January • February • March • April • May • June • July • August • September • October • November • December
- 1692 – Salem witch trials: Bridget Bishop is hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts, for "certaine Detestable Arts called Witchcraft & Sorceries".
- 1805 – First Barbary War: Yussif Karamanli signs a treaty ending hostilities with the United States.
- 1846 – Mexican–American War: The California Republic declares independence from Mexico.
- 1854 – The first class of United States Naval Academy students graduate.
- 1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Brice's Crossroads – Confederate troops under Nathan Bedford Forrest defeat a much larger Union force led by General Samuel D. Sturgis in Mississippi.
- 1871 – Sinmiyangyo: Captain McLane Tilton leads 109 Marines in naval attack on Han River forts on Kanghwa Island, Korea.
- 1886 – Eruption of Mount Tarawera in New Zealand, killing 153 people and destroying the famous Pink and White Terraces.
- 1898 – Spanish–American War: US Marines land on the island of Cuba.
- 1935 – Dr. Robert Smith takes his last drink, and Alcoholics Anonymous is founded in Akron, Ohio, United States, by Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob.
- 1940 – World War II: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt denounces Italy's actions with "Stab in the Back" speech from the graduation ceremonies of the University of Virginia.
- 1944 – In baseball, 15–year old Joe Nuxhall of the Cincinnati Reds becomes the youngest player ever in a major–league game.
- 1965 – Vietnam War: Battle of Dong Xoai begins.
- 1973 – John Paul Getty III, grandson of billionaire J. Paul Getty, is kidnapped in Rome, Italy.
- 1977 – James Earl Ray escapes from Brushy Mountain State Prison in Petros, Tennessee, but is recaptured on June 13.
- 1977 – Apple Computer ships its first Apple II personal computer.
- 1992 – Fatal ambush of U.S. Army Humvee in Panama on eve of President George H. W. Bush's visit to that country
- 2003 – The Spirit Rover is launched, beginning NASA's Mars Exploration Rover mission.