The Portuguese Army (Portuguese: Exército Português) is the land warfare force of the Armed Forces of Portugal. It is charged with the defence of Portugal, in co-operation with other branches of the Armed Forces. It is one of the oldest armies in the world, with its origins going back to the 12th century.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Ranks
- 4 Equipment
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The history of the Portuguese Army is directly connected to the history of Portugal.
Portuguese land forces engaged in a military campaign led by Afonso Henriques to obtain the independence of the County of Portugal from the Kingdom of León. This was achieved in 1143 and under the subsequent Treaty of Zamora, Portugal was recognized as an independent kingdom. At the same time, Portuguese forces were involved in the Reconquista, successively advancing south to reconquer territories occupied by the Moors. The Reconquista came to an end in 1249, with the recapture of the Algarve. In the 14th century, Portuguese forces defeated Castilian invaders and guaranteed the independence of the country, which then began its worldwide overseas expansion.
During the middle ages Portuguese land forces constituted mixed military contingents provided by lords of the manors, military orders, municipalities and successive monarchs. These contingents were collectively referred as the Hoste, which was under the supreme command of the monarch, but with command roles often delegated to the Alferes-Mor (High Standard-bearer).
Organization of the Portuguese military developed during the middle ages, leading to a more complex structure and the consequent creation of new command offices. Thus, in 1383, the office of Constable of Portugal was created, replacing the Alferes-Mor as the head of the military. The Constable was assisted by the Marshal of Portugal. Later, the offices of Coudel-Mor (superintendent of the cavalry) and of Anadel-Mor (superintendent of the shooters) were also created. The Anadel-Mor, by himself, superintended the commanders (anadéis) of the king's crossbowmen, of the horse crossbowmen and of the municipal crossbowmen.
With the start of the sea expansion of Portugal in the 15th century, the land forces focused in the overseas campaigns intended to conquer new territories in Africa, Asia and the Americas, that would form the Portuguese Empire. Although a great part of the overseas campaigns occurred in naval environment and so led by the Portuguese Navy, the ground forces had the important role of serving as boarding forces during naval battles and as landing forces in amphibious operations. Among those many campaigns are the wars with the Ottoman Empire for the control of India and the Indian Ocean, the war with the Persian Empire for the control of the Persian Gulf and the participation in the Abyssinian–Adal war in support of the Ethiopian Empire. In Europe, the Portuguese forces engaged in the War of the Castilian Succession.
After some previous failure attempts, King Sebastian establishes the foundations of a standing army, with the creation of the Ordenanças in 1570. The Ordenanças was a militia-type territorial organization aimed to frame militarily the Portuguese population and to standardize the system of military mobilization. It was organized in 250 men companies, each headed by a captain, assisted by an ensign and a sergeant. The several Ordenanças companies of a city, town or municipality were grouped in captaincies, each headed by a captain-major, assisted by a sergeant-major. The Ordenanças system would cover virtually all population of Portugal and become one of the basis of the Portuguese military organization until the 19th century. Its efficiency would soon be evidenced by its important contribution to the raising of the expeditionary army that would fight the 1578 Moroccan campaign.
During the reign of Sebastian, the Portuguese land forces also adopt the terço (modeled after the Spanish tercio) as its main infantry formation. Each terço was made of eight companies and around 2000 men, under the command of a colonel or mestre de campo. In 1578, for the Morocco campaign, four provincial terços are raised by the Ordenanças system, another one is raised with young nobles volunteers and other three are raised with foreign mercenaries.
The advanced organization of the Portuguese forces, however, was not sufficient to avoid the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir with the death of the young and heirless King Sebastian. This dead would soon led to the takeover of the Portuguese Crown by Philip II of Spain in 1580, consolidated after the defeat of the Portuguese resistance, under the leadership of António of Portugal, in the War of the Portuguese Succession. These events led to the 80 year long Iberian Union, period in which the interests of Portugal became subordinated to those of Spain, causing a sharp decadence of its economical, political and social might.
With Portugal subject to Spanish kings, the early 17th century was a period of neglect of the Portuguese military. The Portuguese forces are mobilized to fight for Spain in its campaigns in several theaters. By contrast, almost no military support is received from Spain for the defense of the Portuguese Empire, which started to be attacked by the Spanish enemies (especially the English and the Dutch). Because of this, Portugal suffers a series of military set backs, loosing several territories in Africa, in Asia and in America.
