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refers to wave-based communication technology through media such as air, cables etc. Telecommunication is the Telecommunications transmission of information over significant distances to communicate. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio messages via coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, or sent by loud whistles, for example. In the modern age of electricity and electronics, telecommunications now also includes the use of electrical devices such as telegraphs, telephones, and teleprinters, the use of radio and microwave communications, as well as fiber optics and their associated electronics, plus the use of orbiting satellites and the Internet.
electromagnetics and communications engineering, the term may refer to any linear structure that guides electromagnetic waves. However, the original and most common meaning is a hollow metal pipe used for this purpose. waveguide
dielectric waveguide employs a solid dielectric rod rather than a hollow pipe. An optical fibre is a dielectric guide designed to work at optical frequencies. Transmission lines such as microstrip, coplanar waveguide, stripline or coax may also be considered to be waveguides.
The electromagnetic waves in (metal-pipe) waveguide may be imagined as travelling down the guide in a zig-zag path, being repeatedly reflected between opposite walls of the guide. For the particular case of
rectangular waveguide, it is possible to base an exact analysis on this view. Propagation in dielectric waveguide, may be viewed in the same way, with the waves confined to the dielectric by total internal reflection at its surface.
Intelsat 1, known as Early Bird, launched in 1965, provided either 240 voice circuits or one two-way television channel between the United States and Europe.
...that the first telephone message was transmitted in 1876 from one room in
Alexander Graham Bell’s house to another.
...that in 1880 France rewarded Bell the
Volta Prize, worth 50,000 francs, for his invention.