The textile arts
are those arts
that use plant
, or synthetic fibers
to construct practical or decorative objects. Textiles cover the human body to protect it from the elements and to send social cues
to other people. Textiles are used to store, secure, and protect possessions, and to soften, insulate, and decorate living spaces and surfaces.
The word textile is from Latin texere which means "to weave", "to braid" or "to construct". The simplest textile art is felting, in which animal fibers are matted together using heat and moisture. Most textile arts begin with twisting or spinning and plying fibers to make yarn (called thread when it is very fine and rope when it is very heavy). Yarn can then be knotted, looped, braided, knitted or woven to make flexible fabric or cloth, and cloth can be used to make clothing and soft furnishings. All of these items – felt, yarn, fabric, and finished objects – are referred to as textiles.
Textiles have been a fundamental part of human life since the beginning of civilization. The history of textile arts is also the history of international trade. Tyrian purple dye was an important trade good in the ancient Mediterranean. The Silk Road brought Chinese silk to India, Africa, and Europe. Tastes for imported luxury fabrics led to sumptuary laws during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. The industrial revolution was a revolution of textiles technology: cotton gin, the spinning jenny, and the power loom mechanized production and led to the Luddite rebellion.
(5 March 1897 – 22 April 1983) was a German
who played a fundamental role in the development of the Bauhaus
school’s weaving workshop. As the Bauhaus
’s only female master she created enormous change within the weaving
department as it transitioned from individual pictorial works to modern industrial designs. She joined the Bauhaus as a student in 1920, became a junior master in 1927 and a full master the next year. She was dismissed for political reasons in 1931, a year before the Bauhaus closed under pressure from the Nazis
. The textile department was a neglected part of the Bauhaus when Ms. Stölzl began her career, and its active masters were weak on the technical aspects of textile production. She soon became a mentor to other students and reopened the Bauhaus dye studios in 1921. After a brief departure, Stölzl became the school's weaving director in 1925 when it relocated from Weimar
and expanded the department to increase its weaving and dyeing facilities. She applied ideas from modern art to weaving, experimented with synthetic materials, and improved the department's technical instruction to include courses in mathematics. The Bauhaus weaving workshop became one of its most successful facilities under her direction.
is the name of both crimson
or carmine dye
and the cochineal insect
), a scale insect
in the suborder Sternorrhyncha
, from which the dye is derived. There are other species in the genus Dactylopius
which can be used to produce cochineal extract, but they are extremely difficult to distinguish from D. coccus
, even for expert taxonomists, and the latter scientific name (and the use of the term "cochineal insect") is therefore commonly used when one is actually referring to other biological species; suffice it to say that the reader should be aware that there is more than one cochineal insect. The primary biological distinctions between species are minor differences in host plant preferences, in addition to very different geographic distributions. D. coccus
itself is native to tropical and subtropical South America
. After synthetic pigments and dyes such as alizarin
were invented in the late 19th century, natural-dye production gradually diminished. However, current health concerns over artificial food additives have renewed the popularity of cochineal dyes, and the increased demand has made cultivation of the insect profitable again
Here are some tasks awaiting attention:
- Article requests : Japanese embroidery, Care label (or laundry tag), Crocodile leather, Argentella, Battenberg (lace) (see Ostrich leather for example)
- Assess : Rate unassessed articles for quality and importance
- Cleanup : Tassel, Burlap, or One of the articles in our cleanup list
- Copyedit : History of knitting, Drawn thread work
- Expand : History of textiles and clothing, Casting on (knitting)
- Photo : Hairpin lace, Point de Gaze, Buratto, Youghal lace, Hollie Point
- Stubs : Afghan blanket, Emilie Bach, Candlewicking, Dip stitch (knitting), Elongated stitch (knitting), More stubs...
- Verify : Clothing, Ply, Bobbinet, Braid, Canvas, Cardigan (sweater), Cotton-spinning machinery, Crocheted lace, Damask, Distaff, Dobby loom, Drawn thread work, Dyeing, Hemline, Ikat, Lace, Natural fiber, Neckline, Oilskin, Overlock, Machine embroidery
- Other : Help find and upload Requested pictures