God of the sea, storms, earthquakes, horses
|Member of the Twelve Olympians|
|Abode||Mount Olympus, or the sea|
|Symbol||Trident, fish, dolphin, horse, bull|
|Parents||Cronus and Rhea|
|Siblings||Hades, Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Zeus; Chiron (half)|
|Consort||Amphitrite, Aphrodite, Demeter, various others|
|Children||Theseus, Triton, Polyphemus, Orion, Belus, Agenor, Neleus, Atlas, Pegasus, Chrysaor, Cymopolea|
|Part of a series on|
|Ancient Greek religion|
Poseidon (/ -, -/,; Greek: Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth, god of the sea, storms, earthquakes and horses. In pre-Olympian Bronze Age Greece, he was venerated as a chief deity at Pylos and Thebes. He also had the cult title "earth shaker". In the myths of isolated Arcadia he is related with Demeter and Persephone and he was venerated as a horse, however it seems that he was originally a god of the waters. He is often regarded as the tamer or father of horses, and with a strike of his trident, he created springs which are related with the word horse. His Roman equivalent is Neptune.
Poseidon was protector of seafarers, and of many Hellenic cities and colonies. Homer and Hesiod suggest that Poseidon became lord of the sea following the defeat of his father Cronus, when the world was divided by lot among his three sons; Zeus was given the sky, Hades the underworld, and Poseidon the sea, with the Earth and Mount Olympus belonging to all three. In Homer's Iliad, Poseidon supports the Greeks against the Trojans during the Trojan War and in the Odyssey, during the sea-voyage from Troy back home to Ithaca, the Greek hero Odysseus provokes Poseidon's fury by blinding his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus, resulting in Poseidon punishing him with storms, the complete loss of his ship and companions, and a ten-year delay. Poseidon is also the subject of a Homeric hymn. In Plato's Timaeus and Critias, the legendary island of Atlantis was Poseidon's domain.
Athena became the patron goddess of the city of Athens after a competition with Poseidon, and he remained on the Acropolis in the form of his surrogate, Erechtheus. After the fight, Poseidon sent a monstrous flood to the Attic Plain, to punish the Athenians for not choosing him.
The earliest attested occurrence of the name, written in Linear B, is 𐀡𐀮𐀅𐀃 Po-se-da-o or 𐀡𐀮𐀅𐀺𐀚 Po-se-da-wo-ne, which correspond to Ποσειδάων (Poseidaōn) and Ποσειδάϝονος (Poseidawonos) in Mycenean Greek; in Homeric Greek it appears as Ποσειδάων (Poseidaōn); in Aeolic as Ποτειδάων (Poteidaōn); and in Doric as Ποτειδάν (Poteidan), Ποτειδάων (Poteidaōn), and Ποτειδᾶς (Poteidas). The form Ποτειδάϝων (Poteidawon) appears in Corinth. A cult title of Poseidon in Linear B is E-ne-si-da-o-ne, "earth-shaker".
The origins of the name "Poseidon" are unclear. One theory breaks it down into an element meaning "husband" or "lord" (Greek πόσις (posis), from PIE *pótis) and another element meaning "earth" (δᾶ (da), Doric for γῆ (gē)), producing something like lord or spouse of Da, i.e. of the earth; this would link him with Demeter, "Earth-mother". Walter Burkert finds that "the second element δᾶ- remains hopelessly ambiguous" and finds a "husband of Earth" reading "quite impossible to prove." According to Robert S. P. Beekes in Etymological Dictionary of Greek, "there is no indication that δᾶ means 'earth'", although the root da appears in the Linear B inscription E-ne-si-da-o-ne, "earth-shaker".
Another, more plausible, theory interprets the second element as related to the (presumed) Doric word *δᾶϝον dâwon, "water", Proto-Indo-European *dah₂- "water" or *dʰenh₂- "to run, flow", Sanskrit दन् dā́-nu- "fluid, drop, dew" and names of rivers such as Danube (< *Danuvius) or Don. This would make *Posei-dawōn into the master of waters. It seems that Poseidon was originally a god of the waters. There is also the possibility that the word has Pre-Greek origin. Plato in his dialogue Cratylus gives two traditional etymologies: either the sea restrained Poseidon when walking as a "foot-bond" (ποσίδεσμον), or he "knew many things" (πολλά εἰδότος or πολλά εἰδῶν).