In 1 December, 1640, the Portuguese finally restore their full independence, under the leadership of the Duke of Braganza, who is acclaimed King John IV of Portugal. The Portuguese Restoration War then starts, with the Portuguese Army defeating the Spanish Army in a series of victories, until the final victory being achieved in 1668. At the same time, the Portuguese defeat the Dutch in a series of overseas campaigns, recovering most of its territories in Africa and South America.
At the moment of the restoration of the Portuguese independence, the country ground forces were reduced to around 2000 ill-equipped men. The Ordenanças had been neglected and virtually disappeared. A new military organization is then raised. By this time, the ground forces start to be referred as the Exército (Army). The Army organization - approved by the Portuguese Cortes (Parliament) in 1642 - was one of the most advanced of the time and included three lines of troops. The first line was made of the paid troops, that included terços of infantry and companies of horse (cuirassiers and carabineers). The paid infantry soldiers were recruited among the cadet sons of all classes, except orphans and farmers, while the soldiers of horse were recruited only among the cadet sons of the nobles, usually volunteered to serve for six years. The officers were all recruited among the nobles. Initially, 10 paid terços were raised, besides the already existing terço of the Navy, with four additional ones being latter raised. The second line was made up of the auxiliary troops - including 25 provincial and 5 Lisbon auxiliary terços - that formed the reserve of the Army, being able to assume the same role as the troops of the first line, if necessary. The soldiers of the auxiliary troops were recruited among the orphans, farmers and married men, these only being paid if engaged in campaign. Its officers were taken from the paid troops. Finally, the third line was made up of the rebuilt Ordenanças. These were intended to include all the valid men of the country, serving as a recruitment depot to provide men to the first and second lines of the Army. Besides the role of recruitment depots, its units could occasionally be actively employed in the garrison of fortresses or in local defense roles. The Ordenanças continued to follow the organization established by King Sebastian, with their basic units being the companies of 250 men, grouped in 25 captaincies which corresponded to the 25 comarcas of the country.
Besides the field units of the Army, an high command organization was also built. The Council of War (Conselho de Guerra) was created as the supreme military body of the country. The Monarch delegated most of his military roles in this Council, including the responsibility for the military organization, for the commission of officers, for the military operations plans, for the building of fortifications and for the military justice. The role of Captain-General of the Arms of the Kingdom was created to act as the commander-in-chief of the Army, at the same time presiding to the Council of War. Under the Captain-General, there was a territorial organization that included a governor of arms for each of the six provinces (Entre-Douro e Minho, Trás-os-Montes, Beira, Estremadura, Alentejo and Algarve) and under them, a captain-major of Ordenanças for each of the 25 comarcas.
Locally raised military units were also established in the Overseas, especially in Brazil. Here, terços of Whites, Indians and Blacks were raised. The Brazilian colonial forces successfully defeated and expelled the Dutch invaders not only from Brazil itself, but also from several African territories, restoring the Portuguese sovereignty.
In the early 18th century, the Portuguese Army participates in the War of the Spanish Succession on the side of the Grand Alliance forces. In the middle of the century, it participates in the Seven Years' War, fighting the Spanish in the European theater (Iberian Peninsula) and in the South American theater. In the end of the century, a Portuguese expeditionary army is sent to aid Spain against the Revolutionary French in the War of the Pyrenees (Roussillon campaign).
In the early 19th century, the Army fought against French invaders in the Peninsular War. They were re-trained by the British under the direction of Lieutenant General William Beresford following the 1809 Battle of Corunna. The first major battle of the Anglo Portuguese army was the Battle of Bussaco in 1810, the success of which gave the inexperienced troops confidence in their abilities. The infantry and artillery went on to perform well up until the final Battle of Toulouse in 1814 when news arrived of Napoleon's abdication.
In 1816, the Portuguese forces based in Brazil invade the Banda Oriental (present day Uruguay), defeating the forces Artigas and annexing it to its Empire, as a Brazilian province. After the declaration of the Independence of Brazil in 1822, by the Portuguese Prince heir Peter, the Portuguese Army fights the brief Brazilian War of Independence. This war assumes a character of a kind of a civil war, with the forces loyal to the Portuguese Government fighting the separatist army whose leaders and officers were also mostly Portuguese.
