is the second largest city
in the U.S. state
and the 33rd largest city in the nation. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River
, and became a manufacturing
center owing to its location at the head of numerous canals
lines. With the decline of heavy manufacturing
, Cleveland's businesses have diversified into the service economy
, including the financial services, insurance
, and healthcare
sectors. Cleveland is also noted for its association with rock music
; the city is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
As of the 2000 Census, the city proper had a total population of 478,403 and is the center of Greater Cleveland, the largest metropolitan area in Ohio.
In studies conducted by The Economist in 2005, Cleveland and Pittsburgh were ranked as the most livable cities in the United States, and the city was ranked as the best city for business meetings in the continental U.S. The city faces continuing challenges, in particular from concentrated poverty in some neighborhoods and difficulties in the funding and delivery of high-quality public education.
Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson
(January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) was the first black Major League Baseball
(MLB) player of the modern era. Robinson broke the baseball color line
when he debuted with the Brooklyn Dodgers
in 1947. As the first black man to play in the major leagues since the 1880s, he was instrumental in bringing an end to racial segregation
in professional baseball, which had relegated black players to the Negro leagues
for six decades. The example of his character and unquestionable talent challenged the traditional basis of segregation, which then marked many other aspects of American life, and contributed significantly to the Civil Rights Movement
Robinson was also known for his pursuits outside the baseball diamond. He was the first black television analyst in Major League Baseball, and the first black vice-president of a major American corporation. In the 1960s, he helped establish the Freedom National Bank, an African-American-owned financial institution based in Harlem, New York. In recognition of his achievements on and off the field, Robinson was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal.