|City of Portland|
|Nickname(s): "Rose City"; "Stumptown"; "PDX"; see Nicknames of Portland, Oregon for a complete list.|
Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon
|Counties||Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas|
|Incorporated||February 8, 1851|
|Named for||Portland, Maine|
|• Mayor||Charlie Hales (D)|
|• Commissioners||Steve Novick
|• Auditor||Mary Hull Caballero|
|• City||145 sq mi (376 km2)|
|• Land||133 sq mi (346 km2)|
|• Water||12 sq mi (30 km2)|
|Elevation||50 ft (15.2 m)|
|Highest elevation||1,188 ft (362 m)|
|Lowest elevation||0.62 ft (0.19 m)|
|• Estimate (2015)||632,309|
|• Rank||US: 26th|
|• Density||4,375.1/sq mi (1,689.2/km2)|
|• Urban||1,849,898 (US: 24th)|
|• Metro||2,389,228 (US: 23rd)|
|• CSA||3,110,906 (US: 18th)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC-7)|
|Area code(s)||503 and 971|
|GNIS feature ID||1136645|
Portland (//) is the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is located in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia Rivers. The city covers 145 square miles (380 square kilometers) and had an estimated population of 632,309 in 2015, making it the 26th most populous city in the United States. Approximately 2,389,228 people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area (MSA), the 23rd most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area (CSA) ranks 17th with a population of 3,022,178. Roughly 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area.
Named after the city on the coast of Maine, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail. Its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, and the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had developed a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering. After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing liberal political values, and the city has earned a reputation as a bastion of counterculture, which proceeded into the 21st century. According to a 2009 Pew Research Center study, Portland ranks as the eighth most popular American city, based on where people want to live.
The city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use planning and investment in public transportation. Portland is frequently recognized as one of the most environmentally conscious cities in the world because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, and over 10,000 acres (4,000 hectares) of public parks. Its climate is marked by warm, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, and Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. "Keep Portland Weird" is an unofficial slogan for the city.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Culture
- 6 Recreation
- 7 Sustainability
- 8 Sports
- 9 Parks and gardens
- 10 Law and government
- 11 Education
- 12 Media
- 13 Infrastructure
- 14 Notable people
- 15 Sister cities
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 Bibliography
- 19 Further reading
- 20 External links
Pre-history and natives
During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, located in what would later become Montana. These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet (91 to 122 m) of water.
Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land that eventually became Portland and surrounding Multnomah County was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people— the Multnomah and the Clackamas peoples. The Chinook people occupying the land which would become Portland were first documented by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in 1805. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast.
Significant numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was originally centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement began emerging ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River, roughly halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver. This community was initially referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees being cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds necessary to file an official land claim. For 25 cents Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre (2.6 km2) site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston, Massachusetts.
In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Portland, Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns (Lovejoy's being Boston, and Pettygrove's, Portland). This controversy was settled with a coin toss which Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, and a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, and causing $1.3 million in damage. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city constructed the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and the Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road" (the route of current-day U.S. Route 26), provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, and it grew very quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River. The lumber industry also became a prominent economical presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, and Big Leaf Maple trees.
Portland developed a reputation early on in its history as a hard-edged and gritty port town. Some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England; an ends-of-the-earth home for the exiled spawn of the eastern established elite." In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States," due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world. The city housed a large number of saloons, bordellos, gambling dens, and boardinghouses which were populated with miners after the California Gold Rush, as well as the multitude of sailors passing through the port. By the early 20th century, the city had lost its reputation as a "sober frontier city" and garnered a reputation for being violent and dangerous.
Between 1900 and 1930, the population of the city tripled from nearly 100,000 to 301,815. Following this population boom, Portland became a notorious hub for underground criminal activity and organized crime between the 1940s and 1950s. In 1957, LIFE Magazine published an article detailing the city's history of government corruption and crime, specifically its gambling rackets and illegal nightclubs. The article, which focused on crime boss Jim Elkins, became the basis of a fictionalized film titled Portland Exposé (1957). In spite of the city's seedier undercurrent of criminal activity, Portland was experiencing an economic and industrial surge during World War II. Ship builder Henry J. Kaiser had been awarded contracts to construct Liberty ships and aircraft carrier escorts, and chose sites in Portland and Vancouver, Washington for work yards. During this time, Portland's population rose by over 150,000, largely attributed to recruited laborers.
During the 1960s, an influx of hippie subculture began to take root in the city in the wake of San Francisco's burgeoning countercultural scene. The city's Crystal Ballroom became a hub for the city's psychedelic culture, while food cooperatives and listener-funded media and radio stations were established. A large social activist presence evolved during this time as well, specifically concerning Native American rights, environmentalist causes, and gay rights. By the 1970s, Portland had well established itself as a progressive city, and experienced an economic boom for the majority of the decade; however, the slowing of the housing market in 1979 caused demand for the city and state timber industries to drop significantly.
1990s to present
In the 1990s, the technology industry began to emerge in Portland, specifically with the establishment of companies like Intel, which brought more than $10 billion in investments in 1995 alone. After the year 2000, Portland experienced significant growth, with a population rise of over 90,000 between the years 2000 and 2014. The city's increased presence within the cultural lexicon has established it a popular city for young people, and it was second only to Louisville, Kentucky as one of the cities to attract and retain the highest number of college-educated people in the United States. Between 2001 and 2012, Portland's gross domestic product per person grew fifty percent, more than any other city in the country.
The city has acquired a diverse range of nicknames throughout its history, though it is most frequently called "Rose City" or "The City of Roses", the latter of which being its unofficial nickname since 1888 and its official nickname since 2003. Another widely utilized nickname by local residents in everyday speech is "PDX", which is also the airport code for Portland International Airport. Other nicknames include Bridgetown, Stumptown, Rip City, Soccer City, P-Town, Portlandia, and the more antiquated Little Beirut.
Portland is located 60 miles east of the Pacific Ocean at the northern end of Oregon's most populated region, the Willamette Valley. Downtown Portland straddles the banks of the Willamette River, which flows north through the city center and consequently separates the east and west neighborhoods of the city. Less than 10 miles from downtown, the Willamette River flows into the Columbia River, the fourth-largest river in the United States, which divides Oregon from Washington state. Portland is about 100 miles upriver from the Pacific Ocean on the Columbia.
Though much of downtown Portland is relatively flat, the foothills of the Tualatin Mountains, more commonly referred to locally as the "West Hills", pierce through the northwest and southwest reaches of the city. Council Crest Park, the tallest point within city limits, is located in the West Hills and rises to an elevation of 1,073 feet. The highest point east of the river is Mt. Tabor, an extinct volcanic cinder cone, which rises to 636 feet. Nearby Powell Butte and Rocky Butte rise to 614 feet and 612 feet, respectively. To the west of the Tualatin Mountains lies the Oregon Coast Range, and to the east lies the actively volcanic Cascade Range. On clear days, Mt. Hood and Mt St. Helens dominate the horizon, while Mt. Adams and Mt. Rainier can also be visible in the distance.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 145.09 square miles (375.78 km2), of which 133.43 square miles (345.58 km2) is land and 11.66 square miles (30.20 km2) is water. Although almost all of Portland lies within Multnomah County, small portions of the city lie within Clackamas and Washington Counties, with populations estimated at 785 and 1,455, respectively.
Portland lies on top of an extinct volcanic field known as the Boring Lava Field. The Boring Lava Field contains at least 32 cinder cones such as Mount Tabor, and its center lies in southeast Portland. Mount St. Helens, a highly active volcano 50 miles northeast of the city in Washington State, is easily visible on clear days and is close enough to have dusted the city with volcanic ash after its eruption on May 18, 1980.
Portland's cityscape derives much of its character from the numerous bridges that span the Willamette River downtown, several of which are historic landmarks, and Portland has been nicknamed "Bridgetown" for many decades as a result. Three of downtown's most heavily utilized bridges are more than 100 years old and are designated historic landmarks: Hawthorne Bridge (1910), Steel Bridge (1912), and Broadway Bridge (1913). Portland's newest bridge in the downtown area, Tilikum Crossing, opened in 2015 and is the first new bridge to span the Willamette in Portland since the 1973 opening of the double-decker Fremont Bridge.
Other bridges that span the Willamette river in the downtown area include the Burnside Bridge, the Ross Island Bridge (both built 1926), and the double-decker Marquam Bridge (built 1966). Other bridges outside the downtown area include the Sellwood Bridge (built 1925) to the south; and the St. Johns Bridge, a Gothic revival suspension bridge built in 1933, to the north. The Glenn L. Jackson Memorial Bridge and the Interstate Bridge provide access from Portland across the Columbia River into Washington state.
The Willamette River, which flows north through downtown, serves as the natural boundary between east and west Portland. The denser and earlier-developed west side extends into the lap of the West Hills, while the flatter east side fans out for roughly 180 blocks until it meets the suburb of Gresham. In 1891 the cities of Portland, Albina, and East Portland were consolidated, creating inconsistent patterns of street names and addresses. The "great renumbering" on September 2, 1931 standardized street naming patterns, divided Portland into five official quadrants, and changed house numbers from 20 per block to 100 per block.
The five quadrants of Portland have come to develop distinctive identities over time, with mild cultural differences and friendly rivalries between their residents, especially between those who live east of the Willamette River versus west of the river. The official quadrants of Portland are: North, Northwest, Northeast, Southwest, and Southeast, with downtown Portland being located in the SW quadrant. The Willamette River divides the east and west quadrants while Burnside Street, which traverses the entire city lengthwise, divides the north and south quadrants. All addresses within the city are denoted as belonging to one of these specific quadrants with the prefixes: N, NW, NE, SW or SE.
Though officially located in SW Portland, the RiverPlace, John's Landing and South Waterfront neighborhoods lie in a so-called (but unofficial) "sixth quadrant" called South Portland, where addresses rise higher from west to east toward the river. This "sixth quadrant" is roughly bounded by Naito Parkway and Barbur Boulevard to the west, Montgomery Street to the north and Nevada Street to the south. East-West addresses in this area are denoted with a leading zero (instead of a minus sign). This means 0246 SW California St. is not the same as 246 SW California St. Many mapping programs are unable to distinguish between the two.
The Pearl District in Northwest Portland, which was largely occupied by warehouses, light industry and railroad classification yards in the early to mid-20th century, now houses upscale art galleries, restaurants, and retail stores, and is one of the wealthiest neighborhoods in the city. Areas further west of the Pearl District include neighborhoods known as Uptown and Nob Hill, as well as the Alphabet District and NW 23rd Ave., a major shopping street lined with clothing boutiques and other upscale retail, mixed with cafes and restaurants.
Northeast Portland is home to the Lloyd District, Alberta Arts District, and the Hollywood District. The northernmost point of the city, known simply as North Portland, is also largely residential; it contains the St. Johns neighborhood, which is historically one of the most ethnically diverse and poorest neighborhoods in the city.
Old Town Chinatown is located adjacent to the Pearl District in Northwest Portland, while Southwest Portland consists largely of the downtown district, made up of commercial businesses, museums, skyscrapers, and public landmarks. Southeast Portland is largely residential, and consists of the Hawthorne District, Belmont, Brooklyn, and Mount Tabor.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Portland experiences a temperate climate with both oceanic and Mediterranean features. This climate is characterized by warm, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. The precipitation pattern is distinctly Mediterranean, with little to no rainfall occurring during the summer months and more than half of annual precipitation falling between November and February. Portland experiences a much cooler climate than areas of similar latitude on the west coast of Europe. Of the three most populated cities within the Pacific Northwest (Seattle, Vancouver and Portland, respectively) Portland has the warmest average temperature, the highest number of sunshine hours, and the fewest inches of rainfall and snowfall. According to the Köppen climate classification, Portland falls within the dry-summer mild temperate zone (Csb), also referred to as a warm-summer Mediterranean climate with a USDA Plant Hardiness Zones between 8b and 9a. Other climate systems, such as the Trewartha climate classification, places it within the oceanic zone (Do), like much of the Pacific Northwest and Western Europe.
Summers in Portland are warm to hot, dry, and sunny. The months of June, July, August and September account for a combined 4.49 inches (114 mm) of total rainfall – only 12% of the 36.03 in (915 mm) of the precipitation that falls throughout the year. The warmest month is August, with an average high temperature of 81.1 °F (27.3 °C). Because of its inland location 70 miles (110 km) from the coast, as well as the protective nature of the Oregon Coast Range to its west, Portland summers are less susceptible to the moderating influence of the nearby Pacific Ocean. Consequently, Portland experiences heat waves with temperatures rising well above 90 °F (32 °C) for days at a time, and sometimes above 100 °F (38 °C). On average, temperatures reach or exceed 80 °F (27 °C) 56 days per year, of which 12 days will reach 90 °F (32 °C) and 1.4 days will reach 100 °F (38 °C). The most 90 degree days ever recorded in one year is 29, which happened in 2015. The highest temperature ever recorded was 107 °F (42 °C), on July 30, 1965, as well as August 8 and 10, 1981. The warmest recorded overnight low was 74 °F (23 °C) on July 28, 2009. A temperature of 100 °F (38 °C) has been recorded in all five months from May through September.
Spring and fall can bring variable weather including warm fronts that send temperatures surging above 80 °F (27 °C) and cold snaps that plunge daytime temperatures into the 40s °F (4–9 °C). However, consistently mild temperatures in the 50s and 60s °F (12−19 °C) are the norm – with lengthy stretches of cloudy or partly cloudy days beginning in mid fall and continuing into mid spring. Rain often falls as a light drizzle for several consecutive days at a time, contributing to 155 days on average with measurable (≥0.01 in or 0.25 mm) precipitation annually. Temperatures have reached 90 °F (32 °C) as early as May 3 and as late as October 5, while 80 °F (27 °C) has been reached as early as April 1 and as late as October 21. Severe weather, such as thunder and lightning, is uncommon and tornadoes are exceptionally rare.
Winters are cool, cloudy, and rainy. The coldest month is December with an average daily high of 45.6 °F (7.6 °C), although overnight lows usually remain above freezing. Evening temperatures fall to or below freezing 33 nights per year on average, but very rarely to or below 20 °F (−7 °C). There are only 2.1 days per year where the daytime high temperature fails to rise above freezing. The lowest overnight temperature ever recorded was −3 °F (−19 °C), on February 2, 1950 while the coldest daytime high temperature ever recorded was 14 °F (−10 °C) on December 30, 1968. The average window for freezing temperatures to potentially occur is between November 15 and March 19, allowing a growing season of 240 days.
Snowfall is uncommon with a normal yearly accumulation of 4.3 inches (10.9 cm), which usually falls during only two or three days per year. Portland has one of the warmest and least snowy winters of any non-Sun Belt city in the United States, with more than 25 percent of its winters receiving no snow whatsoever. The city of Portland avoids snow more frequently than its suburbs, due in part to its low elevation and urban heat island effect. Neighborhoods outside of the downtown core, especially in slightly higher elevations near the West Hills and Mount Tabor, can experience a dusting of snow while downtown receives no accumulation at all. The city has experienced a few major snow and ice storms in its past with extreme totals having reached 44.5 in (113 cm) at the airport in 1949–50 and 60.9 in (155 cm) at downtown in 1892–93.
|Climate data for Portland, Oregon (PDX), 1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1874–present[b]|
|Record high °F (°C)||66.0
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||58.4
|Average high °F (°C)||47.0
|Average low °F (°C)||35.8
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||24.6
|Record low °F (°C)||−2.0
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||4.88
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||0.5
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||18.0||14.9||17.6||16.4||13.6||9.2||4.1||3.9||6.7||12.5||19.0||18.6||154.5|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||0.7||1.5||0.2||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.5||1.5||4.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||80.9||78.0||74.6||71.6||68.7||65.8||62.8||64.8||69.4||77.9||81.5||82.7||73.2|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||85.6||116.4||191.1||221.1||276.1||290.2||331.9||298.1||235.7||151.7||79.3||63.7||2,340.9|
|Percent possible sunshine||30||40||52||54||60||62||70||68||63||45||28||23||52|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990), WRCC|
The census reported the city as 76.1% White (444,254 people), 7.1% Asian (41,448), 6.3% Black or African American (36,778), 1.0% Native American (5,838), 0.5% Pacific Islander (2,919), 4.7% belonging to two or more racial groups (24,437) and 5.0% from other races (28,987). 9.4% were Hispanic or Latino, of any race (54,840). Whites not of Hispanic origin made up 72.2% of the total population.
In 1940, Portland's African-American population was approximately 2,000 and largely consisted of railroad employees and their families. During the war-time liberty ship construction boom, the need for workers drew many blacks to the city. The new influx of blacks settled in specific neighborhoods, such as the Albina district and Vanport. The May 1948 flood which destroyed Vanport eliminated the only integrated neighborhood, and an influx of blacks into the northeast quadrant of the city continued. Portland's longshoremen racial mix was described as being "lily-white" in the 1960s, when the local International Longshore and Warehouse Union declined to represent grain handlers since some were black.
At 6.3%, Portland's African American population is three times the state average. Over two thirds of Oregon's African-American residents live in Portland. As of the 2000 census, three of its high schools (Cleveland, Lincoln and Wilson) were over 70% white, reflecting the overall population, while Jefferson High School was 87% non-white. The remaining six schools have a higher number of non-whites, including blacks and Asians. Hispanic students average from 3.3% at Wilson to 31% at Roosevelt.
Portland residents identifying solely as Asian Americans account for 7.1% of the population; an additional 1.8% is partially of Asian heritage. Vietnamese Americans make up 2.2% of Portland's population, and make up the largest Asian ethnic group in the city, followed by Chinese (1.7%), Filipinos (0.6%), Japanese (0.5%), Koreans (0.4%), Laotians (0.4%), Hmong (0.2%), and Cambodians (0.1%). There is a small population of Yao people that live in Portland. Portland has two Chinatowns, with New Chinatown located along SE 82nd Avenue with Chinese supermarkets, Hong Kong style noodle houses, dim sum, and Vietnamese phở restaurants.
With about 12,000 Vietnamese residing in the city proper, Portland has one of the largest Vietnamese populations in America per capita. According to statistics there are 21,000 Pacific Islanders in Portland, making up 4% of the population.
Portland's population has been and remains predominantly white. In 1940, whites were over 98% of the city's population. In 2009, Portland had the fifth-highest percentage of white residents among the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan areas. A 2007 survey of the 40 largest cities in the U.S. concluded that Portland's urban core has the highest percentage of white residents. Some scholars have noted the Pacific Northwest as a whole is "one of the last Caucasian bastions of the United States". While Portland's diversity was historically comparable to metro Seattle and Salt Lake City, those areas grew more diverse in the late 1990s and 2000s. Portland not only remains white, but migration to Portland is disproportionately white.
The Oregon Territory banned African American settlement in 1849. In the 19th century, certain laws allowed the immigration of Chinese laborers but prohibited them from owning property or bringing their families. The early 1920s saw the rapid growth of the Ku Klux Klan, which became very influential in Oregon politics, culminating in the election of Walter M. Pierce as governor.
The largest influxes of minority populations occurred during World War II, as the African American population grew by a factor of 10 for wartime work. After World War II, the Vanport flood in 1948 displaced many African Americans. As they resettled, redlining directed the displaced workers from the wartime settlement to neighboring Albina. There and elsewhere in Portland, they experienced police hostility, lack of employment, and mortgage discrimination, leading to half the black population leaving after the war.
In the 1980s and 1990s, radical skinhead groups flourished in Portland. In 1988, Mulugeta Seraw, an Ethiopian immigrant, was killed by three skinheads. The response to his murder involved a community-driven series of rallies, campaigns, nonprofits and events designed to address Portland's racial history, leading to a city considered significantly more tolerant than in 1988 at Seraw's death.
During redevelopment of north Portland along the MAX Yellow Line, displacement of minorities occurred at a drastic rate. Out of 29 census tracts in north and northeast Portland, ten were majority nonwhite in 2000. By 2010, none of these tracts were majority nonwhite as gentrification drove the cost of living up. Today, Portland's African-American community is concentrated in the north and northeast section of the city, mainly in the King neighborhood.
As of the 2010 census, there are 583,776 people residing in the city, organized into 235,508 households. The population density is 4,375.2 people per square mile. There are 265,439 housing units at an average density of 1989.4 per square mile (1,236.3/km²). Population growth in Portland increased 10.3% between 2000 and 2010. Population growth in the Portland metropolitan area has outpaced the national average during the last decade, and this is expected to continue over the next 50 years.
Out of 223,737 households, 24.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.1% are married couples living together, 10.8% have a female householder with no husband present, and 47.1% are non-families. 34.6% of all households are made up of individuals and 9% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.3 and the average family size is 3. The age distribution was 21.1% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 34.7% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.6% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 35 years. For every 100 females there are 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 95.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $40,146, and the median income for a family is $50,271. Males have a reported median income of $35,279 versus $29,344 reported for females. The per capita income for the city is $22,643. 13.1% of the population and 8.5% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 15.7% of those under the age of 18 and 10.4% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. Figures delineating the income levels based on race are not available at this time. According to the Modern Language Association, in 2010 80.92% (539,885) percent of Multnomah County residents ages 5 and over spoke English as their primary language at home. 8.10% of the population spoke Spanish (54,036), with Vietnamese speakers making up 1.94%, and Russian 1.46%.
The Portland metropolitan area has historically had a significant LGBT population throughout the late 20th and 21st century. In 2015, the city metro had the second highest percentage of LGBT residents in the United States with 5.4% of residents identifying as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender, second only to San Francisco. In 2006, it was reported to have the seventh highest LGBT population in the country, with 8.8% of residents identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, and the metro ranking fourth in the nation at 6.1%. The city held its first pride festival in 1975 on the Portland State University campus. Portland is known for its population of hipsters.
