The Internet Portal
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks, consisting of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies. The Internet appears to its users as a single worldwide network accessible to the general public. The protocol that makes it possible to use the millions of networks composing the Internet as if they were one network is a special type of packet switching known as IP or The Internet Protocol.
A computer that connects to the Internet can access information from a vast number of servers and other computers. An Internet connection also allows the computer to send information through the network; that information may be saved and ultimately accessed by a variety of servers and other computers. Much of the information widely accessible through use of the Internet consists of the interlinked hypertext documents and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). Web users typically send and receive information using a web browser. Other software for interacting with computer networks includes specialized programs for electronic mail, online chat, file transfer and file sharing.
Information is moved around the Internet by packet switching using the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) which defines how packets are moving in any platform especially the transport layer. The Internet Protocol Suite consists of several layers of protocols. The lowest layer (the link layer) deals with protocols that transmit data over specific technologies, such as Ethernet or Wi-Fi. The highest layer (the application layer) supports specific applications, such as e-mail and file transfer. In between are the Internet layer, which provides for transmitting packets over any conceivable technology, and the transport layer, which provides for various services such as reliable delivery of packets or real-time streaming of packets.
The AACS encryption key controversy
, also known as the AACS cryptographic key controversy
, arose in April 2007 when the Motion Picture Association of America
and the Advanced Access Content System
Licensing Administrator, LLC (AACS LA) began issuing demand letters
to websites publishing a 128-bit
number, represented in hexadecimal
as 09 F9 11 02 9D 74 E3 5B D8 41 56 C5 63 56 88 C0
(commonly referred to as 09 F9
), which is one of the cryptographic keys
for HD DVDs
and Blu-ray Discs
. The letters demanded the immediate removal of the key and any links to it, citing the anti-circumvention provisions of the U.S. Digital Millennium Copyright Act
(DMCA). In response to widespread internet postings of the key, the AACS LA issued various press statements, praising those websites that complied with their requests as acting in a "responsible manner", warning that "legal and technical tools" were adapting to the situation. The controversy was further escalated in early May 2007, when aggregate news site Digg
received a DMCA cease and desist
notice and then removed numerous articles on the matter and banned
users reposting the information. This sparked what some describe as a digital revolt, or "cyber-riot", in which users posted and spread the key throughout the internet en masse
. The AACS LA described this situation as an "interesting new twist".
(born July 9, 1971, in Cedar Falls, Iowa
and raised in New Lisbon, Wisconsin
, United States
) is a software engineer and entrepreneur best known as co-author of Mosaic
, the first widely-used web browser
, and co-founder of Netscape Communications Corporation
. He was the chair of Opsware
, a software
company he founded originally as Loudcloud, when it was acquired by Hewlett-Packard
. Netscape's success attracted the attention of Microsoft
, which recognized the web's potential and wanted to put itself at the forefront of the rising Internet revolution. Microsoft licensed the Mosaic source code from Spyglass, Inc.
, an offshoot of the University of Illinois, and turned it into Internet Explorer
. The resulting battle between the two companies became known as the Browser Wars
. Andreessen is an investor in social news website Digg
and serves on the board of Open Media Network
. He is also a cofounder of Ning
, a company which provides a platform for social-networking websites.
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