Portuguese Riviera

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Portuguese Riviera

Riviera Portuguesa
Cascais (20243630091) (cropped).jpg
Palacio de Monserrate (7730029906).jpg
Front of the Hotel Palacio in Estoril.JPG
Cascais Marina with Cascais in the foreground.jpg
Hotel Museu do Farol de Santa Marta IMG 7103 (2497377933) (cropped).jpg
Sintra - Palacio da Pena (20332995770) (cropped).jpg
Clockwise: View of the Bay of Cascais from Cascais Citadel; the Hotel Palácio in Estoril; the Casa de Santa Maria in Cascais; Pena National Palace in Sintra; the Cascais Marina; Monserrate Palace in Sintra.
CountryPortugal
DistrictLisbon District
Municipalities

The Portuguese Riviera (Portuguese: Riviera Portuguesa) is the affluent coastal region to the west of Lisbon, Portugal, centered on the coastal cities of Cascais, Estoril, and Sintra.[1][2][3] It is coterminous with the Estoril Coast (Costa do Estoril)[4] and occasionally known as the Costa do Sol (Sun Coast). The region is internationally known as a luxury destination for its history as a home of the wealthy, the famous, and European royalty.[5][6]

Both Cascais and Sintra consistently rank among the richest municipalities in Portugal and among the richest in both the Iberian Peninsula and Europe.[7][8][9][10][11] Because of its numerous resorts, estates, luxury shopping, entertainment, and beaches, the area has been likened to the French and Italian Rivieras, from which it derives its name.[12]

Cascais's history as a cosmopolitan center originates in the 1870s, when King Luís I of Portugal and the Portuguese royal family made the seaside town his summer residence, thus attracting members of Portugal's aristocracy, who established a summer community there.[13] During World War II and the Post-War period, the area's royal affiliations intensified, as many heads of European royal houses and deposed monarchs, including King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, King Juan Carlos I of Spain, and King Umberto II of Italy made their home in Cascais and Estoril, finding refuge in Portugal's neutrality in the war or from tense political situations in their own countries.[14] Due to its concentration of high-profile personalities, the riviera became a center of espionage during WWII, inspiring author Ian Flemming in his creation of the James Bond series.[15][16][17]

Sintra had been a royal retreat since the Portuguese Renaissance in the 15th century, but it was in the 19th century, when King Fernando II of Portugal decided to build his summer retreat, Pena Palace, in the Sintra Mountains overlooking the Atlantic Ocean, that it became the center of the Romanticist movement in Portugal that it became a summer residence of the Portuguese nobility. Famous for its grand estates and palaces, Sintra's belle epoch resulted in its numerous villas, gardens, estates, and palaces that characterize the area, which gained Sintra a UNESCO World Heritage designation.[18] Today Sintra is one of Portugal's most expensive and exclusive real estate markets and similarly known for its high standards of living, consistently ranking as one of the best places to live in Portugal.[19][20][21][22][23][24][25]

History[edit]

Monserrate Palace in Sintra, noted for its beauty in Lord Byron's Childe Harold's Pilgrimage during his grand tour through the Portuguese Riviera.
Sintra, a UNESCO World Heritage landscape, is famed for its numerous historic estates, including the Palace of Setais (top), the Casa dos Penedos (middle), and the Palácio Valenças (bottom).

Origins[edit]

During the third quarter of the 18th century and practically all of the 19th century, foreign travelers and Portuguese aristocrats, inspired by the Romanticist movement, rediscovered Sintra, a royal retreat during the Portuguese Renaissance, prizing its exotic landscapes and climate. In the summer of 1787, William Beckford stayed with the Marquis of Marialva, master of the horse for the kingdom, at his residence of Seteais Palace. At the beginning of the 19th century Princess Carlota Joaquina, wife of the Regent John, bought the estate and Ramalhão Palace. Between 1791 and 1793, Gerard Devisme constructed a Neo-Gothic mansion on his extensive estate in the Quinta de Monserrate (later known as the Monserrate Palace). Beckford, who remained in Sintra, rented the property from Devisme in 1794. The landscape, covered in fog, also attracted another Englishman, Francis Cook, who occupied the estate, constructing an oriental pavilion.[26] The Palace of Pena, Sintra's exemplary Portuguese Romantic symbol, was initiated by the King-Consort Ferdinand, husband of Queen Maria II of Portugal.

19th century[edit]

In 1854, the first contract was signed to construct a rail link between Sintra and Lisbon. A decree signed on 26 June 1855 regulated the contract between the government and Count Claranges Lucotte but was later rescinded in 1861. The connection was finally inaugurated on 2 April 1887.

The Portuguese Riviera originated when King Luís I of Portugal ordered a royal residence to be constructed in Cascais Citadel, starting the tradition of Cascais being the Portuguese royal family's Summer residence, which lasted from 1870 to 1908, transforming the seaside village into a cosmopolitan address. Thanks to King Luís I, the citadel was equipped with the country's first electric lights in 1878. Cascais also benefited with the construction of better roads to Lisbon and Sintra, a casino, a bullfight ring, a sports club, and improvements to basic infrastructure for the population. Many noble families built impressive mansions still to be seen in the town centre and environs. The first railway arrived in 1889.

