Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete, simultaneously or consecutively, with one winner; in others, the contest (a match) is between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other. Some sports allow a tie game; others provide tie-breaking methods to ensure one winner and one loser. A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs.
Sport is generally recognised as system of activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, and other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports. However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee (through ARISF) recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, and SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, chess, draughts (checkers), Go and xiangqi, and limits the number of mind games which can be admitted as sports.
, also known as fast leg theory bowling
, was a cricketing
tactic devised by the English cricket team
for their 1932–33 Ashes tour of Australia
, specifically to combat the extraordinary batting
skill of Australia's Don Bradman
. A bodyline delivery was one where the cricket ball
was pitched short
so as to rise towards the body of the batsman
on the line of the leg stump
, in the hope of creating leg-side
deflections that could be caught by one of several fielders
in the quadrant of the field behind square leg
. This was considered by many to be intimidatory and physically threatening, to the point of being unfair in a game once supposed to have gentlemanly traditions, but commercialisation of the game has subsequently tended to elevate the principle of 'win at all costs' above traditional ideals of sportsmanship.
In the Test matches, Bradman countered bodyline by moving toward the leg side, away from the line of the ball, and cutting it into the vacant off side field. Whilst this was dubious in terms of batting technique, it seemed the best way to cope with the barrage, and Bradman averaged 56.57 in the series (an excellent average for most, but well short of his career average of 99.94), while being struck above the waist by the ball only once.
Although no serious injuries arose from any short-pitched deliveries while a leg theory field was set, the tactic still led to considerable ill feeling between the two teams, with the controversy eventually spilling into the diplomatic arena. Over the next two decades, several of the Laws of Cricket were changed to prevent this tactic being repeated. Law 41.5 states "At the instant of the bowler's delivery there shall not be more than two fielders, other than the wicket-keeper, behind the popping crease on the on side," commonly referred to as being "behind square leg". Additionally, Law 42.6(a) includes: "The bowling of fast short pitched balls is dangerous and unfair if the umpire at the bowler's end considers that by their repetition and taking into account their length, height and direction they are likely to inflict physical injury on the striker...".
Michael Fred Phelps II
(born June 30, 1985) is a retired American swimmer
and the most decorated Olympian of all time
, with a total of 22 medals. Phelps also holds the all-time records for Olympic gold medals
(18, double the second highest record holders), Olympic gold medals in individual events
(11), and Olympic medals in individual events for a male
(13). In winning eight gold medals at the 2008 Beijing Games
, Phelps took the record for the most first-place finishes at any single Olympic Games
. Five of those victories were in individual events, tying the single Games record
. In the 2012 Summer Olympics
in London, Phelps won four golds and two silver medals, making him the most successful
athlete of the Games for the third Olympics in a row.
Phelps is the long course world recordholder in the 100-meter butterfly, 200-meter butterfly and 400-meter individual medley as well as the former long course world recordholder in the 200-meter freestyle and 200-meter individual medley. He has won a total of 71 medals in major international long-course competition, 57 gold, 11 silver, and three bronze spanning the Olympics, the World, and the Pan Pacific Championships.
Phelps's international titles and record-breaking performances have earned him the World Swimmer of the Year Award seven times and American Swimmer of the Year Award nine times as well as the FINA Swimmer of the Year Award in 2012. His unprecedented Olympic success in 2008 earned Phelps Sports Illustrated magazine's Sportsman of the Year award. On April 9, 2009, Phelps was invited to appear before the Maryland House of Delegates and the Maryland Senate, to be honored for his Olympic accomplishments.
After the 2008 Summer Olympics, Phelps started the Michael Phelps Foundation, which focuses on growing the sport of swimming and promoting healthier lifestyles.
Did you know...
In this month
- September 4, 1931 – The World Archery Federation is founded in Lviv, Ukraine as the Fédération Internationale de Tir à l'Arc
- September 4, 1955 – The first season of the European Cup, the predecessor to the UEFA Champions League, begins with a match between Sporting Clube de Portugal and FK Partizan
- September 4, 1995 – The inaugural Military World Games, a multi-sport event for military sportspeople, opens in Rome, Italy
- September 17, 1920 – The National Football League (game pictured), the highest level professional American football league in the United States, is founded
- September 18, 1961 – The Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football is formed by the merger of the NAFC and the CCCF confederations
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