Sport, also known as sports, is all forms of competitive physical activity which, through casual or organized participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and provide entertainment to participants and spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those requiring only two participants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals.
Sport is generally recognized as activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, and other organizations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports. However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee (through ARISF) recognizes both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, and SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognizes five non-physical sports, although limits the amount of mind games which can be admitted as sports.
Sports are usually governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, and allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be determined by physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first, or by the determination of judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression.
In organized sport, records of performance are often kept, and for popular sports, this information may be widely announced or reported in sport news. In addition, sport is a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sports drawing large crowds to venues, and reaching wider audiences through sports broadcasting.
Paralympic alpine skiing
is an adaptation of alpine skiing
for athletes with a disability. The sport evolved from the efforts of disabled veterans in Germany and Austria during and after the Second World War
. The sport is governed by the International Paralympic Committee
Sports Committee. The primary equipment used includes outrigger
. Alpine skiing was one of the foundation sports at the first Winter Paralympics in 1976
with slalom and giant slalom events being held. Different disciplines were added to the Paralympic programme over time. Para-alpine skiing disciplines now include the downhill
, giant slalom
, super combined
International and national events for the sport include the Winter Paralympics, World Championships, World Cups, Continental Cups, National Championships, IPCAS Races and IPCAS Para-Snowboard. Skiers from 39 different countries actively compete in para-alpine skiing, in a sport is that one of eight governed by the International Paralympic Committee Sports Committee, with rules for para-alpine skiing set forth in the IPCAS Rules and Regulations. Event specific rules may be created for events like the Paralympic Games.
Para-alpine skiing classification is the classification system for para-alpine skiing designed to insure fair competition between alpine skiers with different types of disabilities. The classifications are grouped into three general disability types: standing, blind and sitting. A factoring system was created for para-alpine skiing to allow the three classification groupings to fairly compete against each other in the same race despite different functional skiing levels and medical issues. The factoring system is used at several para-alpine skiing competitions including the Alpine Cup, North American Races, European Cup, World Cup events, World Championships, and the Winter Paralympics.
James Francis "Jim" Thorpe
(Sac and Fox (Sauk)
, translated as "Bright Path"; May 28, 1888 – March 28, 1953) was an American athlete of mixed Native American and Caucasian ancestry. Considered one of the most versatile athletes of modern sports, he won Olympic gold medals for the 1912 pentathlon
, played collegiate and professional American football
, and also played professional baseball and basketball. He lost his Olympic titles
after it was found he was paid for playing two seasons of semi-professional baseball before competing in the Olympics, thus violating the amateurism
rules. In 1983, 30 years after his death, the International Olympic Committee
(IOC) restored his Olympic medals.
Thorpe grew up in the Sac and Fox nation in Oklahoma. He attended Carlisle Indian Industrial School, where he attracted the attention of Pop Warner. In 1911 he played as running back, defensive back, placekicker and punter, for Carlisle, scoring 25 touchdowns and leading the team to a collegiate championship, and was awarded All-American honors in both 1911 and 1912. Thorpe with the New York Giants baseball team in 1913, he would also play for the Cincinnati Reds and the Boston Braves (now Atlanta Braves), and in the minor leagues before leaving the sport in 1922. He continued playing football during this time, playing professionally for the Canton Bulldogs, which he led to several titles. He played professional sports until age 41, the end of his sports career coinciding with the start of the Great Depression. Thorpe struggled to earn a living after that, working several odd jobs. Thorpe suffered from alcoholism, and lived his last years in failing health and poverty.
In a poll of sports fans conducted by ABC Sports, Thorpe was voted the Greatest Athlete of the Twentieth Century.
Futbol Club Barcelona
is a professional football club
, based in Barcelona
Founded in 1899 by a group of Swiss, English and Catalan footballers led by Joan Gamper, the club has become a symbol of Catalan culture and Catalanism, hence the motto "Més que un club" (More than a club). Unlike many other football clubs, the supporters own and operate Barcelona. It is the world's second-richest football club in terms of revenue, with an annual turnover of €398 million. The club has a long-standing rivalry with Real Madrid; matches between the two teams are referred to as "El Clásico".
The club has won 21 La Liga, 26 Copa del Rey, 10 Supercopa de España, 3 Copa Eva Duarte, and 2 Copa de la Liga trophies, as well as being the record holder for the latter four competitions. In international club football Barcelona have won four UEFA Champions League, a record four UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, four UEFA Super Cup, a record three Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, and a record two FIFA Club World Cup trophies. Barcelona is also the only European club to have played continental football every season since 1955, and one of three clubs never to have been relegated from La Liga, along with Athletic Bilbao and Real Madrid. In 2009, Barcelona became the first Spanish club to win the treble consisting of La Liga, Copa del Rey, and the Champions League. That same year, it also became the first football club ever to win six out of six competitions in a single year, thus completing the sextuple, comprising the aforementioned treble and the Spanish Super Cup, UEFA Super Cup and FIFA Club World Cup.
- September 4, 1931 – The World Archery Federation is founded in Lviv, Ukraine as the Fédération Internationale de Tir à l'Arc
- September 4, 1955 – The first season of the European Cup, the predecessor to the UEFA Champions League, begins with a match between Sporting Clube de Portugal and FK Partizan
- September 4, 1995 – The inaugural Military World Games, a multi-sport event for military sportspeople, opens in Rome, Italy
- September 17, 1920 – The National Football League (game pictured), the highest level professional American football league in the United States, is founded
- September 18, 1961 – The Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football is formed by the merger of the NAFC and the CCCF confederations
Select ► to view subcategories