An advertisement for Estoril and its amenities; first half of the 20th century.

In 1896, King Carlos I of Portugal, a lover of all maritime activities, installed in Cascais Citadel the first oceanographic laboratory in Portugal. The King himself led a total of 12 scientific expeditions to the coast; these ended in 1908 with his assassination in Lisbon.

From the second half of the 19th century into the first decades of the 20th century, Sintra also became a privileged place for artists: musicians such as José Vianna da Motta; composers such as Alfredo Keil, painters like João Cristino da Silva (author of one of the most celebrated canvases of Portuguese Romantic art, "Cinco Artistas em Sintra"), writers such as Eça de Queirós or Ramalho Ortigão, all these people lived, worked or got inspiration from Sintra's landscapes.[26]

By the beginning of the 20th century, Sintra was recognized as a summer resort visited by aristocrats and millionaires. Among these, Carvalho Monteiro, owner of a considerable fortune (known as "Monteiro dos Milhões") constructed near the main town on an estate he bought from the Baroness of Regaleira, the Quinta da Regaleira, regarded as a prime example of Neo-Manueline architecture.

World War II[edit]

During the Second World War, the region was the centre of spies and diplomatic secrecy, situations that provided the region with a cosmopolitan atmosphere and sophistication.[27] Due to the vision of Fausto Cardoso de Figueiredo and his business partner Augusto Carreira de Sousa, it became an international tourist destination both during and after the Second World War.[27]

In July 1940, Edward, Duke of Windsor (former Edward VIII of the United Kingdom) and his wife, Wallis Simpson, moved to Estoril, where they lived at first in the home of Ricardo de Espírito Santo, a Portuguese banker with both British and German contacts.[28]

During that time, several dignitaries and exiles came to Estoril: Miklós Horthy, the regent of the Kingdom of Hungary (lived and died in exile after the Second World War); the Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona (father of Juan Carlos I of Spain) and the King resided in the territory, as did Umberto II of Italy and Carol II of Romania.[27]

It was also in this location that former Portuguese dictator António de Oliveira Salazar had a summer house. It was Salazar who ordered the construction of the E.N.6 motorway, more commonly referred to as the Avenida Marginal, in order for him to quickly travel by car between Cascais and Lisbon (until then the accessway was nothing more than a dirt road, where traffic could only circulate at low velocities and make frequent stops).[27] The roadway permitted the dictator to travel rapidly, and with fewer stops, it wasn't possible for him to be recognized easily in transit.[27]

Casino Estoril, with its gardens facing the Atlantic Ocean is Europe's largest casino.

Complimenting the jet-set community that prospered in the region, Casino Estoril, Europe's largest casino, was founded in 1958.

Today[edit]

Today the towns of the Portuguese Riviera continue to host the Portuguese elite and be a vacation destination for international tourists. The Riviera plays an important part in tourism in Portugal. A large expatriate community continues to exist, primarily in Cascais and Sintra, leading to the majority of Lisbon's international schools being located within the area (with Carlucci American International School in Sintra, St Julian's School and St Dominic's School in Cascais, and Oeiras International School). Luxury gated communities have greatly developed in the region in the late 20th and early 21st century, including Quinta da Marinha (Cascais), Quinta Patino (Estoril), Quinta da Beloura and Quinta da Penha Longa (both in Linhó, Sintra).

Since the middle of the 20th century, the region has come to play host to numerous international sports and entertainment festivals, such as the Lisbon & Estoril Film Festival (in Estoril), the 4 Hours of Estoril endurance race (in Cascais), and NOS Alive music festival (in Algés). The Cascais Marina has hosted many important events, including the America's Cup World Series.

Geography[edit]

Casa de Santa Maria, in Cascais: a magnum opus of architect Raul Lino.
The Hotel Palácio Estoril is one of Estoril's most recognizable landmarks.

Climate[edit]

The region has a Mediterranean climate, influenced by the Atlantic and characterized by moderate temperatures and wet winters. Although the climate in the area of Cabo da Roca is semi-arid, the Sintra Mountains are considered moderately humid: precipitation in the mountains is higher than in the surrounding areas.

Places[edit]

Places following the broadest definition of the Portuguese Riviera:

Culture[edit]

The Portuguese Riviera is famed as a bastion of culture in Portugal, as the home to numerous prestigious institutions, art galleries, museums, and a cultural agenda including various international music festivals, film festivals, concerts, cultural festivals, and other events.

The Portuguese School of Equestrian Art is a world-famous school of equestrianism, housed at Queluz National Palace, in Sintra.

Museums and galleries[edit]

The Casa das Histórias Paula Rego, a museum and art gallery designed by Souto de Moura, houses the largest collection of works by famed artist Paula Rego.

