ISS crew member stores samples
Columbia launches again on STS-2
Apollo 6 heads into orbit
Columbia landing, concluding the STS-1 mission
This shows an extreme ultraviolet view of the sun (the Apollo Telescope Mount SO82A Experiment) taken during Skylab 3, with the Earth added for scale. On the right an image of the Sun shows a helium emissions, and there is an image on the left showing emissions from iron. One application for spaceflight is to take observation hindered or made more difficult by being on Earth's surface. Skylab included a massive manned solar observatory that revolutionized solar science in the early 1970s using the Apollo-based space station in conjunction with manned spaceflights to it.
, IPA: [ˈmʲir]
) was a Soviet
and later Russian space station
. It was the world's first consistently inhabited long-term research station in space, and the first of the third generation type of space station, constructed from 1986 to 1996 with a modular design
. The station was in operation for fifteen years until March 23, 2001, when it was deliberately de-orbited, breaking apart during atmospheric re-entry
over the South Pacific Ocean
The station currently holds the record for the longest continuous manned presence in space, at eight days short of ten years, and was occupied for a total of twelve and a half years of its fifteen-year lifespan. Mir had the capacity to support a resident crew of three but could also support larger crews for short-term visits, the largest crew simultaneously aboard the station being six.
Through a number of international collaborations, including Intercosmos, Euromir and the Shuttle-Mir Program, the station was made accessible to astronauts from North America, several western European nations, Japan as well as cosmonauts from various eastern nations. Mir also marked the beginning of space tourism when Japanese journalist Toyohiro Akiyama made a paid visit in 1990.
Gerard Kitchen O'Neill
(February 6, 1927 – April 27, 1992) was an American physicist
and space activist. A faculty member of Princeton University
, he invented a device called the particle storage ring
for high-energy physics experiments. Later, he invented a magnetic launcher called the mass driver
. In the 1970s, he developed a plan to build human settlements in outer space, including a space habitat
design known as the O'Neill cylinder
. He founded the Space Studies Institute
, an organization devoted to funding research into space manufacturing
O'Neill began researching high-energy particle physics at Princeton in 1954 after he received his doctorate from Cornell University.
Two years later, he published his theory for a particle storage ring. This invention allowed particle physics experiments at much higher energies than had previously been possible. In 1965 at Stanford University, he performed the first colliding beam physics experiment.
While teaching physics at Princeton, O'Neill became interested in the possibility that humans could live in outer space. He researched and proposed a futuristic idea for human settlement in space, the O'Neill cylinder, in "The Colonization of Space", his first paper on the subject. He held a conference on space manufacturing at Princeton in 1975. Many who became post-Apollo-era space activists attended. O'Neill built his first mass driver prototype with professor Henry Kolm in 1976. He considered mass drivers critical for extracting the mineral resources of the Moon and asteroids. His award-winning book The High Frontier: Human Colonies in Space inspired a generation of space exploration advocates. He died of leukemia in 1992.
Next scheduled launch
On This Day
Did you know...
…that a CubeSat (pictured) is a cube, 10 centimetres in all dimensions, weighing less than one kilogram?