The war in Europe, and the resulting absolutist restoration ultimately convinced the Spanish Americans of the need to establish independence from the mother country, so various revolutions broke out in Spanish America. Moreover, the process of Latin American independence took place in the general political and intellectual climate that emerged from the Age of Enlightenment and that influenced all of the so-called Atlantic Revolutions, including the earlier revolutions in the United States and France. Nevertheless, the wars in, and the independence of, Spanish America were the result of unique developments within the Spanish Monarchy.
The Battle of Pequereque was a clash which took place on 19 June 1813, during the second Upper Peru campaign of the Argentine War of Independence, between scouting forces of the United Provinces Army of the North and the royalist Army of Perú. The Republican cavalry of the Army of the North, led by Colonel Cornelio Zelaya, prevailed over the royalists, under the command of Colonel Pedro Olañeta. The troops of Olañeta took back Pequereque three days after the battle. The Dragones retreated to the plain of Vilcapugio to avoid a further engagement with the enemy, who by that time had gathered the bulk of their forces around Ancacato. Zelaya was later sent by Belgrano to Cochabamba to recruit a bigger cavalry force from local volunteers. He would eventually join the main expeditionary force after the defeat of Vilcapugio.
Castelli was named Committee member of the Primera Junta and was sent to Córdoba to end Santiago de Liniers's counter-revolution. He succeeded and ordered the execution of Liniers and his supporters. Later, he commanded the establishment of a revolutionary government in Alto Perú (today's Bolivia) with the aim of setting the indigenous peoples and African slaves free. In 1811, Castelli signed a truce with the Spanish in Alto Perú but they betrayed him and caught the Northern Army unprepared. As a result, the Argentines suffered a big loss in the Battle of Huaqui on June 20, 1811. When Castelli returned to Buenos Aires, the First Triumvirate imprisoned him for the undesired outcome of the battle. Castelli died shortly after, due to tongue cancer.
The Spaniards of Spain have lost their land. The Spanish Americans try to save theirs. Let the ones from Spain deal with themselves as they can; do not worry, we Americans know what we want and where we go.
(Spanish: Los españoles de España han perdido su tierra. Los españoles de América tratan de salvar la suya. Los de España que se entiendan allá como puedan y que no se preocupen, los americanos sabemos lo que queremos y adónde vamos.)
Portrait of José de San Martín, with unknown author. Some sources attribute it to Jean Baptiste Madou, others to the art teacher of San Martin's daughter, and others suspect it to be the work of many different people.