From 1828 to 1834, occurs the Liberal Wars, a civil conflict that opposes the Miguelites led by King Michael I to the Liberals led by his brother ex-Peter IV (defending the rights of his daughter, the Queen Mary II). The Portuguese Army divides itself by the two sides, although most of its units align on the side of Michael. The Liberals raise the so-called "Liberator Army", made up mainly of newly raised units, but also incorporating some units of the regular Army that passed to their side. After the Liberal victory, the "old" Portuguese Army is practically dismantled and replaced by a "new" Portuguese Army built from the Liberator Army.
From the second half of the 19th century, the Portuguese Army focuses in the colonial pacification campaigns, especially in Angola, Mozambique, India and Macau.
From 1961 to 1974, the Army participated in the overseas campaigns in Angola, Goa, Mozambique, Portuguese Guinea and Cape Verde. At the other oversees possessions, East Timor and São Tomé and Príncipe, there was a military presence but no guerrilla organizations. In 1961, the isolated and relatively small Portuguese Army suffered a defeat against a largely superior Indian Army in the colony of Portuguese India, which was subsequently lost to the Union of India in the same invasion. The counterinsurgency campaigns in Africa had various degrees of success ranging from almost victory in Angola to total and conventional war in Portuguese Guinea. This war ended after the Carnation Revolution military coup of April 1974 in Lisbon and subsequently independence of the colonies.
After the independence of the colonies and the normalization of Portuguese political affairs the Portuguese army returned to the barracks and began the process of changing from an oversized colonial and counter-insurgency army to a conventional European army, including drastic personnel reduction, disbanding of some units, acquisition of new arms and equipment, reorganizing units and roles, fielding new headquarters and becoming fully professional. These took several decades and the defined purposes and roles have somehow changed due to external causes like the end of the Cold War as well internal causes like available budget, political changes and the acceptance and desires of the Portuguese people regarding its armed forces.
In the 21st century, the Portuguese Army has participated in several peace missions, including in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, East-Timor, and Afghanistan – where it has a Comandos company deployed. In December 2005, a Portuguese commando died in an incident in Afghanistan when a bomb trap was detonated.
The general organization presently in force for the Portuguese Army was established in December 2014. Accordingly with this organization, the Army is commanded by the Chief of Staff of the Army and includes:
- the Army Staff (EME);
- the central bodies of administration and management;
- the Land Forces Command (CFT);
- the bodies of advisement;
- the Inspection General of the Army (IGE);
- the base bodies;
- the elements of the operational component of the system of forces.
Chief of Staff of the Army
The Chief of Staff of the Army (Chefe do Estado-Maior do Exército, CEME) is the Army commander. He/she is the only officer with the rank of general (four stars) in the Army. The CEME is the principal adviser of the minister of National Defense and of the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces in all Army specific matters, having the competence foreseen in the Law and participates, inherently, in the bodies of advisement in it foreseen.
The Office of the Chief of Staff of the Army - headed by a major-general - is the personal and direct support body of the CEME.
The CEME is assisted by the Vice-Chief of Staff of the Army (VCEME), who is the Army second-in-command. The VCEME is a lieutenant-general superordinate to all the other Army officers of the same rank. Under the direct dependency of the VCEME are the Directorate of Communications and Information Systems, the Directorate of History and Military Culture and the Directorate of Education.
The Army Staff (Estado-Maior do Exército, EME) is the body of study, conceiving and planning of the Army activities, for the decision support of the CEME. It is headed by the VCEME, assisted by a major-general designated EME Director-Coordinator. It includes the Coordinator Staff and the Support Unit.