Portland has been cited as the least religious city in the United States, with over 42% of residents identifying as religiously "unaffiliated," according to the nonpartisan and nonprofit Public Religion Research Institute's American Values Atlas. Of the 35.89% of the city's residents who do identify as religious, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, at 15.8%. The second highest religious group in the city are Evangelical Christians at 6.04%, with Baptists following behind at 2.5%. Latter Day Saints make up 2.3% of the city's religiously affiliated population, with Lutheran and Pentecostal following behind. 1.48% of religiously affiliated persons identified themselves as following Eastern religions, while 0.86% of the religiously affiliated population identified as Jewish, and 0.29% as Muslim.
Portland's location is beneficial for several industries. Relatively low energy cost, accessible resources, north–south and east–west Interstates, international air terminals, large marine shipping facilities, and both west coast intercontinental railroads are all economic advantages. The U.S. consulting firm Mercer, in a 2009 assessment "conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments", ranked Portland 42nd worldwide in quality of living; the survey factored in political stability, personal freedom, sanitation, crime, housing, the natural environment, recreation, banking facilities, availability of consumer goods, education, and public services including transportation. In 2012, the city was listed among the 10 best places to retire in the U.S. by CBS MoneyWatch.
The city's marine terminals alone handle over 13 million tons of cargo per year, and the port is home to one of the largest commercial dry docks in the country. The Port of Portland is the third-largest export tonnage port on the west coast of the U.S., and being located about 80 miles (130 km) upriver, it is the largest fresh-water port. The city of Portland is largest shipper of wheat in the United States, and is the second-largest port for wheat in the world.
The steel industry's history in Portland predates World War II. By the 1950s, the steel industry became the city's number one industry for employment. The steel industry thrives in the region, with Schnitzer Steel Industries, a prominent steel company, shipping a record 1.15 billion tons of scrap metal to Asia during 2003. Other heavy industry companies include ESCO Corporation and Oregon Steel Mills.
Technology is a major component of the city's economy, with more than 1,200 technology companies existing within the metro. This high density of technology companies has led to the nickname Silicon Forest being used to describe the Portland area, a reference to the abundance of trees in the region and to the Silicon Valley region in Northern California. The area also hosts facilities for software companies and online startup companies, some supported by local seed funding organizations and business incubators. Computer components manufacturer Intel is the Portland area's largest employer, providing jobs for more than 15,000 people, with several campuses to the west of central Portland in the city of Hillsboro.
The Portland metro area has become a business cluster for athletic and footwear manufacturers. The area is home to the global, North American or U.S. headquarters of Nike, Adidas, Columbia Sportswear, LaCrosse Footwear, Dr. Martens, Li-Ning, Keen, and Hi-Tec Sports. While headquartered elsewhere, Merrell, Amer Sports and Under Armour have design studios and local offices in the Portland area. Portland-based Precision Castparts is one of two Fortune 500 companies headquartered in Oregon, the other being Nike. Other notable Portland-based companies include film animation studio Laika; commercial vehicle manufacturer Daimler Trucks North America; advertising firm Wieden+Kennedy; bankers Umpqua Holdings; and retailers Fred Meyer, New Seasons and Storables.
Music, film, and performing arts
Portland is home to famous bands such as the Kingsmen and Paul Revere & the Raiders, both famous for their association with the song "Louie Louie" (1963). Other widely known musical groups include the Dandy Warhols, Quarterflash, Everclear, Pink Martini, The Hugs, Sleater-Kinney, the Shins, Blitzen Trapper, the Decemberists, and the late Elliott Smith. In the 1980s, the city was home to a burgeoning punk scene, which included bands such as the Wipers and Dead Moon. The city's now-demolished Satyricon nightclub was a punk venue that is notorious for being the place where Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain first encountered future wife and Hole frontwoman Courtney Love in 1990. Love was then a resident of Portland and started several bands there with Kat Bjelland, later of Babes in Toyland. Multi-Grammy award-winning jazz artist Esperanza Spalding is from Portland and performed with the Chamber Music Society of Oregon at a young age.
In 2013, the Guardian named the city's music scene as one of the "most vibrant" in the United States. According to the New York Times, the dozens of karaoke bars in Portland make it not just "the capital of karaoke" in the United States but also "one of the most exciting music scenes in America. Portland also has a range of classical performing arts institutions, which include the Oregon Symphony, Portland Opera, and the Portland Youth Philharmonic. The city is also home to several theaters and performing arts institutions, including the Oregon Ballet Theatre, Northwest Children's Theatre, Portland Center Stage, Artists Repertory Theatre, Miracle Theatre, and Tears of Joy Theatre.
A wide range of films have been shot in Portland, from various independent features to major big-budget productions (see List of films shot in Oregon for a complete list). Director Gus Van Sant has notably set and shot many of his films in the city. The IFC sketch comedy series Portlandia, starring Fred Armisen and Sleater-Kinney member Carrie Brownstein, shoots on location in Portland, satirizing the city as a hub of liberal politics, organic food, alternative lifestyles, and anti-establishment attitudes. MTV's long-time running reality show The Real World was shot in Portland for the show's 29th season. The Real World: Portland premiered on MTV on March 27, 2013, and was filmed in a loft in the Pearl District. The show featured the cast members taking part in several Portland activities, such as hiking in the Columbia River Gorge. The cast members worked at a local frozen yogurt shop and the local Pizza Schmizza. Other TV shows shot in the city include Leverage, The Librarians, Under Suspicion, Grimm, Nowhere Man, and Life Unexpected.
An unusual feature of Portland entertainment is the large number of movie theaters serving beer, often with second-run or revival films. Notable examples of these "brew and view" theaters include the Bagdad Theater and Pub, a former vaudeville theater built in 1927 by Universal Studios; Cinema 21; and the Laurelhurst Theater, in operation since 1923. Portland hosts the world's longest-running H. P. Lovecraft Film Festival at the Hollywood Theatre.
Portland museums offer a variety of educational programs. The Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) includes many hands-on activities for adults and children. It consists of five main halls, most of which consist of smaller laboratories: Earth Science Hall, Life Science Hall, Turbine Hall, Science Playground, and Featured Exhibit Hall. The Featured Exhibit Hall has a new exhibit every few months. The laboratories are Chemistry, Physics, Technology, Life, Paleontology, and Watershed. OMSI has many other unique attractions, such as the USS Blueback submarine used in the film The Hunt for Red October, the OMNIMAX Dome Theater, and OMSI's Kendall Planetarium.
The OMNIMAX Dome Theater is a variant of the IMAX motion picture format, where the movie is projected onto a domed projection surface. The projection surface at OMSI's OMNIMAX Dome Theater is 6,532 sq ft (606.8 m2). The OMNIMAX Theater uses the largest frame in the motion picture industry, and the frames are ten times the size of the standard 35mm film. OMSI's Kendall Planetarium is the largest and most technologically advanced planetarium in the Pacific Northwest. OMSI is built right up next to the river and is also conveniently located near the entrance to the Springwater Corridor and Eastbank Esplanade pedestrian and bike trails.
The Portland Art Museum owns the city's largest art collection and presents a variety of touring exhibitions each year, and with the recent addition of the Modern and Contemporary Art wing, it became one of the United States' 25 largest museums.
The Oregon History Museum was founded in 1898. The Oregon History Museum has a variety of books, film, pictures, artifacts, and maps dating back throughout Oregon's history. The Oregon History Museum has one of the most extensive collections of state history materials in the United States.
The Portland Children's Museum is a museum specifically geared for early childhood development. This museum has many topics, and many of their exhibits rotate, to keep the information fresh. The Portland Children's Museum also supports a small charter school for elementary children.
Cuisine and breweries
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Restaurants in Portland, Oregon.|
Portland has been named the best city in the world for street food by several publications, including the U.S. News & World Report and CNN. Food carts are extremely popular within the city, with over 600 licensed carts, making Portland one of the most robust street food scenes in North America.
Portland has the most total breweries and independent microbreweries of any city in the world, with 58 active breweries within city limits and 70+ within the surrounding metro area. The city receives frequent acclaim as the best beer city in the United States and is consistently ranked as one of the top-five beer destinations in the world. Portland has played a prominent role in the microbrewery revolution in the U.S. and is nicknamed "Beertown" and "Beervana" as a result. Portland's modern microbrewery boom dates to the 1980s, when Oregon state law was changed to allow the consumption of beer on brewery premises. Brewery innovation is further supported by the abundance of beer ingredients produced locally, including two-row barley, over a dozen varieties of local Cascade hops, and pure mountain water from the Bull Run Watershed.
The beer culture is partially responsible for CNBC naming Portland the best city for happy hour in the U.S. The McMenamin brothers alone have over thirty brewpubs, distilleries, and wineries scattered throughout the metropolitan area, several in renovated cinemas and other historically significant buildings otherwise destined for demolition. Other notable Portland brewers include Widmer Brothers, BridgePort, Portland Brewing, Hair of the Dog, and Hopworks Urban Brewery. In 1999, author Michael "Beerhunter" Jackson called Portland a candidate for the beer capital of the world because the city boasted more breweries than Cologne, Germany.
Portland has an emerging restaurant scene nationally and among three nominees, was recognized by the Food Network Awards as their "Delicious Destination of the Year: A rising city with a fast-growing food scene" for 2007. In 2014, the Washington Post called Portland the fourth best city for food in the United States. Travel + Leisure ranked Portland's food and bar scene #5 in the nation in 2012. The city is also known for being among the most vegan-friendly cities in America.
Portland is home to a diverse array of artists and arts organizations and was named in 2006 by American Style magazine as the tenth best Big City Arts Destination in the country. Portland's public art is managed by the Regional Arts & Culture Council. Art galleries abound downtown and in the Pearl District, as well as in the Alberta Arts District and other neighborhoods throughout the city.
Portlandia, a statue on the west side of the Portland Building, is the second-largest hammered-copper statue in the U.S. (after the Statue of Liberty). Portland's public art is managed by the Regional Arts & Culture Council.
Powell's City of Books claims to be the largest independent new and used bookstore in the world, occupying a multistory building on an entire city block in the Pearl District. In 2010, Powell's Technical Books was relocated to Powell's Books Bldg. 2 across the street from the flagship store. In 2012, the city was named by Travel & Leisure magazine as the No. 1 city in the country for book stores.
The Portland Rose Festival takes place annually in June and includes two parades, dragon boat races, carnival rides at Tom McCall Waterfront Park, and dozens of other events. The city is home to the Rosebud and Thorn Pageant, started in 1975 and modeled after the Imperial Sovereign Rose Court of Oregon. Washington Park, in the West Hills, is home to some of Portland's most popular recreational sites, including the Oregon Zoo, the World Forestry Center, and the Hoyt Arboretum. Oaks Amusement Park, located in the Sellwood district of Southeast Portland, is the city's only amusement park and is also one of the longest-running amusement parks in the country. It has been in operation since 1905 and was known as the "Coney Island of the Northwest" upon its opening.