Bronze Age Greece
Linear B (Mycenean Greek) inscriptions
If surviving Linear B clay tablets can be trusted, the name po-se-da-wo-ne ("Poseidon") occurs with greater frequency than does di-u-ja ("Zeus"). A feminine variant, po-se-de-ia, is also found, indicating a lost consort goddess, in effect the precursor of Amphitrite. Poseidon carries frequently the title wa-na-ka (wanax), meaning "king" in Linear B inscriptions. The chthonic nature of Poseidon-Wanax is also indicated by his title E-ne-si-da-o-ne in Mycenean Knossos and Pylos, a powerful attribute (earthquakes had accompanied the collapse of the Minoan palace-culture). In the cave of Amnisos (Crete) Enesidaon is related with the cult of Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth. She was related with the annual birth of the divine child. During the Bronze Age, a goddess of nature, dominated both in Minoan and Mycenean cult, and Wanax (wa-na-ka) was her male companion (paredros) in Mycenean cult. It is possible that Demeter appears as Da-ma-te in a Linear B inscription (PN EN 609), however the interpretation is still under dispute.
In Linear B inscriptions found at Pylos, E-ne-si-da-o-ne is related with Poseidon, and Si-to Po-tini-ja is probably related with Demeter. Tablets from Pylos record sacrificial goods destined for "the Two Queens and Poseidon" ("to the Two Queens and the King": wa-na-soi, wa-na-ka-te). The "Two Queens" may be related with Demeter and Persephone, or their precursors, goddesses who were not associated with Poseidon in later periods.
The illuminating exception is the archaic and localised myth of the stallion Poseidon and mare Demeter at Phigalia in isolated and conservative Arcadia, noted by Pausanias (2nd century AD) as having fallen into desuetude; the stallion Poseidon pursues the mare-Demeter, and from the union she bears the horse Arion, and a daughter (Despoina), who obviously had the shape of a mare too. The violated Demeter was Demeter Erinys (furious). In Arcadia, Demeter's mare-form was worshiped into historical times. Her xoanon of Phigaleia shows how the local cult interpreted her, as goddess of nature. A Medusa type with a horse's head with snaky hair, holding a dove and a dolphin, probably representing her power over air and water.
It seems that the Arcadian myth is related with the first Greek speaking people who entered the region during the Bronze Age. (Linear B represents an archaic Greek dialect). Their religious beliefs were mixed with the beliefs of the indigenous population. It is possible that the Greeks did not bring with them other gods except Zeus, Eos, and the Dioskouroi. The horse (numina) was related with the liquid element, and with the underworld. Poseidon appears as a beast (horse), which is the river spirit of the underworld, as it usually happens in northern-European folklore, and not unusually in Greece. Poseidon "Wanax", is the male companion (paredros) of the goddess of nature. In the relative Minoan myth, Pasiphaë is mating with the white bull, and she bears the hybrid creature Minotaur. The Bull was the old pre-Olympian Poseidon. The goddess of nature and her paredros survived in the Eleusinian cult, where the following words were uttered: "Mighty Potnia bore a strong son".
In the heavily sea-dependent Mycenaean culture, there is not sufficient evidence that Poseidon was connected with the sea. We do not know if "Posedeia" was a sea-goddess. Homer and Hesiod suggest that Poseidon became lord of the sea following the defeat of his father Cronus, when the world was divided by lot among his three sons; Zeus was given the sky, Hades the underworld, and Poseidon the sea, with the Earth and Mount Olympus belonging to all three. Walter Burkert suggests that the Hellene cult worship of Poseidon as a horse god may be connected to the introduction of the horse and war-chariot from Anatolia to Greece around 1600 BC.
There is evidence that Poseidon was once worshipped as a horse, and this is evident by his cult in Peloponnesos. However, some ancient writers held he was originally a god of the waters, and therefore he became the "earth-shaker", because the Greeks believed that the cause of the earthquakes was the erosion of the rocks by the waters, by the rivers who they saw to disappear into the earth and then to burst out again. This is what the natural philosophers Thales, Anaximenes and Aristotle believed, which may have been similar to the folklore belief.
Worship of Poseidon
In his benign aspect, Poseidon was seen as creating new islands and offering calm seas. When offended or ignored, he supposedly struck the ground with his trident and caused chaotic springs, earthquakes, drownings and shipwrecks. Sailors prayed to Poseidon for a safe voyage, sometimes drowning horses as a sacrifice; in this way, according to a fragmentary papyrus, Alexander the Great paused at the Syrian seashore before the climactic battle of Issus, and resorted to prayers, "invoking Poseidon the sea-god, for whom he ordered a four-horse chariot to be cast into the waves."
