Portal:Spanish American wars of independence

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Spanish American wars of independence

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The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America that took place during the early 19th century, from 1808 until 1829, directly related to the Napoleonic French invasion of Spain. The conflict started with short-lived governing juntas established in Chuquisaca and Quito opposing the composition of the Supreme Central Junta of Seville. When the Central Junta fell to the French, numerous new Juntas appeared all across the Americas, eventually resulting in a chain of newly independent countries stretching from Argentina and Chile in the south, to Mexico in the north. After the death of the king Fernando VII, in 1833, only Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule, until the Spanish–American War in 1898.

These conflicts can be characterized both as civil wars and wars of national liberation, since the majority of the combatants were Spanish Americans on both sides, and the goal of the conflict for one side was the independence of the Spanish colonies in the Americas. In addition, the wars were related to the more general Latin American wars of independence, which include the conflicts in Haiti and Brazil.

The war in Europe, and the resulting absolutist restoration ultimately convinced the Spanish Americans of the need to establish independence from the mother country, so various revolutions broke out in Spanish America. Moreover, the process of Latin American independence took place in the general political and intellectual climate that emerged from the Age of Enlightenment and that influenced all of the so-called Atlantic Revolutions, including the earlier revolutions in the United States and France. Nevertheless, the wars in, and the independence of, Spanish America were the result of unique developments within the Spanish Monarchy.

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The Battle of Monte de las Cruces was one of the pivotal battles of the early Mexican War of Independence. It was fought between the insurgent troops of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and Ignacio Allende against the royalist troops of General Torcuato Trujillo in the Sierra de las Cruces mountains between Mexico City and Toluca. The battle marks the furthest advance of the first rebel campaign, before Hidalgo decided to retreat towards Guadalajara, and not attack Mexico City, despite the fact that he won the battle. The battlefield is now located in the La Marquesa National Park, which is officially called the Miguel Hidalgo National Park in honor of the event.
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Admiral William Brown (also known in Spanish as Guillermo Brown) (June 22, 1777 – March 3, 1857) was an Irish-born Argentine Admiral. Brown's victories in the Independence War, the Argentina-Brazil War, and the Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata earned the respect and appreciation of the Argentine people, and today he is regarded as one of Argentina's national heroes. Creator and first admiral of the country's maritime forces, he is commonly known as the "father of the Argentine Navy".
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You shall never recognize as legitimate government of your nation anyone but that elected by the free and spontaneous will of the people; and being the republican system the better adapted to the government of the Americas, you shall promote by any means at your disposal that the people choose it
— Lautaro Lodge (1817)

(Spanish: Nunca reconocerás por gobierno legítimo de tu patria sino aquel que sea elegido por la libre y espontánea voluntad de los pueblos; y siendo el sistema republicano el más adaptable al gobierno de las Américas, propenderás por cuantos medios estén a tus alcances a que los pueblos se decidan por él)

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Portrait of William Brown, father of the Argentine navy. He directed the naval operations against the royalists in Montevideo

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...that, although the three Argentine campaigns to the Upper Peru failed, the War of the Republiquetas prevented the full Royalist control of the province?
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