Portland hosts a number of festivals throughout the year in celebration of beer and brewing, including the Oregon Brewers Festival, held in Tom McCall Waterfront Park. Held each summer during the last full weekend of July, it is the largest outdoor craft beer festival in North America, with over 70,000 attendees in 2008. Other major beer festivals throughout the calendar year include the Spring Beer and Wine Festival in April, the North American Organic Brewers Festival in June, the Portland International Beerfest in July, and the Holiday Ale Festival in December. Pioneer Courthouse Square also holds an annual Christmas tree lighting on the Friday after Thanksgiving, and the tree remains in the square for five to six weeks through the holiday season. The residents of Peacock Lane, a street in the Sunnyside neighborhood, annually decorate their houses for the Christmas season and provide rides through the neighborhood in horse drawn carriage, a tradition established in the 1920s.
Portland is often awarded "Greenest City in America" and "most green cities" designations. Popular Science awarded Portland the title of the Greenest City in America in 2008, and Grist magazine listed it in 2007 as the second greenest city in the world. The city became a pioneer of state-directed metropolitan planning, a program which was instated statewide in 1969 to compact the urban growth boundaries of the city.
Portland is home to two major league sports franchises: the Portland Trail Blazers of the NBA and the Portland Timbers of Major League Soccer. The Portland Thorns of the National Women's Soccer League also play in Portland. In 2015, the Timbers won the MLS Cup, which was the first male professional sports championship for a team from Portland since the Trail Blazers won the NBA championship in 1977. Despite being the 19th most populated metro area in the United States, Portland contains only one franchise from the NFL, NBA, NHL, or MLB, making it America's most populated metro area with that distinction. The city has been frequently rumored to receive an additional franchise although efforts to acquire a team have failed due to stadium funding issues.
Portland sports fans are characterized by their passionate support. The Trail Blazers sold out every home game between 1977 and 1995, a span of 814 consecutive games, the second-longest streak in American sports history. The Timbers joined MLS in 2011 and have sold out every home match since joining the league, a streak that has now reached 70+ matches. The Timbers season ticket waiting list has reached 10,000+, the longest waiting list in MLS. In 2015, they became the first team in the Northwest to win the MLS Cup. Player Diego Valeri marked a new record for fastest goal in MLS Cup history at 27-seconds into the game.
Two rival universities exist within Portland city limits: the University of Portland Pilots and the Portland State University Vikings, both of whom field teams in popular spectator sports including soccer, baseball, basketball, and football. Additionally, the University of Oregon Ducks and the Oregon State University Beavers both receive substantial attention and support from many Portland residents, despite their campuses being located 110 and 84 miles from the city, respectively.
Running is a popular activity in Portland and every year the city hosts the Portland Marathon as well as parts of the Hood to Coast Relay, the world's largest long-distance relay race (by number of participants). Portland serves as the center to an elite running group, the Nike Oregon Project, and is the current residence of several elite runners including British 2012 Olympic 10,000m and 5,000m champion Mo Farah, American record holder at 10,000m Galen Rupp, and 2008 American Olympic bronze medalist at 10,000m Shalane Flanagan.
Portland also has one of the most active bicycle scenes in the United States and has become an elite bicycle racing destination. The Oregon Bicycle Racing Association supports hundreds of official bicycling events every year. Weekly events at Alpenrose Velodrome and Portland International Raceway allow for racing nearly every night of the week from March through September. Cyclocross races, such as the Cross Crusade, can attract over 1,000 riders and spectators.
|Portland Thorns FC||Women's soccer||National Women's Soccer League||1 (2013)||Providence Park||2012||13,320|
|Portland Timbers||Soccer||Major League Soccer||1 (2015)||Providence Park||2009||20,806|
|Portland Timbers 2||Soccer||USL||0||Merlo Field||2014||2,323|
|Portland Timbers U23s||Soccer||Premier Development League||1 (2010)||Providence Park||2008||—|
|Portland Trail Blazers||Basketball||National Basketball Association||1 (1976–77)||Moda Center||1970||19,829|
|Portland Winterhawks||Ice hockey||Western Hockey League||2 (1982–83, 1997–98)||Moda Center||1976||6,537|
Parks and gardens
Parks and greenspace planning date back to John Charles Olmsted's 1903 Report to the Portland Park Board. In 1995, voters in the Portland metropolitan region passed a regional bond measure to acquire valuable natural areas for fish, wildlife, and people. Ten years later, more than 8,100 acres (33 km2) of ecologically valuable natural areas had been purchased and permanently protected from development.
Portland is one of only four cities in the U.S. with extinct volcanoes within its boundaries (along with Pilot Butte in Bend, Oregon, Jackson Volcano in Jackson, Mississippi, and Diamond Head in Honolulu, Hawaii). Mount Tabor Park is known for its scenic views and historic reservoirs.
Forest Park is the largest wilderness park within city limits in the United States, covering more than 5,000 acres (2,023 ha). Portland is also home to Mill Ends Park, the world's smallest park (a two-foot-diameter circle, the park's area is only about 0.3 m2). Washington Park is just west of downtown and is home to the Oregon Zoo, the Portland Japanese Garden, and the International Rose Test Garden. Portland is also home to Lan Su Chinese Garden (formerly the Portland Classical Chinese Garden), an authentic representation of a Suzhou-style walled garden.
Portland's downtown features two groups of contiguous city blocks dedicated for park space: the North and South Park Blocks. The 37-acre (15 ha) Tom McCall Waterfront Park was built in 1974 along the length of the downtown waterfront after Harbor Drive was removed; it now hosts large events throughout the year. The nearby historically significant Burnside Skatepark and five indoor skateparks give Portland a reputation as possibly "the most skateboard-friendly town in America."
Tryon Creek State Natural Area is one of three Oregon State Parks in Portland and the most popular; its creek has a run of steelhead. The other two State Parks are Willamette Stone State Heritage Site, located in the West Hills, and the Government Island State Recreation Area located in the Columbia River near Portland International Airport.
Portland's city park system has been proclaimed one of the best in America. In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, the Trust for Public Land reported that Portland had the seventh best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities. ParkScore ranks city park systems by a formula that analyzes the city's median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents. The survey revealed that 80% of Portlanders live within a half-mile to a park, and over 16% of Portland's city area is parkland.
Law and government
The city of Portland is governed by the Portland City Council, which includes the Mayor, four Commissioners, and an auditor. Each is elected citywide to serve a four-year term. The auditor provides checks and balances in the commission form of government and accountability for the use of public resources. In addition, the auditor provides access to information and reports on various matters of city government.
The city's Office of Neighborhood Involvement serves as a conduit between city government and Portland's 95 officially recognized neighborhoods. Each neighborhood is represented by a volunteer-based neighborhood association which serves as a liaison between residents of the neighborhood and the city government. The city provides funding to neighborhood associations through seven district coalitions, each of which is a geographical grouping of several neighborhood associations. Most (but not all) neighborhood associations belong to one of these district coalitions.
Portland and its surrounding metropolitan area are served by Metro, the United States' only directly elected metropolitan planning organization. Metro's charter gives it responsibility for land use and transportation planning, solid waste management, and map development. Metro also owns and operates the Oregon Convention Center, Oregon Zoo, Portland Center for the Performing Arts, and Portland Metropolitan Exposition Center.
Portland's delegation to the Oregon Legislative Assembly is entirely Democratic. In the current 76th Oregon Legislative Assembly, which first convened in 2011, four state Senators represent Portland in the state Senate: Diane Rosenbaum (District 21), Chip Shields (District 22), Jackie Dingfelder (District 23), and Rod Monroe (District 24). Portland sends six Representatives to the state House of Representatives: Jules Bailey (District 42), Lew Frederick (District 43), Tina Kotek (District 44), Michael Dembrow (District 45), Alissa Keny-Guyer (District 46), and Jefferson Smith (District 47).
Federally, Portland is split among three congressional districts. Most of the city is in the 3rd District, represented by Earl Blumenauer, who served on the city council from 1986 until his election to Congress in 1996. Most of the city west of the Willamette River is part of the 1st District, represented by Suzanne Bonamici. A small portion of southwestern Portland is in the 5th District, represented by Kurt Schrader. All three are Democrats; a Republican has not represented a significant portion of Portland in the U.S. House of Representatives since 1975. Both of Oregon's senators, Ron Wyden and Jeff Merkley, are from Portland and are also both Democrats.
In the 2008 presidential election, Democratic candidate Barack Obama easily carried Portland, winning 245,464 votes from city residents to 50,614 for his Republican rival, John McCain. In the 2012 presidential election, Democratic candidate Barack Obama again easily carried Portland, winning 256,925 votes from Multnomah county residents to 70,958 for his Republican rival, Mitt Romney.
Sam Adams, the former mayor of Portland, became the city's first openly gay mayor in 2009. In 2004, 59.7 percent of Multnomah County voters cast ballots against Oregon Ballot Measure 36, which amended the Oregon Constitution to prohibit recognition of same-sex marriages. The measure passed with 56.6% of the statewide vote. Multnomah County is one of two counties where a majority voted against the initiative; the other is Benton County, which includes Corvallis, home of Oregon State University. On April 28, 2005, Portland became the only city in the nation to withdraw from a Joint Terrorism Task Force. As of February 19, 2015, the Portland city council approved permanently staffing the JTTF with two of its city's police officers.
|Voter registration and party enrollment As of December 2015[update]|
|Party||Number of voters||Percentage|
Planning and development
The city consulted with urban planners as far back as 1903. Development of Washington Park and one of the country's finest greenways, the 40 Mile Loop, which interconnects many of the city's parks, began.
Portland is often cited as an example of a city with strong land use planning controls. This is largely the result of statewide land conservation policies adopted in 1973 under Governor Tom McCall, in particular the requirement for an urban growth boundary (UGB) for every city and metropolitan area. The opposite extreme, a city with few or no controls, is typically illustrated by Houston, Texas.
Portland's urban growth boundary, adopted in 1979, separates urban areas (where high-density development is encouraged and focused) from traditional farm land (where restrictions on non-agricultural development are very strict). This was atypical in an era when automobile use led many areas to neglect their core cities in favor of development along interstate highways, in suburbs, and satellite cities.
The original state rules included a provision for expanding urban growth boundaries, but critics felt this wasn't being accomplished. In 1995, the State passed a law requiring cities to expand UGBs to provide enough undeveloped land for a 20-year supply of future housing at projected growth levels.
Oregon's 1973 "urban growth boundary" law limits the boundaries for large-scale development in each metropolitan area in Oregon. This limits access to utilities such as sewage, water and telecommunications, as well as coverage by fire, police and schools. Originally this law mandated that the city must maintain enough land within the boundary to provide an estimated 20 years of growth; however, in 2007 the legislature altered the law to require the maintenance of an estimated 50 years of growth within the boundary, as well as the protection of accompanying farm and rural lands.
The growth boundary, along with efforts of the PDC to create economic development zones, has led to the development of a large portion of downtown, a large number of mid- and high-rise developments, and an overall increase in housing and business density.
The Portland Development Commission is a semi-public agency that plays a major role in downtown development; it was created by city voters in 1958 to serve as the city's urban renewal agency. It provides housing and economic development programs within the city, and works behind the scenes with major local developers to create large projects.