Central bodies of administration and management
The central bodies of administration and management have a functional character and are intended to assure the management and the execution of essential specific activities, namely in the management of human, material, financial, intelligence and infrastructure resources. They are headed by general officers, directly subordinated to the CEME. These bodies are:
- Personnel Command (CMDPESS) - assures the Army's activities in the scope of the human resources administration, of the training and of the health. It is commanded by a lieutenant-general designated Adjutant-General of the Army. Besides the office of the commander and the support unit, the CMDPESS includes the Directorate of Training, the Directorate of Human Resources Administration, the Directorate of Personnel Services and the Directorate of Health;
- Logistics Command (CMDLOG) - assures the Army's activities in the scope of the material resources administration, of the movements and transportation and of the infrastructures. It is commanded by a lieutenant-general designated Quarter-Master General of the Army. Besides the office of the commander and the support unit, the CMDLOG includes the Directorate of Material and Transportation, the Directorate of Procurement and the Directorate of Infrastructures;
- Directorate of Finance (DFIN) - assures the administration of the financial resources made at the disposal of the Army. It is headed by a major-general, designated Director of Finance.
Land Forces Command
The Land Forces Command (Comando das Forças Terrestres, CFT) is the land component command. It is commanded by a lieutenant-general, directly subordinated to the CEME, with a major-general as second-in-command.
The CFT has the mission of supporting the exercise of command from the part of the CEME, in view of the preparation, the readying and the sustentation of the forces and means of the operational component of the system of forces, of the accomplishment of the missions regulated by particular legislation and other missions given to the Army, keeping the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces permanently informed of the employed forces and means and of the development and results of their respective operations and of the administration and management of the units and bodies of the fixed component placed under its direct dependence.
Under the dependence of the CFT are the CFT Headquarters (QGCFT), the military zones commands and their respective headquarters, the formations commands and their respective headquarters and the elements of the of the operational component of the system of forces.
Bodies of advisement
The bodies of advisement are intended to support the decisions of the CEME in special and important matters regarding the preparation, discipline and administration of the Army. These bodies are:
- Higher Council of the Army (CSE) - it is the higher body of advisement of the CEME. Under the presidency of the CEME, it includes all the lieutenant-generals of the Army;
- Higher Council of Discipline of the Army (CSDE) - it is the body of advisement and support of the CEME in disciplinary matters;
- Medical Board of Appeal of the Army (JMRE) - it has the mission of analyzing and advise about the appeals regarding decisions taken by the competent entities, based in the opinions issued by other medical boards of the Army.
Inspection-General of the Army
The Inspection-General of the Army (Inspeção-Geral do Exército, IGE) is the inspection body of the Army. Its mission is to support the CEME in the exercise of the role of control and evaluation, through the activities of inspection and certification of forces. It is headed by the Inspector-General of the Army, who is a general officer in the reserve.
The base bodies are responsible for the training, the sustainment and the general support of the Army. They include units, establishments and bodies divided by the areas of obtainment and administration of human resources, of readying of forces, of logistical support, of teaching and training and of divulgation and preservation of the military culture.
Among the many different types of base bodies are the Military Academy, the School of the Arms and the regiments. The Military Academy is a public military university establishment with the primary mission of training the professional officers of the arms and services of the Army and of the National Republican Guard. The School of the Arms is a training unit with the primary mission of conceiving and provide training programs in the scope of the combat and combat support arms. The regiments are the base units of the Army and integrate the structure for the readying of forces and logistical support. Despite being designated "regiments" and being usually associated to an arm of service for historical reasons, presently these types of unit serves mainly as military bases intended to lodge and support the operational units (field battalions, companies) and others) permanently stationed or temporary deployed in their barracks. Some regimental type units do not include the word "regiment" in their designation as are the cases of the Special Operations Troops Center, of the Santa Margarida Military Camp and of the Army Materiel General Support Unit.
