Tennis is a sport played between either two players (singles) or two teams of two players each (doubles). Players use a stringed racquet to strike a ball, a hollow rubber sphere covered in felt, over a net into the opponent's court. Tennis used to be called lawn tennis to distinguish it from its predecessor real tennis (also known as royal tennis, court tennis or jeu de paume), a form of the game played indoors on a different kind of a court. Originating in England in the late 19th century, the game spread first throughout the English-speaking world, particularly among the upper classes. Tennis is played in the Summer Olympic Games and at all levels of society, by individuals of all ages many countries around the world. Its rules have remained largely unchanged since the 1890s. Along with its millions of players, tennis claims millions of people who follow the sport as spectators, being particularly interested in the four Grand Slam tournaments.
Upcoming tournaments in June
can be traced as far back as the ancient Greek game of sphairistike (Greek: Σφαιριστική), and is mentioned in literature as far back as the Middle Ages in The Second Shepherds' Play
, in which shepherds gave three gifts, including a tennis ball, to the newborn Christ. Sir Gawain
, a knight
of King Arthur
's round table, plays tennis with a group of giants in The Turke and Gowin
The Medieval form of tennis is termed real tennis. Real tennis evolved over three centuries from an earlier ball game played around the 12th century in France. This had some similarities to palla, fives, pelota, or handball, involving hitting a ball with a bare hand and later with a glove. One theory is that this game was played by monks in monastery cloisters, based on the construction and appearance of early courts. By the 16th century, the glove had become a racquet, the game had moved to an enclosed playing area, and the rules had stabilized. Real tennis spread in popularity throughout royalty in Europe and reached its peak in the 16th century.
In France, François I (1515-47) was an enthusiastic player and promoter of real tennis, building courts and encouraging play among the courtiers and commoners. His successor, Henri II (1547-59) was also an excellent player and continued the royal French tradition. During his reign, the first known book about tennis, Trattato del Giuoco della Palla was written in 1555 by an Italian priest, Antonio Scaino da Salo. Two French kings died from tennis related episodes--Louis X of a severe chill after playing and Charles VIII after being struck with a ball. King Charles IX granted a constitution to the Corporation of Tennis Professionals in 1571, creating the first pro tennis 'tour', establishing three levels of professionals-- apprentice, associate, and master. The first codification of the rules of real tennis was written by a professional named Forbet and published in 1599.
: Новак Ђоковић, Novak Đoković pronounced [ˈnɔvɑk ˈdʑɔːkɔvitɕ] ( listen)
; born 22 May 1987) is a Serbian
player, who is ranked World No. 1 by the Association of Tennis Professionals
Djokovic has won 11 Grand Slam singles titles and has held the No. 1 spot in the ATP rankings for more than 180 weeks. By winning three Grand Slam titles in 2011, Djokovic became the sixth male player to win three Grand Slams in a calendar year. By reaching the 2012 French Open final, he became the ninth player in the Open Era to reach the final of all four Grand Slam singles tournaments and became only the fifth to do so consecutively. Amongst other titles, he won the ATP World Tour Finals in 2008, 2012, 2013, and 2014 and was on the Serbian team which won the 2010 Davis Cup. He also won the Bronze medal in men's singles at the 2008 Summer Olympics. He has won 26 Masters 1000 series titles.
He holds several men's world records of the Open Era: becoming the youngest player in the Open Era to have reached the semifinals of all four Grand Slam events both separately and consecutively; the only man to win three consecutive Australian Open titles in the Open Era; and playing the longest Grand Slam men's singles final in history (5 hours 53 minutes). Djokovic's ATP tournament records include winning 31 consecutive ATP World Tour Masters 1000 series matches, playing in the finals at all nine ATP Masters 1000 tournaments (a record shared by Roger Federer and Rafael Nadal), and being the only player to win eight.
Djokovic is the first Serbian player to win multiple Grand Slams and the first Serbian player to rank No. 1 for more than 100 weeks. He is the first male player representing Serbia to win a Grand Slam singles title. Djokovic has won numerous awards, including the 2011 Laureus World Sports Award for Sportsman of the Year and the 2012 Best Male Tennis Player ESPY Award. He has won the ATP World Tour Player of the Year in 2011 and 2012.
He is a double winner of the award The Best Sportperson of Serbia and award for The Best Sportsman by Olympic Committee of Serbia. He is considered to be the best Serbian tennis player in history, and one of the best to have ever come from the former Yugoslavia.
- 5 June 2016 – Novak Djokovic wins the 12th Grand Slam title of his career and achieves a Career Grand slam by defeating world No. 2 Andy Murray in the 2016 French Open in four sets, 3–6, 6–1, 6–2, 6–4. Djokovic became the 8th player in history and 4th player in open era (since 1968) to complete a Career Grand Slam, and the second player in the open era to hold all four Grand Slam titles at the same time.