In the early 1960s, the PDC led the razing of a large Italian-Jewish neighborhood downtown, bounded roughly by I-405, the Willamette River, 4th Avenue and Market street.
Mayor Neil Goldschmidt took office in 1972 as a proponent of bringing housing and the associated vitality back to the downtown area, which was seen as emptying out after 5 pm. The effort has had dramatic effects in the 30 years since, with many thousands of new housing units clustered in three areas: north of Portland State University (between I-405, SW Broadway, and SW Taylor St.); the RiverPlace development along the waterfront under the Marquam (I-5) bridge; and most notably in the Pearl District (between I-405, Burnside St., NW Northrup St., and NW 9th Ave.).
The Urban Greenspaces Institute, housed in Portland State University Geography Department's Center for Mapping Research, promotes better integration of the built and natural environments. The institute works on urban park, trail, and natural areas planning issues, both at the local and regional levels. In October 2009, the Portland City Council unanimously adopted a climate action plan that will cut the city's greenhouse gas emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050.
According to Grist magazine, Portland is the second most eco-friendly or "green" city in the world trailing only Reykjavík, Iceland. In 2010, Move, Inc. placed Portland in its "top 10 greenest cities" list.
As of 2012 Portland was the largest city in the United States that did not add fluoride to its public water supply, and fluoridation has historically been a subject of controversy in the city. Portland voters have four times voted against fluoridation, in 1956, 1962, 1980 (repealing a 1978 vote in favor), and 2013. Most recently, in 2012 the city council, responding to advocacy from public health organizations and others, voted unanimously to begin fluoridation by 2014. Fluoridation opponents forced a public vote on the issue, and on May 21, 2013, city voters again rejected fluoridation.
Strong free speech protections of the Oregon Constitution upheld by the Oregon Supreme Court in State v. Henry, 732 P.2d 9 (Or. 1987) specifically found that full nudity and lap dances in strip clubs are protected speech. Portland has the highest number of strip clubs per-capita in a city in the United States, and Oregon ranks as the highest state for per-capita strip clubs. Portland has been titled as "Pornland" for its strip clubs, erotic massage parlors, and high rate of child sex trafficking. The term was heavily used in 2010, but the term was referenced by Chuck Palahniuk in 2003.
In November 2008, a Multnomah County judge dismissed charges against a nude bicyclist arrested on June 26, 2008. The judge stated that the city's annual World Naked Bike Ride—held each year in June since 2004—has created a "well-established tradition" in Portland where cyclists may ride naked as a form of protest against cars and fossil fuel dependence. The defendant was not riding in the official World Naked Bike Ride at the time of his arrest as it had occurred 12 days earlier that year, on June 14. The 2009 Naked Bike Ride occurred without significant incident as city police managed traffic intersections. There were an estimated 3,000 to 5,000 participants at the 2009 event. In June 2010, Portland's World Naked Bike Ride had an early estimate of 13,000 riders, though the high estimate was disputed by event organizers. The official event site provides an estimate of 7000 for 2010, and a high of 10,100 riders in 2015.
A state law prohibiting publicly insulting a person in a way likely to provoke a violent response was tested in Portland and struck down unanimously by the State Supreme Court as violating protected free speech and being overly broad.
According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Report in 2009, Portland ranked 53rd in violent crime out of the top 75 U.S. cities with a population greater than 250,000. The murder rate in Portland in 2013 averaged 2.3 murders per 100,000 people per year, which was lower than the national average. In October 2009, Forbes magazine rated Portland as the third safest city in America.
Below is a sortable table containing violent crime data from each Portland neighborhood during the calendar year of 2014.
|Violent Crime by Neighborhood in Portland (2014)|
|Totals||Per 100,000 residents|
|Neighborhood||Population||Aggravated Assault||Homicide||Rape||Robbery||Aggravated Assault||Homicide||Rape||Robbery|
|Rose City Park||8,982||6||0||0||8||66.8||0.0||0.0||89.1|
|West Portland Park||3,921||6||0||0||1||153.0||0.0||0.0||25.5|
Primary and secondary education
Portland is served by six public school districts and many private schools. Portland Public Schools is the largest school district, operating 85 public schools. Grant High School located in the Grant Park neighborhood has the largest enrollment of any public high school in the city. Other high schools include Benson Polytechnic High School, Cleveland High School, and Roosevelt High School. Established in 1869, Lincoln High School is the city's oldest public education institution, and is one of two of the oldest high schools west of the Mississippi River.
Private schools in the area include The Northwest Academy, Rosemary Anderson High School, Portland Adventist Academy, Portland Lutheran School, the Portland Waldorf School, and Trinity Academy. The city and surrounding metropolitan area is also home to a large number of Roman Catholic-affiliated private schools, including St. Mary's Academy, an all-girls school; De La Salle North Catholic High School; the co-educational Jesuit High School; La Salle High School; and Central Catholic High School, the only archdiocesan high school in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Portland.
Portland State University, located in downtown Portland, has the second-largest enrollment rate of any university in the state (after Oregon State University), with a student body of nearly 30,000. It has been named among the top fifteen percentile of American universities by The Princeton Review for undergraduate education, and has been internationally recognized for its degrees in Masters of Business Administration and urban planning. The city is also home to the Oregon Health & Science University, as well as Portland Community College.
Notable private universities include the University of Portland, a Roman Catholic university affiliated with the Congregation of Holy Cross; Reed College, a rigorous liberal arts college, ranked by Forbes as the 52nd best college in the country; and Lewis & Clark College.
Other institutions of higher learning within the city's borders are:
Smaller local newspapers, distributed free of charge in newspaper boxes and at venues around the city, include the Portland Tribune (general-interest paper published on Tuesdays and Thursdays), Willamette Week (general-interest alternative weekly published on Wednesdays), The Portland Mercury (another alt-weekly, targeted at younger urban readers published on Thursdays), The Asian Reporter (a weekly covering Asian news, both international and local) and The Skanner (a weekly African-American newspaper covering both local and national news).
Portland Indymedia is one of the oldest and largest Independent Media Centers. The Portland Alliance, a largely anti-authoritarian progressive monthly, is the largest radical print paper in the city. Just Out, published in Portland twice monthly until the end of 2011, was the region's foremost LGBT publication. A biweekly paper, Street Roots, is also sold within the city by members of the homeless community.
The Portland Business Journal, a weekly, covers business-related news, as does The Daily Journal of Commerce. Portland Monthly is a monthly news and culture magazine. The Bee, over 105 years old, is another neighborhood newspaper serving the inner southeast neighborhoods.
Legacy Health, a non-profit healthcare system in Portland, operates multiple facilities in the city and surrounding suburbs. These include Legacy Emanuel, founded in 1912, located in Northeast Portland; and Legacy Good Samaritan, founded in 1875, and located in Northwest Portland. Randall's Children's Hospital operates at the Legacy Emanuel Campus. Good Samaritan has centers for breast health, cancer, and stroke, and is home to the Legacy Devers Eye Institute, the Legacy Obesity and Diabetes Institute, the Legacy Diabetes and Endocrinology Center, the Legacy Rehabilitation Clinic of Oregon, and the Linfield-Good Samaritan School of Nursing.
The Catholic-affiliated Providence Health & Services operates Providence Portland Medical Center in the North Tabor neighborhood of the city. Oregon Health & Science University is a university hospital formed in 1974. The Veterans Affairs Medical Center operates adjacent to the Oregon Health & Science University main campus. Adventist Medical Center also serves the city. Shriners Hospital for Children is a small children's hospital established in 1923.
The Portland metropolitan area has transportation services common to major U.S. cities, though Oregon's emphasis on proactive land-use planning and transit-oriented development within the urban growth boundary means that commuters have multiple well-developed options. In 2014, Travel + Leisure magazine rated Portland as the #1 most pedestrian and transit-friendly city in the United States. A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Portland 12th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.
In 2008, 12.6% of all commutes in Portland were on public transit. TriMet operates most of the region's buses and the MAX (short for Metropolitan Area Express) light rail system, which connects the city and suburbs. The 1986-opened MAX system has expanded to five lines, with the latest being the Orange Line to Milwaukie, in service as of September 2015. WES Commuter Rail opened in February 2009 in Portland's western suburbs, linking Beaverton and Wilsonville.
The city-owned Portland Streetcar serves two routes in the Central City – downtown and adjacent districts. The first line, which opened in 2001 and was extended in 2005–2007, operates from the South Waterfront District through Portland State University and north through the West End of downtown, to shopping areas and dense residential districts north and northwest of downtown. The second line opened in 2012 and added 3.3 miles (5.3 km) of tracks on the east side of the Willamette River and across the Broadway Bridge to a connection with the original line. The east-side line completed a loop to the tracks on the west side of the river upon completion of the new Tilikum Crossing in 2015, and, in anticipation of that, had already been named the Central Loop line in 2012. However, it was renamed the Loop Service, with an A Loop (clockwise) and B Loop (counterclockwise), when it became a complete loop with the opening of the Tilikum Crossing bridge.
Fifth and Sixth avenues within downtown comprise the Portland Transit Mall, two streets devoted primarily to bus and light rail traffic with limited automobile access. Opened in 1977 for buses, the transit mall was renovated and rebuilt in 2007–09, with light rail added. Starting in 1975 and lasting nearly four decades, all transit service within downtown Portland was free, the area being known by TriMet as Fareless Square, but a need for minor budget cuts and funding needed for expansion prompted the agency to limit free rides to rail service only in 2010, and subsequently to discontinue the fare-free zone entirely in 2012.
I-5 connects Portland with the Willamette Valley, Southern Oregon, and California to the south and with Washington to the north. I-405 forms a loop with I-5 around the central downtown area of the city and I-205 is a loop freeway route on the east side which connects to the Portland International Airport. U.S. 26 supports commuting within the metro area and continues to the Pacific Ocean westward and Mount Hood and Central Oregon eastward. U.S. 30 has a main, bypass, and business route through the city extending to Astoria to the west; through Gresham, Oregon, and the eastern exurbs, and connects to I-84, traveling towards Boise, Idaho. Portland ranks 13th in traffic congestion of all American cities, and is 16th among all North American cities.
Portland's main airport is Portland International Airport, located about 20 minutes by car (40 minutes by MAX) northeast of downtown. In addition Portland is home to Oregon's only public use heliport, the Portland Downtown Heliport. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Portland at Union Station on three routes. Long-haul train routes include the Coast Starlight (with service from Los Angeles to Seattle) and the Empire Builder (with service from Seattle/Portland to Chicago.) The Amtrak Cascades state-supported trains operate between Vancouver, British Columbia and Eugene, Oregon, and serve Portland several times daily. The city is also served by Greyhound Lines intercity bus service which operates BoltBus an express bus service. The bus depot is about one block from the Portland Union Station. The city's first airport was the Swan Island Municipal Airport which was closed in the 1940s.