Divided by area, the following list of base bodies was defined in July 2015:
- Obtainment and administration of human resources:
- Readying of forces:
- RI1 - 1st Infantry Regiment, Beja and Tavira (detachment)
- RI10 - 10th Infantry Regiment, Aveiro
- RI13 - 13th Infantry Regiment, Vila Real
- RI14 - 14th Infantry Regiment, Viseu
- RI15 - 15th Infantry Regiment, Tomar
- RI19 - 19th Infantry Regiment, Chaves
- RAAA1 - 1st Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment, Queluz
- RA4 - 4th Artillery Regiment, Leiria
- RA5 - 5th Artillery Regiment, Vendas Novas
- RC3 - 3rd Cavalry Regiment, Estremoz
- RC6 - 6th Cavalry Regiment, Braga
- RL2 - 2nd Lancers Regiment, Lisbon
- RE1 - 1st Engineers Regiment, Tancos
- RE3 - 3rd Engineers Regiment, Espinho
- RT - Communications Regiment, Porto
- RCmds - Commando Regiment, Carregueira ridge (Sintra)
- RPara - Parachute Regiment, Tancos
- RG1 - 1st Garrison Regiment, Angra do Heroismo
- RG2 - 2nd Garrison Regiment, Ponta Delgada
- RG3 - 3rd Garrison Regiment, Funchal
- RAME - Emergency Military Support Regiment, Abrantes
- CTOE - Special Operations Troops Centre, Lamego
- CMSM - Santa Maria Military Camp, Santa Margarida da Coutada
- CSMIE - Army Intelligence and Military Security Center, Lisbon
- Logistical support
- CIGeoE - Army Geospatial Intelligence Center, Lisbon
- RMan - Maintenance Regiment (RMan), Entroncamento
- RTransp - Transportation Regiment, Lisbon
- UAGME - Army Material General Support Unit, Alcochete
- CSMC - Coimbra Military Health Center, Coimbra
- CSMTSM - Tancos/Santa Margarida Military Health Center, Santa Margarida da Coutada
- Teaching and training
- Divulgation and preservation of military culture
- JE - Army Journal, Lisbon
- BIBLEX - Army Library, Lisbon
- ARQGEX - Army General Archives, Lisbon
- AHM - Military Historical Archives, Lisbon
- MML - Lisbon Military Museum, Lisbon
- MMP - Oporto Military Museu, Oporto
- MMB - Bragança Military Museum, Bragança
- MME - Elvas Military Museum, Elvas
- MMB - Buçaco Military Museum, Buçaco
- MMA - Azores Military Museum, Angra do Heroismo
- MMM - Madeira Military Museum, Funchal
- BE - Army Band, Amadora
- FANFEX - Army Fanfare, Amadora
- Disbanded bodies:
Operational component of the system of forces
The elements of the operational component of the system of forces are the Army's forces and means for the fulfillment of the missions of operational nature. These elements are:
- The Land Forces Command;
- The commands of the formations and operational units - the formations are force echelons that include operational units, having a balanced organization of elements of command, maneuver and support that allow them to effectuate operational training and to conduct independent operations. The formation commands are commanded by brigadier-generals. The existing formation commands are:
- The commands of military zone - they include all the Army's units, bodies and other establishments located in each of the autonomous regions of Portugal. They assure the preparation and the training of the forces under its command, being given to them missions and operational means. Each one is commanded by a brigadier-general. The existing commands of this type are:
- Azores Military Zone (ZMA),
- Madeira Military Zone (ZMM);
- The general support and emergency military support forces - they are combat support and service support units that provide additional capabilities to the formations, military zones and operational units and the flexibility to respond to specific international commitments. They assure widely set of capacities that can be employed in supplementary support to civil authorities in missions of support to the development and welfare of the population, namely in the scope of a national articulated response to catastrophe and calamity situations.
Bodies of support to more than one branch
The bodies of support to more than one branch of the Armed Forces have the primary mission of assuring an integrate support to other branches beyond the Army and to other entities foreseen in the law. In the scope of the Army, these bodies are:
- EPM - Military Prision Establishment, Tomar
- UMLDBQ - Military Laboratorial Unit of Biological and Chemical Defense
- UMMV - Military Unit of Veterinary Medicine
|Marechal do Exército