The Museum of Portuguese Music, in Estoril, is dedicated to the study and history of the music of Portugal.

The Condes de Castro Guimarães Museum, a 19th-century Cascais palace, Monserrate Palace, a Romanticist villa in Sintra, and Quinta da Regaleira, 19th-century Neo-Manueline palace, are all preserved and open to the public as illustrations of how the Portuguese aristocracy historically lived on the Riviera, showing the difference in the architecture and lifestyles between Cascais and Sintra aristocrats.

The NewsMuseum in Sintra is one of the first museums in Europe dedicated to the study of the news and media.

The Sintra Natural History Museum is an internationally-recognized museum of natural history in the historic center of Sintra.

Events and festivals[edit]

Music[edit]

Sam Smith performing at NOS Alive Music Festival 2015, in Oeiras.
  • Festas do Mar (since 1965)
  • Estoril Jazz Festival (Festival de Jazz do Estoril; since 1971)
  • Estoril Festival (Festival do Estoril; since 1975)
  • Super Bock Super Rock (since 1994)
  • Musa Cascais Festival (since 1999)
  • NOS Alive (since 2007)
  • EDP Cool Jazz (since 2013)

Film[edit]

Sporting[edit]

Notable residents[edit]

Madonna, world-known international pop star.
Cristiano Ronaldo, Portuguese footballer playing for Juventus.
Lord Byron, famed British poet and leading Romanticist figure.
Ayrton Senna, Brazilian racer considered to be one of the best Formula One drivers of all time.

Royalty and nobility[edit]

Celebrities[edit]

Athletes[edit]

Politicians[edit]

Historical figures[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karen Brown; Clare Brown; June Eveleigh Brown; Cynthia Sauvage (2006). Karen Brown's Portugal, 2007: Exceptional Places to Stay & Itineraries. Karen Brown's Guides. pp. 54–56. ISBN 978-1-933810-15-7.
  2. ^ Marina Times - The Portuguese Riviera
  3. ^ Scots Travel - Exploring the Portuguese Riviera: Casais & Sintra
  4. ^ Abigail Hole; Charlotte Beech (2005). Lonely Planet Portugal. Lonely Planet. p. 131. ISBN 978-1-74059-682-4.
  5. ^ Melanie K. Smith; Greg Richards (2013). The Routledge Handbook of Cultural Tourism. Routledge. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-0-415-52351-6.
  6. ^ Hello Magazine - The Portuguese Riviera
  7. ^ Jornal Economico - Lisboa, Cascais e Sintra são os municípios que mais encaixam com IMI
  8. ^ RTP - Seis dos quinze concelhos mais ricos situam-se na Região de Lisboa
  9. ^ Publico - Grande Lisboa e a Regiao Iberica Mais Rica em Poder de Compra
  10. ^ Correio 24Horas - Sintra fica do lado de Lisboa e tem a maior cara de conto de fadas
  11. ^ Mansion Global - Portuguese Beach Resorts Pique International Interest
  12. ^ Michel Cruz - The Portuguese Riviera
  13. ^ The Sun - Gambling, surfing, strolling… take a break in the stunning resort of Cascais in Portugal
  14. ^ Hello - Holiday like a Royal in Cascais: A Gem on the Portuguese Riviera
  15. ^ Saveur - Estoril: The Seaside Portuguese Town that Inspired James Bond
  16. ^ RCL Exclusive - Inside the Palácio Estoril, the Enchanting Hotel That Inspired James Bond
  17. ^ Publico - James Bond Teve uma Vida Real e Andou pelo Estoril onde Nasceu
  18. ^ Boots n All - Lisbon Coast: Portuguese Riviera
  19. ^ Cascais e a Terceira Melhor Cidade do Pais, depois de Lisboa e Porto
  20. ^ Eurodicas - Melhores Cidades de Portugal
  21. ^ Folha de S. Paulo - Mercado imobiliário em alta dá apelido de nova Miami a Lisboa
  22. ^ Diario de Noticias - Sintra reduz taxas para empreendimentos de luxo
  23. ^ Sapo Economia - Investir 1,3 milhões de euros para vender imóveis de luxo em Lisboa
  24. ^ Diario de Noticias - Portugal é a nova Miami para os brasileiros ricos
  25. ^ Expresso - O negócio milionário das casas de luxo em Portugal
  26. ^ a b Câmara Municipal, ed. (2011). "Sintra e a sua Historia" (in Portuguese). Sintra, Portugal: Câmara Municipal de Sintra. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  27. ^ a b c d e Junta Freguesia, ed. (2011). "História" (in Portuguese). Estoril (Cascais), Portugal: Junta Freguesia de Estoril. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  28. ^ Bloch, p. 91
  29. ^ The Sun - Madonna Moves to Portugal for Son to Further Football Career

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bloch, Michael (1982). The Duke of Windsor's War. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-77947-8.