Portland is the only city in the United States that owns operating mainline steam locomotives, donated to the city in 1958 by the railroads that ran them. Spokane, Portland & Seattle 700 and the world-famous Southern Pacific 4449 can be seen several times a year pulling a special excursion train, either locally or on an extended trip. The "Holiday Express", pulled over the tracks of the Oregon Pacific Railroad on weekends in December, has become a Portland tradition over its several years running. These trains and others are operated by volunteers of the Oregon Rail Heritage Foundation, an amalgamation of rail preservation groups which collaborated on the finance and construction of the Oregon Rail Heritage Center, a permanent and publicly accessible home for the locomotives, which opened in 2012 adjacent to OMSI.
In Portland, cycling is a significant mode of transportation. As the city has been particularly supportive of urban bicycling it now ranks highly among the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world. Approximately 8% of commuters bike to work, the highest proportion of any major U.S. city and about 10 times the national average. For its achievements in promoting cycling as an everyday means of transportation, Portland has been recognized by the League of American Bicyclists and other cycling organizations for its network of on-street bicycling facilities and other bicycle-friendly services, being one of only three U.S. cities to have earned a Platinum-level rating. A new bicycle-sharing system, Biketown, launched on July 19, 2016, with 100 stations in the city's central and eastside neighborhoods. The bikes were provided by Social Bicycles, and the system is operated by Motivate.
Car sharing through Zipcar, Car2Go, Getaround, and Uhaul Car Share is available to residents of the city and some inner suburbs. Portland has a commuter aerial cableway, the Portland Aerial Tram, which connects the South Waterfront district on the Willamette River to the Oregon Health & Science University campus on Marquam Hill above.
- Sapporo, Japan (November 17, 1959)
- Guadalajara, Mexico (September 23, 1983)
- Ashkelon, Israel (October 13, 1987)
- Ulsan, South Korea (November 20, 1987)
- Suzhou, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China (June 7, 1988)
- Khabarovsk, Russia (June 10, 1988)
- Kaohsiung, Taiwan (October 11, 1988)
- Mutare, Zimbabwe (December 18, 1991)
- Bologna, Italy (June 5, 2003)
- Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia (September 29, 2014)
- Utrecht, Netherlands
- 1972 Portland–Vancouver tornado
- List of hospitals in Portland, Oregon
- List of sports venues in Portland, Oregon
- Roses in Portland, Oregon
- Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Portland in Oregon
- Keep Portland Weird
- "Portland: The Town that was Almost Boston". National Association of Scientific Materials Managers. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- "Elected Officials". City of Portland, Oregon. 2014. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- The highest elevation is at 9936 NW Wind Ridge Dr., "City of Portland Urban Services Area". Bureau of Planning and Sustainability. Retrieved October 30, 2015..
- The lowest elevation historically occurred at low water on January 17, 1937 at the confluence of the Columbia and Willamette Rivers "Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service: Portland: Columbia River at Vancouver". Water.weather.gov. Retrieved September 6, 2013..
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "2010 Census profiles: Oregon cities alphabetically M-P" (PDF). Portland State University Population Research Center. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Oregon's population as of 2015 is 4,028,977; with the MSA being 2,389,228, this leaves 59%~ of Oregon's population residing within the metro
- Olsen, Polina (2012). Portland in the 1960s: Stories from the Counterculture. Charleston, South Carolina: The History Press. ISBN 978-1-60949-471-1.
- Weber, Peter (January 13, 2014). "Don't let Portlandia ruin Portland". The Week. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "For Nearly Half of America, Grass Is Greener Somewhere Else; Denver Tops List of Favorite Cities". Pew Research Center. January 29, 2009.
- Nate Berg (March 1, 2012). "The Only Elected Regional Government in the U.S.". City Lab. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- "The "Smart Growth" Debate Continues". Urban Mobility Corporation. May–June 2003. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
- Kate Sheppard (July 19, 2007). "15 Green Cities". Environmental News and Commentary. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
- "Portland, Oregon: Green City of Roses | Frommers.com". Frommers.com. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- Portland – MSN Encarta. Encarta.msn.com. Archived from the original on October 29, 2009.
- "Welcome to Portraitlandia! Celebrating the weird and wonderful residents of America's liberal hub". dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
- Allen, Burns & Sargent 2009, pp. 175-189.
- Marschner 2008, p. 187.
- Anderson, Susan (2009). "East Portland Historical Overview & Historic Preservation Study". City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- Scott 1890, p. 61.
- Orloff, Chet (2004). "Maintaining Eden: John Charles Olmsted and the Portland Park System". Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers. 66: 114–119. doi:10.1353/pcg.2004.0006.
- "Overton Cabin". Oregon History Project. Archived from the original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990. U.S. Bureau of the Census – Population Division.
- Scott 1890, p. 160.
- Loy, William G.; Stuart Allan; Aileen R. Buckley; James E. Meacham (2001). Atlas of Oregon. University of Oregon Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 0-87114-101-9.
- "Historical Timeline". Portland Online. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "City keeps lively pulse". (Spencer Heinz, The Oregonian, January 23, 2001)
- Roos, Roy E. (January 8, 2010). "The White Eagle Saloon". Eliot Neighborhood. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- John 2012, p. 16.
- John 2012, p. 10.
- MacColl, E. Kimbark (November 1976). The Shaping of a City: Business and Politics in Portland, Oregon 1885 to 1915. Portland, Oregon: The Georgian Press Company. OCLC 2645815.
- Kennedy, Sarah. "The Shanghai Tunnels". The New York Times. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
- Chandler 2013.
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved September 19, 2013.
- Ellis, Janey. "Portland's Dirty Little Secret: How Vice and Corruption Held the Rose City In Its Clutches" (PDF). Oregon History.
- Toll, William (2003). "Home Front Boom". Oregon Historical Society. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "The 1960s". Oregon Live. An Oregon Century. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "The 1970s". Oregon Live. An Oregon Century. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "The 1990s". An Oregon Century. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- Miller, Clair Cane (September 16, 2014). "Will Portland Always Be a Retirement Community for the Young?". The New York Times. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- "City Flower". City of Portland Auditor's Office – City Recorder Division. Archived from the original on April 23, 2009.
- Stern, Henry (June 19, 2003). "Name comes up roses for P-town: City Council sees no thorns in picking 'City of Roses' as Portland's moniker". The Oregonian
- "The Water". Portland State University. Archived from the original on October 31, 2006. Retrieved November 7, 2006.[dead link]
- "From Robin's Nest to Stumptown". End of the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center. February 1, 2013. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Baker, Nena (May 21, 1991). "R.I.P. FOR 'Rip City' Ruckus". The Oregonian. pp. A01.
- "Portland is new Soccer City, USA". Eugene Register-Guard. Eugene, Oregon. United Press International. August 13, 1975. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Sandomir, Richard (November 6, 2008). "Seeking Help to Bring an M.L.S. Team to Portland". The New York Times. New York, New York. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Dure, Beau (August 26, 2009). "Portland Timbers show bark, bite as they prepare to join MLS". USA Today. McLean, Virginia. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Hagestedt, Andre (April 7, 2009). "The Missing Oregon Coast: Waves After Dark". Retrieved April 30, 2009.
I'm used to seeing that hint of dawn back in P-town, with my wretched habit of playing video games until 6 a.m
- McCall, William (August 19, 2003). "'Little Beirut' nickname has stuck". Associated Press. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
- "The Boring Lava Field, Portland, Oregon". USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
- "Mount Tabor Cinder Cone, Portland, Oregon". USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory. Retrieved April 20, 2007.
- Nokes, R. Gregory (December 4, 2000). "History, relived saved from St. Helens by a six-pack of Fresca". The Oregonian. p. 17.
- Reed, Jackson (July 16, 2012). "Perceptions of Portland's east side changing". DJCOregon.com. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
- Hottman, Sara (May 17, 2013). "New Pearl District affordable apartment highlights misperception of neighborhood's wealth". Oregon Live. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- Nob Hill Neighborhood Guide Portlandneighborhood.com. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- Butler, Grant (September 1, 2011). "Rediscover the north end of NW 23rd Avenue, where the vibe is more quirky than trendy". Oregon Live. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- Roth, Sara. "The Changing Face of St. Johns". KGW. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- Anderson 2014, p. 138.
- "Global Ecological Zoning for the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000". Forestry Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization. 2001. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- Average Annual Temperatures for Large US Cities - Current Results
- Kottek, M.; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved February 15, 2007.
- "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
- "Global ecological zoning for the global forest resources assessment 2000". Food And Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
- "Best Times to Visit Portland, OR". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- "Portland breaks record for 90 degree days; Oregonlive.com". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
- "Portland Airport (Oregon): Normals, means, and extremes". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
- Mass 2008, p. 138.
- Has The Snow Finally Stopped? | FiveThirtyEight
- "AIRPORT Portland: Monthly and Seasonal Snowfall (inches)" (PDF). NWS Portland, OR. Retrieved 2014-06-22.
- "DOWNTOWN Portland: Monthly and Seasonal Snowfall (inches)" (PDF). NWS Portland, OR. Retrieved June 22, 2014.
- "Station Name: OR PORTLAND INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
- "WMO Climate Normals for PORTLAND OR 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-10.
- "PORTLAND RFC CITY, OR". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved 2016-11-27.
- "PORTLAND RFC CITY, OR". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved 2016-11-27.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
- "Portland (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- MacColl, E. Kimbark (1979) . The Growth of a City: Power and Politics in Portland, Oregon 1915–1950. Portland, Oregon: The Georgian Press. ISBN 0-9603408-1-5.
- Levinson, Marc (January 7, 2008). The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-13640-8. Related sources noted by Levinson: Journal of Negro History 65, no. 1 (1980): 27; Clyde W. Summers, "Admission Policies of Labor Unions," Quarterly Journal of Economics 61, no. 1 (1946): 98; Wilson, Dockers, p. 29. The Portland grain workers' case is mentioned in Charles P. Larrowe, Harry Bridges: The Rise and Fall of Radical Labor in the United States (New York, 1972), p. 368. 16. On Portland, see Pilcher, The Portland Longshoremen, p. 17;
- Management Information Services (2002). "Abernethy Elementary School: Recent Enrollment Trends, 1995–96 through 2002–03" (PDF). Portland Public Schools. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- "State & County QuickFacts". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
- "Community Facts: Portland, Oregon". American FactFinder. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Swart, Cornelius. "Asian American community in east Portland's New Chinatown ponders the future". OregonLive.com. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- "Vietnamese population by region: top metropolitan areas". Vietnamese American Population. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
- "Pacific Islander" Archived July 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. (PDF), February 12, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
- "Oregon – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- Hammond, Betsy (September 30, 2009). "In a changing world, Portland remains overwhelmingly white". The Oregonian. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
- Wilson III 2004, p. 55.
- Templeton, Amelia. "History Hinders Diversification Of Portland, Oregon : NPR". NPR. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
- Dresbeck, Rachel. Insiders' Guide to Portland, Oregon (7th ed.). p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7627-6475-4.
- Frazier, John W.; Tettey-Fio, Eugene L. Race, Ethnicity, and Place in a Changing America. Global Academic Publishing. ISBN 1-58684-264-1.
- Levitas, Daniel (2002). The Terrorist Next Door: The Militia Movement and the Radical Right. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-29105-1.