Marshal of the Army
|Aspirante a official
Chief Master Sergeant
|Leopard 2A6||Germany||Main battle tank||37||28 are in 2 combat squadrons, 3 in the Command and Services Squadron|
|M60 A3 TTS||United States||Main battle tank||96||Army designation: Carro de combate 51 ton 105 mm m/92. 14 are in 1 combat squadron. The others are in reserve|
|M901A1 ITV||United States||Armoured vehicle ATGMs-launcher||4|
|M113 Armored Personnel Carrier||United States||Armoured personnel carrier||277||Army designation: Auto blindado lagartas TP 12 m/76-90. Includes 251 M113A3 and 26 M557|
|Pandur II||Austria / Portugal||Armoured personnel carrier||166 + 22||Several versions made under license in Portugal by Fabrequipa. Called m/07. 166 received from the original order of 240. The others were cancelled. 22 more will now be delivered.|
|Chaimite||Portugal||Armoured personnel carrier||80||Army designation: Auto blindado TP 10 4x4 m/67-87. Retired from service|
|Commando V150||United States||Armoured car||15||Called m/89.|
|Panhard M11||France||Armoured car||38||Army designation: Auto blindado ligeiro de combate 4x4 m/89-91.|
|HMMWV M1025||United States||Armoured car||37||Army designation: Auto TG 1,25 ton 3 4x4 mF/00.|
|Engineering and recovery vehicles|
|M88 Recovery Vehicle||United States||Armoured recovery vehicle||6|
|M48 AVLB||United States||Armoured vehicle-launched bridge|
|M728||United States||3||Army designation: Carro de combate de engenharia lagarta m/99|
Soft skinned vehicles
|Toyota Land Cruiser HZJ73||Japan||4x4||Army designation: Auto TG 1/4 ton 5 4x4 mA/98|
|Land Rover Defender 90 TDI||United Kingdom||4x4|
|UMM Alter II||Portugal||4x4||Army designation: Auto TG 0,25 ton 7 4x4 mA/89|
|DAF YA 4440 D||Netherlands||4x4 5 ton truck||Army designation: Auto TG 5 ton 19 4x4 mA/84|
|Iveco 40.10 WM||Italy||4x4 1,5 ton truck||Army designation: Auto TG 1,5 ton 11 4x4 mA/89-90|
|Iveco 90.17 WM||Italy||4x4 4 ton truck||Army designation: Auto TG 4 ton 19 4x4 mA/91|
|Unimog 1300L||Germany||4x4 2 ton truck||Army designation: Auto TG 2 ton 9 4x4 mF/79-84|
|Mercedes-Benz 1217 A||Germany||4x4 5 ton truck||Army designation: Auto TG 5 ton 23 4x4 mF/89|
|Volvo FH12-36||Sweden||70 ton 6x4 tractor||Army designation: Camião tractor 70 ton 6x4 mF/99|
|DAF FTT||Netherlands||38 ton 6x4 truck|
|M578||United States||Light recovery||29|
|BMW R80RT||Germany||Motorcycle||Army designation: Moto simples 800 cc m/94|
|L118 Light Gun||105mm||United Kingdom||Howitzer. 21 in service|
|OTO Melara Mod 56||105mm||Italy||Howitzer. Discontinued and replaced by the Light Gun. Some may be used for no-live fire training.|
|M101||105mm||United States||Howitzer. Discontinued and replaced by the M109. Some may be used for no-live fire training.|
|M109A5||155mm||United States||Self-propelled howitzer. 18 M109A5 and some M109A4 in service.|
|FIM-92 Stinger||N/A||United States||Surface-to-air missile|
|M48A2E1 Chaparral||N/A||United States||Self-propelled surface-to-air missile system. 30 in service in the A2 and 4 in the A3 versions.|
|Reinmetall Rh-202||20mm||Germany||Twin anti-aircraft gun|
|Bofors 40 mm gun||40mm||Sweden||Anti-aircraft gun|
|M163 Vulcan||United States||Self-propelled anti-aircraft gun|
- DPM Camouflage
- Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver (AN/PSN-11 PLGR)
- AN/PVS-5B Night Googles
- AN/MPQ-49B Radar
- AN/PPS-5B Radar
- MQM-170A Outlaw (target drone, operated by RAAA1)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Portuguese Army.|
- Military history of Portugal
- Portuguese Military Academy
- Army Commandos
- Army Special Operations
- Parachute Troops School
- Rapid Reaction Brigade
- Ribeiro, António Silva. Organização Superior de Defesa Nacional. Lisbon: Prefácio, 2004.
- Decreto-lei n.º 186/2014 de 29 de dezembro (Lei Orgânica do Exécito)
- Decreto Regulamentar n.º 11/2015 de 31 de julho (Aprova a orgânica do Exército)
- Army - armedforces.co.uk, July 29, 2013
-  - Armyrecognition.com, July 29, 2013
- "Curso de Operador de Radares de AAA" [AAA Radar Operator Course]. Portuguese Army. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
- "1st Air Defense Regiment, Portuguese Army Testimonial". Griffin Aerospace. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
- Jornal do Exército, official magazine
- Exército Português, official website