631 Glynburn Road in Beaumont, South Australia. Beaumont House was constructed for Augustus Short, the first Anglican bishop of Adelaide and founder of St Peter's Cathedral.

Beaumont House was constructed on land initially owned by Sir Samuel Davenport, a wealthy Adelaide landlord. Following Short's move back to England, Davenport purchased the house—the second of five eventual owners. Following three sales between 1907 and 1911, the house was then transferred to the National Trust of South Australia during 1968.

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St Kilda adventure playground.

St Kilda is a seaside suburb in Adelaide, South Australia that is home to an award winning adventure playground, tram museum, mangrove forest walk and an abundance of birdlife. St Kilda has only a small number of houses and a 2006 population of 246. There is a single connecting road to the rest of Adelaide which, where the road enters the suburb's residential area, is surrounded by salt crystallisation lagoons used in the manufacture of soda ash.

The inhabited section of the suburb occupies less than 100 hectares along the seafront, with the remainder used for salt lagoons and also settlement ponds of nearby Bolivar sewage treatment works.

What was originally a seaside town was named by John Harvey, the founder of nearby Salisbury, as it reminded him of St Kilda in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland with its similar abundance of birdlife. St Kilda is an internationally recognised bird watching area with over 100 species of birds feeding in and around the mudflats, salt Lagoons, mangroves and seagrass beds.

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Adelaide's first electric tram ("Type A") on display at the Tramway Museum, St Kilda, South Australia

Until 1958, Trams in Adelaide formed a network spanning most of suburban Adelaide, with a history dating back to 1878. Adelaide ran horse trams from 1878 to 1914 and electric trams from 1909, but has primarily relied on buses for public transport since 1958. Today there is a single remaining tram line with two classes of electric tram, built in 1929 and 2006, respectively. The tram line connects the central business district of Adelaide, capital of South Australia, to the seaside suburb of Glenelg. Electric trams and trolleybuses were Adelaide's main public transport throughout the life of the electric tram network and are enjoying a resurgence with the expansion of the remaining line and the first new tram purchases for more than 50 years.

The early use of trams was for recreation as well as daily travel, by entire families and tourists. Until the 1950s, trams were used for family outings to the extent that the Municipal Tramways Trust (MTT) constructed gardens in the suburb of Kensington Gardens, extending the Kensington line to attract customers. By 1945 the MTT was collecting fares for 95 million trips annually—295 trips per head of population.

After the Great Depression, the maintenance of the tramway system and the purchase of new trams suffered. Competition from private buses, the MTT's own bus fleet and the growth of private car ownership all took patrons from the tram network. By the 1950s, the tram network was losing money and being replaced by an electric and petrol-driven bus fleet. Adelaide's tram history is preserved by a volunteer run museum and tramway at St Kilda, and the continuing use of 1929 H Class trams on the remaining Glenelg tram line.

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Locations of nuclear test sites in Australia.

British nuclear tests at Maralinga occurred between 1955 and 1963 at the Maralinga site, part of the Woomera Prohibited Area, in South Australia. A total of seven major nuclear tests were performed, with approximate yields ranging from 1 to 27 kilotons. The site was also used for hundreds of minor trials, many of which were intended to investigate the effects of fire or non-nuclear explosions on atomic weapons.

The site was contaminated with radioactive materials and an initial cleanup was attempted in 1967. The McClelland Royal Commission into the tests delivered its report in 1985, and found that significant radiation hazards still existed at many of the Maralinga test areas. It recommended another cleanup, which was completed in 2000 at a cost of $108 million. Debate continued over the safety of the site and the long-term health effects on the traditional Aboriginal owners of the land and former personnel. In 1994, the Australian Government paid compensation amounting to $13.5 million to the local Maralinga Tjarutja people.

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The information centre near the base of one of the towers at Wattle Point Wind Farm

Wind power in South Australia is a significant energy source for the state and South Australia is well suited to wind farms due to its proximity to the Roaring forties.

South Australia has half of the nation's installed wind power capacity. As of December 2010, South Australia has thirteen operational wind farms, with an installed capacity of 1,018 megawatts (MW). A further 184 MW of projects are under construction.

Wind farms do not emit greenhouse gases in the generation of electricity, and so wind power is considered a highly desirable form of renewable energy which assists in the reduction of the State’s reliance on coal and gas fired electricity generation.

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Clem Hill

Clement "Clem" Hill (March 18, 1877 in Hindmarsh, Adelaide, South Australia – September 5, 1945 in Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria) was an Australian cricketer who played 49 Test matches as a specialist batsman between 1896 and 1912. He captained the Australian team in ten Tests, winning five and losing five. A prolific run scorer, Hill scored 3,412 runs in Test cricket—a world record at the time of his retirement—at an average of 39.21 per innings, including seven centuries. In 1902, Hill was the first batsman to make 1,000 runs in a calendar year, a feat that would not be repeated for 45 years. His innings of 365 scored against New South Wales for South Australia in 1900–01 was a Sheffield Shield record for 27 years. The South Australian Cricket Association named a stand at the Adelaide Oval in his honour in 2003 and he was inducted into the Australian Cricket Hall of Fame in 2005.

He played his first first-class cricket match for South Australia while still a schoolboy, aged sixteen. By the time he was nineteen, he had been included in the Australian team touring England in 1896, where he made his Test match début. At the Melbourne Cricket Ground two years later, Hill scored 188; his maiden Test century and still the highest score in Ashes Tests by a player under twenty-one. He was named one of Wisden Cricketers of the Year in 1899, despite missing half the English season due to illness. In the 1901–02 season, Hill was dismissed in consecutive innings for 99, 98 and 97. In total he was dismissed in the nineties five times. In 1903–04, Hill was at the centre of a riot at the Sydney Cricket Ground when he was given out run out in a Test match against England. With Roger Hartigan he still holds the Australian Test record partnership for the eighth wicket – 243, made against England at the Gabba in Brisbane in 1907–08.

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Louis Laybourne Smith

Louis Laybourne Smith (1 April 1880 – 13 September 1965) was an architect and educator in South Australia. Born in the Adelaide inner-southern suburb of Unley, he became interested in engineering and architecture while in the goldfields of Western Australia and later studied mechanical engineering at the School of Mines, serving an apprenticeship under architect Edward Davies. After graduating he accepted a position as a lecturer at the school, and was responsible for developing the first formal architecture course in the State in 1904. Between 1905 and 1914, he served as registrar at the school before leaving to join his long-time friend, Walter Bagot, at the architectural firm of Woods, Bagot and Jory. He remained with the firm until his death in 1965, and over the years was involved in a number of significant projects, including the South Australian National War Memorial and the original Australian Mutual Provident building on King William Street.

Along with his teaching and professional duties, Laybourne Smith was a member of the South Australian Institute of Architects, the Federal Council of the Australian Institute of Architects, and the Australian Institute of Architects, as well as being on numerous committees and advising the State Government in the formation of both the State Building Act of 1923 and the 1939 Architects Act. Today, the architectural school which he founded (now part of the University of South Australia) bears his name—the Louis Laybourne Smith School of Architecture.

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