- Foster, Laura O. Portland Hill Walks: Twenty Explorations in Parks and Neighborhoods. Timber Press, Incorporated. p. 239. ISBN 0-88192-692-2.
- Baker, Jeff (August 31, 2003). "Our Homegrown Hitlers". The Oregonian. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
- Hannah-Jones, Nikole (April 30, 2011). "Lessons learned? What Portland leaders did – and didn't do – as people of color were forced to the fringes". The Oregonian. Retrieved May 3, 2011.
- "US Census Bureau State & County". Quickfacts.census.gov. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- Law, Steve (May 29, 2008). "Metro takes long view of growth". Portland Tribune. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- "Data Center Results: Multnomah County, Oregon". Modern Language Association. 2010.
- "Portland, Oregon Religion". Sperling's Best Places. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "LGBT history in Portland". Travel Portland. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- "Oregon Gay History Timeline". GLAPN. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- Leonhardt, David; Cain Miller, Claire (March 20, 2015). "The Metro Areas With the Largest, and Smallest, Gay Populations". The New York Times. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- Gary J. Gates "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey" (PDF). (2.07 MB). The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation Law and Public Policy, UCLA School of Law, October 2006. Retrieved April 20, 2007.
- Ritchie, Rachel (May 26, 2015). "Looking Back on 40 Years of Portland Pride". PDX Monthly. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- Miner, Colin (May 28, 2016). "CNN Comes to Portland and Wants to Know If Hipster is a Dirty Word". Patch Media.
- Barooah, Jahnabi (May 18, 2012). "The Most and Least Religious Cities in America". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- Binder, Melissa (March 18, 2015). "Yes, Portland is America's most religiously unaffiliated metro. But who exactly are the 'nones'?". Oregon Live. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- Fottrell, Quentin (March 28, 2015). "This is the most godless city in America". Market Watch. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "Portland: Economy – Major Industries and Commercial Activity". Retrieved June 4, 2008.
- "Quality of Living global city rankings 2009 – Mercer survey". Mercer. April 28, 2009. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
- Smith, Nancy F. (March 8, 2012). "The 10 Best Places to Retire". CBS MoneyWatch via Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- "The 10 Best Places to Retire: Portland, Ore.". CBS MoneyWatch. February 22, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- "Cascade General, Inc". Retrieved June 4, 2008.
- "Portfolio" (PDF). Retrieved June 4, 2008.
- "Next stop: Port of Portland". January 7, 2009. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
- "Port of Portland's Statement of Need". Center for Columbia River History. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
- "White House press release: The Columbia River Channel Deepening Project, August 13, 2004". Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. August 13, 2004. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
- "Profile". Schnitzer Steel Industries. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- "About Us". ESCO Corporation. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- Rogoway, Mike (April 9, 2006). Bizz blog: Silicon Forest. The Oregonian.
- Gage, Deborah (January 23, 2012). "Portland Makes Bid To Become Budding Techlandia". Venture Capital Dispatch.
- Kish, Matthew (April 26, 2013). "Nike rival Under Armour opens Portland office". Portland Business Journal. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- Gregory, Roger. "Top Chinese shoemaker opens U.S. headquarters in Portland" (January 21, 2008). The Oregonian. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- Duxbury, Sarah (November 13, 2005). "Footwear firm gives Bay Area the boot". San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- Brettman, Allan (October 10, 2010). "Hi-Tec moving U.S. headquarters to Portland". 10 October 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- Kennedy, Dana (August 12, 1994). "The Power of Love". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Ely, Jack. "The Kingsmen Homepage". The Kingsmen Online. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- Hann, Michael (January 20, 2015). "Cult heroes: Wipers – the sound of emptiness and dread". The Guardian. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- "Kurt Cobain". Biography.com. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- "Courtney Love". The E! True Hollywood Story. October 5, 2003. E!.
- Hughley, Marty (February 11, 2011). "Esperanza Spalding didn't come out of the blue to beat Justin Bieber at the Grammys -- she came from Portland's jazz community". Oregon Live. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
- Rayburn, Aaron; Vickery, Ben (May 24, 2013). "Top 10 live music venues in Portland, Oregon". The Guardian. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- How Good Does Karaoke Have to Be to Qualify as Art?, Dan Kois, New York Times, January 17, 2013
- Falsetto 2015, pp. 1-29.
- Mike Hsu (September 28, 2012). "Talking Portlandia With Fred Armisen". WAAF Radio. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- "Portland brew 'n' view theaters". Travel Portland. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- Palahniuk 2003, pp. 63-64.
- Ogden, Tom (2010). Haunted Hotels: Eerie Inns, Ghoulish Guests, and Creepy Caretakers. Globe Pequot Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0762756599.
- "Lovecraft Film Festival Official site". Retrieved November 25, 2007.
- "USS Blueback: The Real Thing". Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- "OMNIMAX Theater". Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- "OMSI Kendall Planetarium". Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- "World's Best Street Food". U.S. News.
- "World's Best Street Food". CNN Travel. July 19, 2010.
- "A Few Favorite Portland Food Carts". Denver Post. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- Brett Burmeister (August 25, 2011). "Food carts for dessert". PortlandPulp. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- "Best Local Brewpubs in Beertown (AKA Portland)". 10Best.com. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- "8 Best Beertowns in the USA". CNN.com. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- "The Best Cities in the World for Drinking Beer". Gadling.com. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- "The 10 Best Cities for Beer Lovers". Bustle.com. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- "Beer Drinking in Portland, Oregon". BeerTutor.com. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- "Facts - Oregon Craft Beer". OregonCraftBeer.org. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
- Ransom, Diana (September 16, 2011). "Why Portland's Beer Economy is 'Hoppy'". Entrepreneur. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- "Oregon Experience: Beervana" (video). Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- "Portland: The center of the beer universe". Travel Portland. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008.
- "Portland lifts a glass to its new name". KOIN6 News. January 12, 2006. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. Retrieved January 26, 2007.
- Paul Toscano (September 8, 2010). "America's Best Cities for Happy Hour". CNBC. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- See Andrew Jones, Craft Brewing Defines Oregon as U.S. "Beer Capital" (August 10, 2001), National Geographic News; Christian DeBenedetti and Seth Fletcher, The Top Five Beer Towns in the U.S. (October 2009), Men's Journal; Matt Hannafin, Cruising for a Brew-sing: Sailing from America's Beer Capital (May 14, 2009), Frommer's.
- Oliver Strand, In Portland, Ore., a D.I.Y. Coffee Culture (February 10, 2012). New York Times
- A Tale Of Two Cities: Portland's Coffee Culture Swipes Seattle's Crown (February 19, 2010), KUOW.
- Strand, Oliver (September 16, 2009). "A Seductive Cup". New York Times. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
- Mara, Melina (June 30, 2015). "The search for America's best food cities: Portland, Ore.". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Asimov, Eric (September 26, 2007). "In Portland, a Golden Age of Dining and Drinking – New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2008.
- "America's Favorite Cities 2012, Food/Drink/Restaurants". Travelandleisure.com. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- "Top 10 Vegan-Friendly Cities of 2016". People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
- United States of America. "Locations - Powell's City of Books - Powell's Books". Powells.com. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- "Imperial Sovereign Rose Court official site". Retrieved December 8, 2008.
- Beck, Dana (December 12, 2012). "Oaks Amusement Park, and its beginnings". Portland Tribune. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Foyston, John (July 29, 2008). "2008 OBF biggest ever". The Oregonian.
- Distefano, Anne Marie (July 8, 2005). "Brewers, beer lovers get many reasons to raise a glass". Portland Tribune. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- "Peacock Lane History". Peacock Lane Website. 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "America's 50 Greenest Cities". Popular Science. February 8, 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- "15 Green Cities". Grist. July 20, 2007. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- Freilich, Sitkowski & Mennilo 2010, p. 134.
- "Columbus Crew SC 1, Portland Timbers 2 MLS Cup Match Recap". mlssoccer.com. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
- Neyer, Rob (August 21, 2003). "Though not perfect, Portland is a viable city for baseball". ESPN. Retrieved January 6, 2009.
Portland is the largest metropolitan area with just one major professional sports team (the Trail Blazers).
- "History of Portland Trail Blazers". fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
- "2014 MLS Ambition Rankings". SI.com. March 14, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
- "For the Portland Timbers, home field is a real advantage". The Oregonion. November 5, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- "Koin News". Koin. Dec 6, 2015.
- "Dome backers saddened but note idea gaining". The Oregonian. Portland, Oregon. November 5, 1964. p. 1.
- "Parks and nature investments". OregonMetro.Gov. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
- Houck, Mike. "Metropolitan Greenspaces: A Grassroots Perspective". Audubon Society of Portland. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
- "Mount Tabor Park". Portland Parks & Recreation. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
- Korn, Peter (July 18, 2006). "Forest Park Fallacy: Boosters' Claim of 'Largest Forested City Park' Is Long Outdated". Portland Tribune. Pamplin Media Group.
- "North Park Blocks". The City of Portland, Oregon. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
- "South Park Blocks". The City of Portland, Oregon. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
- "Waterfront Park Master Plan" (PDF). Portland, OR. p. 54. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
- Dougherty, Conor (July 30, 2009). "Skateboarding Capital of the World". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
- Belz, Kristin. "New York Parks Rank No. 2 in a Survey of 50 U.S. cities". June 12, 2013. Portland Monthly Magazine. Retrieved on July 18, 2013.
- Caballero, Mary Hull. "City Government Structure". Portland Online. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- The Oregonian, Oregon 2012 election results for Multnomah County, retrieved December 4, 2013
- Mary Judetz, "Portland: Largest U.S. city with openly gay mayor Archived January 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine." (January 2, 2009). Associated Press. The Seattle Times. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- "Oregon Measure 36 Results by County". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
- "FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force". ACLU Oregon. April 28, 2005. Archived from the original on October 25, 2010.
- "Politically correct Portland rejected feds who saved city from terrorist attack". San Francisco Examiner. November 28, 2010. Archived from the original on May 22, 2013.
- "After 10-year hiatus, Portland OKs cops for FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force". Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- "District Voter Counts". Multnomah County. December 21, 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- "How Houston gets along without zoning – BusinessWeek". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- Thomas, Sherry (October 30, 2003). "Houston: A city without zoning". USA Today. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- Michael Lewyn. "Zoning Without Zoning | Planetizen". Planetizen.com. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- Robert Reinhold (August 17, 1986). "FOCUS: Houston; A Fresh Approach To Zoning ". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- Schadewald, Bill (April 9, 2006). "'The only major U.S. city without zoning'". Houston Business Journal. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- Statewide Planning Goals. Oregon Department of Land Conservation and Development. Retrieved December 23, 2007.
- "Comprehensive Land Use Planning Coordination". Legislative Counsel Committee of the Oregon Legislative Assembly. Archived from the original on October 28, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
- "Urban growth boundary". Metro. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- "Portland – SkyscraperPage". Retrieved June 4, 2008.
- "OLMIS – Portland Metro Area: A Look at Recent Job Growth". Retrieved June 4, 2008.
- Platt 2006, p. 43.
