Portal:United States Navy/Selected article/2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
USS California sinking-Pearl Harbor.jpg

The Attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. It was launched by the 1st Air Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy of the task force Carrier Striking Task Force [1] on the morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941 (Hawaii time). The attack targeted the Pacific Fleet of the United States Navy and its defending Army Air Corps and Marine air squadrons, as a preventive strike against the US Pacific Fleet and was intended to neutralize American forces in the Pacific, thus increasing Japan's chances of seizing natural resources in Southeast Asia. Pearl Harbor was the first of several military and naval installations attacked, including those on the other side of the island, and others across the Pacific.

Of eight American battleships in the Harbor, the attack destroyed one (the USS Arizona), sank two at their moorings (the USS California and the USS West Virginia), capsized one (the USS Oklahoma), forced another to beach (the USS Nevada), and left three damaged but afloat. the only other permanent loss was the former battleship USS Utah. Additionally, the attack severely damaged 9 other warships, destroyed 188 aircraft, and killed 2,403: 2,335 US servicemen and 68 civilians. However, the Pacific Fleet's three aircraft carriers were not in port and were not damaged, nor were the base's oil tank farms, Navy Yard and machine shops, submarine base, and power station. As well, the Headquarters Building (home to the crypto-intelligence unit HYPO) was not damaged. These provided the basis for the Pacific Fleet's campaign during the rest of the war.