Portal:Military history of the Ottoman Empire

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Military history of the Ottoman Empire Portal

Introduction

Topcu arma.jpg
Artillery troop image on the Ottoman coat of arms.
The first military unit of the Ottoman Empire was an army that was organized by Osman I from Turkish tribesmen inhabiting western Anatolia in the late 14th century. These horsemen became an irregular force of raiders used as shock troops, armed with simple weapons like bows and spears. They were given fiefs called timars in the conquered lands, and were later called timariots. In addition they acquired booty during campaigns. Orhan I organized a standing army paid by salary rather than booty or fiefs. The infantry were called yayas and the cavalry was known as müsellems. The force was made up of foreign mercenaries for the most part, and only a few Turks were content to accept salaries in place of booty. Foreign mercenaries were not required to convert to Islam as long as they obeyed their Ottoman commanders.
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Consequences of the Battle of Mohács, and the conquest of Buda in 1541 by the Ottomans: the Kingdom is partitioned.

Ottoman Hungary or Muslim Hungary refers to the Turkish-Ottoman age of today's Hungary (1526–1699).

By the sixteenth century, the power of the Ottoman Empire had increased gradually, as did the territory occupied by them in the Balkans, while the Kingdom of Hungary was weakened by the peasants' uprisings. Under the reign of Louis II Jagiellon (1516–1526), internal dissentions divided the nobility.

After capturing Belgrade in 1521, Süleyman the Magnificent (1520–1566) did not hesitate to launch an attack against the weakened Kingdom, whose smaller (~26 000 vs. ~100 000 strong), badly lead army was defeated on 29 August, 1526 at the Battle of Mohács. Thus he became the master the Kingdom of Hungary, having a semi-vassal king, named János Szapolyai. Suleyman went further and tried to oust the Habsburg for the Hungarian game, and laid siege to Vienna in 1529, but failed to take that city after the onset of winter forced his retreat. The territory of the Kingdom was disputed between the Ottomans and the Habsburgs until 1541. Both of them had their own king for Hungary. After the seizure of Buda by the Turks in 1541, the West and North remained in the Habsburgs' hands ("Royal Hungary"), while the central and southern counties were occupied by the Sultan, with the territory becoming one of the 42 eyalets (provinces) of the Ottoman Empire, with the capital at Budin (Buda). Later, the eyalets of Eğri (اكر ) and Kanije were created. (Read More...)

Selected biography

Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha

Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. 1478 – July 4, 1546), was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral who dominated the Mediterranean for decades. He was born on the island of Midilli (Lesbos in today's Greece) and died in Istanbul.

His original name was Yakupoğlu Hızır (Hızır son of Yakup). Hayreddin or Khair ad-Din, which literally means "Goodness of the Faith", was an honorary name given to him by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. He became known as Barbarossa (Redbeard) in Europe, a name he inherited from his older brother Baba Oruç (Father Aruj) after Oruç was killed in a battle with the Spanish in Algeria. Coincidentally, this name sounded like "Barbarossa" (Redbeard) to the Europeans, and he did have a red beard.

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..if all of us would now turn to salt, we couldn't even salt the Turk's lunch...

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The Ottoman-Egyptian Invasion of Mani was a campaign during the Greek War of Independence with three battles. The Maniots fought against a combined Egyptian and Ottoman army under the command of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt.

On March 17, 1821, the Maniots (residents of the center peninsula on the southern part of Peloponnese) declared war on the Ottoman Empire, preceding the rest of Greece in joining the revolution, by about a week. The various Greek forces won a quick string of victories, however, disputes broke out amongst the leaders and anarchy ensued. The Ottomans seized this chance and called for reinforcements from Egypt. The reinforcements came under the command of Ibrahim Pasha, the son of the leader of Egypt, Muhammad Ali. With the Greeks in disarray, Ibrahim ravaged the Peloponnese and after a brief siege he captured the city of Messolonghi. He then tried to capture Nauplio but he was driven back. He then turned his attention to the only place in the Peloponnese that was free: Mani.

Ibrahim tried to enter Mani from the north-east near Almiro on the June 21, 1826, but he was forced to stop at the fortifications at Vergas. His army of 7,000 men was held off by an army of 2,000 Maniots and 500 refugees from other parts of Greece. Due to Egyptian and Ottoman artillery, the disadvantaged Maniots managed to hold off the Ottomans. Ibrahim sent 1,500 men to try to land near Areopolis and go north to threaten the Maniot rear. This force was initially successful, however the women and old men of the area fought back and repelled them with heavy losses. When the Egyptians at Vergas heard that Theodoros Kolokotronis was coming from their rear they retreated.

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An Ottoman Mamluk

An Ottoman Mamluk - from 1810 by Carle Vernet.

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Rise of the Ottoman Empire
Osmanli-nisani.svg
Military &
political history
Rise of the Ottoman Empire
Time span 154 years
Number of Sultans 7
Soc-econ Enlargement
See also Graphical timeline
1299
1326
  • Bursa falls to Osman I, just before his death.
1331
1365
1371
1388
  • Defeat of the Ottomans at the Battle of Plocnik against the Serbs, Bosnians and Bulgarians.
1389
1396
1444
1448
1453

Topics

Events
People
Rise of the Ottoman Empire (12991453)


Growth of the Ottoman Empire (14531683)



Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire (16831827)


Decline of the Ottoman Empire (18281908)


Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (19081922)
Sultans







































 
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From the Ottoman military history task force of the Military history WikiProject:

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Battle of al-Samn3rd Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)4th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)6th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)8th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)11th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)12th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)13th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)14th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)15th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)Ottoman-Turkoman warsGeorgian-Ottoman warsMuhammad Qasim Khan-e Qajar QuyunluHasan Ali MirzaKaikhusru MirzaAbul Husain MirzaJaafar Quli Khan-e Khajar QuyunluMirza Muhammad Khan-e Qajar DevehluMirza Muhammad Taqi Khan-e FarahaniAgha Vali KhanMirza Husain Khan QazviniMirza Muhammad Bakir KhanMuhammed Said of EgyptMuhammed Tawfik of EgyptHasan Ismail PashaMuhammed Ratib PashaIbrahim Hilmi PashaGuido von UsedomSayyid Ahmed Pasha as-SanussiMuhammed Pasha JahangiriMuhammed Said PashaMahmud Adam PashaMahmud Jalal ud-din PashaYahya Mansur Yeghen PashaMuhammed Nuri PashaIbrahim Fahmi Ahmed PashaHasan Ismail PashaMuhammed PashaZulkiful Ahmed PashaAli Khalid PashaAli Nur ud-din PashaMuhammed Kamal ud-din PashaDeli Fuad PashaMuhammed Tusun PashaAhmed Ayub PashaArif PashaAhmed Fathi PashaVelip PashaKasim Pasha JalimogluIbrahim Hilmi Ismail PashaHaji Muhammed Ali Pasha AliogluHasan Husni Pasha Bozcandali
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Battle of KeresztesBattle of MaritsaJajce Castle9th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)7th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire);
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