- Law, Steve (October 27, 2009). "Council adopts aggressive Climate Action Plan". Portland Tribune. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Libby, Brian (October 2015). "Bridge to the Future (The Bridge that Bans Cars)". The Atlantic. 316 (3): 42–43. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
- Newcomb, Tim. "Portland Is Set To Open a Beautiful $135 Million Bridge You Can't Drive Across". Popular Mechanics (August 20, 2015). Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- "Grist 15 Green Cities". Grist Magazine Online. Archived from the original on January 2, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2007.
- Sienstra (March 24, 2010). "Top 10 greenest cities: Portland makes the cut". The Oregonian. Retrieved March 24, 2010.
- Kipen, Nicki (March 24, 2010). "The Top 10 Greenest Cities". Realtor. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- "Portland joins fluoride bandwagon, will add it to water supply". Los Angeles Times. September 12, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Heidi Williams, "Portland's fluoride debate: History, timeline and official positions", The Oregonian, September 12, 2012.
- Jake Blumgart, "What's the Matter With Portland? The city has been fighting fluoridation for 50 years. Will facts trump fear this month?", Slate, May 17, 2013.
- Beth Slovic, "Portland votes to add fluoride to its drinking water as opponents vow to stop the effort", The Oregonian, September 12, 2012.
- Ryan Kost, "Portland fluoride: For the fourth time since 1956, Portland voters reject fluoridation", The Oregonian, May 21, 2013.
- Busse, Phil (November 7, 2002). "Cover Yourself!". The Portland Mercury. Retrieved February 1, 2007.
- "Why Does Portland Have so Many Strip Clubs?". Priceonomics. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- "Is Portland 'Pornland?' Nightline highlights city sex trade". September 23, 2010. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
- Rather, Dan (May 18, 2010). "Dan Rather: Pornland, Oregon: Child Prostitution in Portland". The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
- Palahniuk 2003, p. 101.
- "Judge: riding in the buff is 'tradition,' man cleared". KATU. Associated Press. November 21, 2008. Archived from the original on January 22, 2009. Retrieved December 8, 2008.
- "Pedalpalooza". 2008. Archived from the original on May 7, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
- "Cyclists bare all in naked ride through Portland". KATU. June 14, 2009. Archived from the original on June 18, 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- Maus, Jonathan (June 14, 2009). "An estimated 5,000 take part in Portland's Naked Bike Ride". Bike Portland. Archived from the original on May 7, 2016. Retrieved June 22, 2009.
- Maus, Jonathan (June 20, 2010). "An estimated 13,000 take part in Portland's Naked Bike Ride". Bike Portland. Archived from the original on May 7, 2016. Retrieved November 29, 2010.
- "Portland WNBR History". Portland World Naked Bike Ride. n.d. Archived from the original on May 7, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
- "Oregon Court: Racist, insulting speech is protected". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Associated Press. August 14, 2008. Retrieved December 8, 2008.
- "Crime in the United States by Metropolitan Statistical Area, 2009 (Table 6)". FBI. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- Greenburg, Zack O'Malley (October 26, 2009). "America's Safest Cities". Forbes. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
- "Portland Crime Rate Report (Oregon)". CityRating.com. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- 2010 Census Data for Portland Neighborhoods Retrieved May-06-2015
- City of Portland - Neighborhood Crime Statistics Retrieved May-06-2015
- Portland Public Schools Enrollment Summary , page 3
- Melton, Kimberly (January 21, 2010). "What will be the fate of my high school?". The Oregonian. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
- Geddes, Ryan (September 22, 2005). "Public school notebook: The Count". The Oregonian. Portland, Oregon: Oregonian Publishing. pp. A7.
- "Profile". Portland State University. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
- "The Princeton Review Best Regional Colleges". Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- "Princeton Review Top 100 MBA Rankings". Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- "Reed College". Forbes. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
- Human Rights Campaign 2013, p. 82.
- "Our Hospitals". Legacy Health System. August 15, 2007. Archived from the original on May 5, 2008. Retrieved August 26, 2008.
- "America's Favorite Cities". Travel + Leisure. October 7, 2014. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- "2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- "Means of Transportation to Work by Selected Characteristics: 2006 American Community Survey". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- "Fall 2015 Service Improvements". TriMet. TriMet. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
- Rose, Joseph (September 22, 2012). "Portland Streetcar's eastside loop gets off to hobbled start Saturday". The Oregonian. p. 1. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- "Portland-Milwaukie Light Rail Bridge to bring new options for transit, cyclists and pedestrians" (PDF). Portland-Milwaukie Light Rail Transit Project. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 17, 2012.
- Rivera, Dylan (August 12, 2009). "The days of a free bus ride are over". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Bailey Jr., Everton (August 30, 2012). "TriMet boosts most fares starting Saturday; some routes changing". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- Rose, Joseph (July 16, 2009). "TriMet's open source heaven: The 5 best transit-rider apps". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Rogoway, Mike (June 8, 2011). "Google Maps adds live TriMet arrival and departure times". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- "INRIX/ODOT Traffic Scorecard". April 28, 2013.
- "Capital Campaign". Oregon Rail Heritage Foundation. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
- Ashton, David F. (December 20, 2011). ""Holiday Express" delights families, benefits new S.E. museum". The Sellwood Bee. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- Tims, Dana (September 20, 2012). "Oregon Rail Heritage Center ready for grand opening Saturday, Sunday". The Oregonian. p. B1. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- "11 Most Bike Friendly Cities in the World – Bicycle friendly cities". Virgin Vacations. Virgin Airlines. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
- 'Youth Magnet' Cities Hit Midlife Crisis The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
- "League of American Bicyclists * Press Releases". Bikeleague.org. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved October 6, 2008.
- Njus, Elliot (July 19, 2016). "Biketown bike-share program launches with inaugural Tilikum Crossing ride". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2016-07-20.
- Njus, Elliot (June 13, 2016). "Biketown bike-share launch date, pricing, station locations announced". The Oregonian. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
- ART-1.01 - Exhibit A. Portlandonline.com (October 31, 2001). Retrieved on September 6, 2013.
- "Portland, Oregon". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on May 27, 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "portland-sapporo.org". portland-sapporo.org. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "pgsca.com". pgsca.com. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "Sister Cities, Public Relations". Guadalajara municipal government. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- "portlandashkelon.org". portlandashkelon.org. August 20, 2013. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "portlandulsan.org". portlandulsan.org. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "portlandsuzhou.org". portlandsuzhou.org. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "pksca.org". pksca.org. April 23, 2010. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "Portland-Kaohsiung". Portland-Kaohsiung Sister City Association. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- "Portland-Mutare". Portland-Mutare Sister City Association. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "portland-bologna.org". portland-bologna.org. June 30, 2010. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- Stephanie Lee (January 9, 2016). "Partnership leads to growth". The Star. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official records for Portland have been kept at downtown from June 1874 to June 1973 and at PDX since 13 October 1940. In January 1996, snow measurements for PDX were moved to the NWS Portland office 4 mi (6.4 km) to the east at 5241 NE 122nd Avenue, Portland, OR 97230-1089.
- Allen, John Elliott; Burns, Marjorie; Sargent, Sam C. (2009). Cataclysms on the Columbia. Ooligan Press. ISBN 978-1-93201-031-2.
- Anderson, Heather Arndt (2014). Portland: A Food Biography. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-1-44222-738-5.
- Barth, Jack (1991). Roadside Hollywood:The Movie Lover's State-By-State Guide to Film Locations, Celebrity Hangouts, Celluloid Tourist Attractions, and More. Contemporary Books.
- Chandler, J.D. (2013). Hidden History of Portland, Oregon. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1-62619-198-3.
- Falsetto, Mario (2015). Conversations with Gus Van Sant. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-44224-766-6.
- Freilich, Robert H; Sitkowski, Robert J.; Mennilo, Seth D. (2010). From Sprawl to Sustainability: Smart Growth, New Urbanism, Green Development. Amer-Bar-Asso.
- Human Rights Campaign. Healthcare Equality Index 2013. HRC. ISBN 978-1-934765-27-2.
- John, Finn (2012). Wicked Portland: The Wild and Lusty Underworld of a Frontier Seaport Town. History Press. ISBN 978-1-60949-578-7.
- Marschner, Janice. Oregon 1859: A Snapshot in Time. Timber Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-88192-873-0.
- Mass, Clifford (2008). The Weather of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-29598-847-4.
- Palahniuk, Chuck (2003). Fugitives and Refugees: A Walk in Portland, Oregon. Crown. ISBN 978-1-40004-783-3.
- Platt, Rutherford (2006). The Humane Metropolis: People and Nature in the 21st-Century City. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 978-1-55849-554-8.
- Scott, H.W. (1890). History of Portland Oregon with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Prominent Citizens and Pioneers. D. Mason & Co.
- Wilson III, Ernest J.; Wilson, Ernest J. (2004). Diversity and US Foreign Policy: A Reader. New York: Routledge. p. 55. ISBN 0-415-92884-2.
- Abbott, Carl (2001). Greater Portland: Urban Life and Landscape in the Pacific Northwest. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1779-9.
- Abbott, Carl (2011). Portland in Three Centuries: The Place and the People. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87071-613-3.; scholarly history
- Gaston, Joseph (1911). Portland, Oregon, Its History and Builders: In Connection with the Antecedent Explorations, Discoveries, and Movements of the Pioneers that Selected the Site for the Great City of the Pacific. Chicago: S. J. Clarke Publishing Co. OCLC 1183569. In Three Volumes. Volume 1 | Volume 2 | Volume 3
- Holbrook, Stewart (1986) [Reprint of 1952 edition]. Far Corner: A Personal View of the Pacific Northwest. Sausalito, CA: Comstock Editions. ISBN 978-0-89174-043-8.
- Lansing, Jewel (2003). Portland: People, Politics, and Power, 1851–2001. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press. ISBN 0-87071-559-3.
- MacColl, E. Kimbark (1976). The Shaping of a City: Business and Politics in Portland, Oregon 1885 to 1915. Portland, OR: Georgian Press. OCLC 2645815.
- MacColl, E. Kimbark (1979). The Growth of a City: Power and Politics in Portland, Oregon 1915 to 1950. Portland, OR: Georgian Press. ISBN 0-9603408-1-5.
- MacGibbon, Elma (1904). Leaves of knowledge. Spokane: Shaw & Borden Co. OCLC 3877939. Retrieved June 22, 2013. Contents: "Elma MacGibbon reminiscences of her travels in the United States starting in 1898, which were mainly in Oregon and Washington." Includes chapter "Portland, the Western Hub."
- O'Toole, Randal (July 9, 2007). "Debunking Portland: The City That Doesn't Work" (PDF). Policy Analysis. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute. 596. OCLC 164599623. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Ozawa, Connie P., ed. (2004). The Portland Edge: Challenges and Successes in Growing Communities. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-695-5.
- City of Portland official website
- Portland Maps (lot-level GIS)
- Portland Business Alliance – Portland Chamber of Commerce
- Portland's Visitor Association – official visitors' bureau website
- Portland, Oregon at DMOZ
Portland websites that are also wikis