Portuguese Constituent Assembly election, 1975

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Portuguese Constituent Assembly election, 1975
Portugal
← 1973 25 April 1975 1976 →

250 seats to the Portuguese Constituent Assembly
125 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Mário Soares 1975 (cropped).jpg Sa Carneiro.jpg Alvaro Cunhal (1980).jpg
Leader Mário Soares Francisco Sá Carneiro Álvaro Cunhal
Party PS PSD PCP
Leader since 19 April 1973 6 May 1974 1961
Leader's seat Lisbon[1] Porto[2] Lisbon
Seats won 116 81 30
Popular vote 2,162,972 1,507,282 711,935
Percentage 37.9% 26.4% 12.5%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Freitas do Amaral, XV Cimeira Ibero-Americana - Salamanca, Espanha.jpg JoseManuelTengarrinha.jpg
Leader Diogo Freitas do Amaral José Manuel Tengarrinha Manuel Serra
Party CDS MDP/CDE FSP
Leader since 19 July 1974 1969
Leader's seat Lisbon Lisbon Lisbon
Seats won 16 5 0
Popular vote 434,879 236,318 66,307
Percentage 7.6% 4.1% 1.2%
Portugal
Coat of arms of Portugal.svg

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Portugal

The Portuguese Constituent Assembly election, 1975 was carried out in Portugal on 25 April 1975, exactly one year after the Carnation Revolution. It was the first free election held in Portugal since 1925, and only the seventh free election in all of Portuguese history. Turnout was 91.66 percent—at the time, the highest ever.

The main aim of the election was the election of a Constituent Assembly, in order to write a new constitution to replace the Estado Novo regime's authoritarian Constitution of 1933 and so this freely-elected parliament had a single-year mandate and no government was based on parliamentary support; the country continued to be governed by a military-civilian provisional administration during the deliberations of the Constituent Assembly.

The election was, perhaps surprisingly, won by the Socialist Party. The Social Democratic Party was the second-most voted party, defending a project that it would soon abandon, social democratic centrism, the Portuguese "Social-Democracy" becoming the major right-wing party in the country a few years after. The parliament had a large majority of parties defending socialist or "democratic socialist" ideas and the Constitution, approved one year after, reflected such influence. The Portuguese Communist Party achieved a surprisingly total, considering the overwhelming support in the south of the country and the radical turn to the left of the revolutionary process after the failed fascist coup, one month before.

With the PSD's shift away from the left and towards the right coming after this election, the only right-of-centre party elected was the CDS, which received 7.6 percent of the vote and 16 seats.

Parties[edit]

The major parties involved and the respective leaders:

Opinion polling[edit]

Date Released Polling Firm PS PSD PCP CDS MDP Others Lead
Mar 1975 IPOPE 47.0 21.0 17.0 2.0 4.0 9.0 26.0

National summary of votes and seats[edit]

e • d Summary of the 25 April 1975 Constituent Assembly elections results
Parties Votes % MPs MPs %/
votes %
1975 %
Socialist 2,162,972 37.87 116 46.40 1.23
Social Democratic 1,507,282 26.39 81 32.40 1.23
Portuguese Communist Party 711,935 12.46 30 12.00 0.96
Democratic and Social Centre 434,879 7.61 16 6.40 0.84
Portuguese Democratic Movement 236,318 4.14 5 2.00 0.48
People's Socialist Front 66,307 1.16 0 0.00 0.0
Movement of Socialist Left 58,248 1.02 0 0.00 0.0
People's Democratic Union 44,877 0.79 1 0.40 0.51
Communist Electoral Front (Marxist–Leninist) 33,185 0.58 0 0.00 0.0
People's Monarchist Party 32,526 0.57 0 0.00 0.0
Popular Unity Party 13,138 0.23 0 0.00 0.0
Internationalist Communist League 10,835 0.19 0 0.00 0.0
Independent Democratic Association of Macau[A] 1,622 0.03 1 0.40 13.33
Democratic Centre of Macau[A] 1,030 0.02 0 0.00 0.0
Total valid 5,315,064 93.05 250 100.00
Invalid ballots 396,675 6.95
Total (turnout 91.66%) 5,711,829 100.00
A Independent Democratic Association of Macau and Democratic Centre of Macau electoral list only in Macau.
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições
Vote share
PS
  
37.87%
PSD
  
26.39%
PCP
  
12.46%
CDS
  
7.61%
MDP/CDE
  
4.14%
FSP
  
1.16%
MES
  
1.02%
UDP
  
0.79%
FEC(m-l)
  
0.58%
PPM
  
0.57%
Others/Invalides
  
7.41%
Parliamentary seats
PS
  
46.40%
PSD
  
32.40%
PCP
  
12.00%
CDS
  
6.40%
MDP/CDE
  
2.00%
UDP
  
0.40%
ADIM
  
0.40%

Distribution by constituency[edit]

e • d Results of the 1975 election of the Portuguese Constituent Assembly by constituency
Constituency % S % S % S % S % S % S % S Total
S
PS PSD PCP CDS MDP/CDE UDP ADIM
Angra do Heroísmo 23.0 - 62.8 2 2.4 - 6.1 - 1.1 - 2
Aveiro 31.8 5 42.9 7 3.2 - 11.1 2 3.9 - 14
Beja 35.6 3 5.3 - 39.0 3 2.2 - 5.5 - 1.4 - 6
Braga 27.4 5 37.7 7 3.7 - 18.0 3 2.9 - - - 15
Bragança 24.7 1 43.0 3 2.7 - 13.5 - 3.7 - - - 4
Castelo Branco 41.5 5 24.3 2 5.6 - 6.4 - 3.9 - 0.8 - 7
Coimbra 43.2 7 27.2 4 5.7 1 4.6 - 4.4 - 12
EvoraÉvora 37.9 3 6.9 - 37.1 2 2.8 - 7.8 - 0.9 - 5
Faro 45.4 6 13.9 1 12.3 1 3.4 - 9.5 1 1.1 - 9
Funchal 19.6 1 61.9 5 1.7 - 10.0 - 1.3 - 6
Guarda 28.2 2 33.3 3 2.9 - 19.5 1 3.6 - 6
Horta 23.0 - 67.6 1 2.4 - 3.1 - 1
Leiria 33.2 5 35.6 5 6.4 - 6.8 1 3.4 - 1.1 - 11
Lisbon 46.0 29 15.0 9 18.9 11 4.8 3 4.1 2 1.7 1 55
Macau 56.4 1 1
Mozambique 41.1 1 1
Ponta Delgada 30.4 1 54.8 2 1.5 - 3.1 - 2.7 - 3
Portalegre 52.4 3 9.9 - 17.5 1 4.0 - 4.5 - 1.2 - 4
Porto 42.6 18 29.4 12 6.7 2 8.9 3 2.6 1 0.6 - 36
Santarém 42.9 8 18.8 3 15.1 2 4.3 - 4.1 - 1.0 - 13
Setúbal 38.2 7 5.7 1 37.8 7 1.6 - 6.0 1 1.3 - 16
Viana do Castelo 24.5 2 36.0 3 3.8 - 14.5 1 7.1 - 6
Vila Real 27.1 2 45.8 4 2.9 - 7.2 - 2.3 - 6
Viseu 21.5 2 43.9 6 2.3 - 17.2 2 4.0 - 10
zEmigration 34.4 - 45.6 1 4.6 - 11.0 - 1
Total 37.9 116 26.4 81 12.5 30 7.6 16 4.1 5 0.8 1 0.0 1 250
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

References[edit]

External links[edit]

See also[edit]