According to Pausanias, Poseidon was one of the caretakers of the oracle at Delphi before Olympian Apollo took it over. Apollo and Poseidon worked closely in many realms: in colonization, for example, Delphic Apollo provided the authorization to go out and settle, while Poseidon watched over the colonists on their way, and provided the lustral water for the foundation-sacrifice. Xenophon's Anabasis describes a group of Spartan soldiers in 400–399 BC singing to Poseidon a paean—a kind of hymn normally sung for Apollo. Like Dionysus, who inflamed the maenads, Poseidon also caused certain forms of mental disturbance. A Hippocratic text of ca 400 BC, On the Sacred Disease says that he was blamed for certain types of epilepsy.
Epithets and attributes
Poseidon had a variety of roles, duties and attributes. He is a separate deity from the oldest Greek god of the sea Pontus. In Athens his name is superimposed οn the name of the non-Greek god Erechtheus Ἑρεχθεύς (Poseidon Erechtheus). In Iliad he is the lord of the sea and his palace is built in Aegai, in the depth of the sea. His significance is indicated by his titles Eurykreion (Εὐρυκρείων) "wide-ruling", an epithet also applied to Agamemnon and Helikonios anax (Ἑλικώνιος ἂναξ), "lord of Helicon or Helike"  In Helike of Achaia he was specially honoured. Anax is identified in Mycenaean Greek (Linear B) as wa-na-ka,a title of Poseidon as king of the underworld. Aeschylus uses also the epithet anax  and Pindar the epithet Eurymedon (Εὐρυμέδων) "widely ruling".
Some of the epithets (or adjectives) applied to him like Enosigaios (Ἐνοσίγαιος), Enosichthon (Ἐνοσίχθων) (Homer) and Ennosidas (Ἐννοσίδας) (Pindar) , mean "earth shaker". These epithets indicate his chthonic nature, and have an older evidence of use, as it is identified in Linear B, as 𐀁𐀚𐀯𐀅𐀃𐀚, E-ne-si-da-o-ne. Other epithets that relate him with the earthquakes are Gaieochos (Γαιήοχος)  and Seisichthon (Σεισίχθων)  The god who causes the earthquakes is also the protector against them, and he had the epithets Themeliouchos (Θεμελιούχος) "upholding the foundations" , Asphaleios (Ἀσφάλειος) "securer, protector"  with a temble at Tainaron. Pausanias describes a sanctuary of Poseidon near Sparta beside the shrine of Alcon, where he had the surname Domatites (Δωματίτης), "of the house"
Homer uses for Poseidon the title Kyanochaites (Κυανοχαίτης) , "dark-haired, dark blue of the sea". Epithets like Pelagios (Πελάγιος) "of the open sea", Aegeus (Αἰγαίος) ,"of the high sea"  in the town of Aegae in Euboea, where he had a magnificent temple upon a hill, Pontomedon (Ποντομέδων)," lord of the sea" (Pindar , Aeschylus) and Kymothales (Κυμοθαλής), "abounding with waves", indicate that Poseidon was regarded as holding sway over the sea. Other epithets that relate him with the sea are , Porthmios (Πόρθμιος), "of strait, narrow sea" at Karpathos, Epactaeus (Ἐπακταῖος) "god worshipped on the coast", in Samos., Alidoupos, (Ἀλίδουπος) "sea resounding". His symbol is the trident and he has the epithet Eutriaina (Εὐτρίαινα), "with goodly trident" (Pindar). The god of the sea is also the god of fishing , and tuna was his attribute. At Lampsacus they offered fishes to Poseidon and he had the epithet phytalmios (φυτάλμιος)  His epithet Phykios (Φύκιος), "god of seaweeds" at Mykonos, seems to be related with fishing. He had a fest where women were not allowed, with special offers also to Poseidon Temenites (Τεμενίτης) "related to an official domain ". At the same day they made offers to Demeter Chloe therefore Poseidon was the promotor of vegetation. He had the epithet phytalmios (φυτάλμιος) at Myconos, Troizen, Megara and Rhodes, comparable with Ptorthios (Πτόρθιος) at Chalcis.
Poseidon had a close association with horses. He is known under the epithet Hippios (Ἳππειος) ,"of a horse or horses"  usually in Arcadia. He had temples at Lycosura, Mantineia, Methydrium, Pheneos, Pallandion. At Lycosura he is related with the cult of Despoina. The modern sanctuary near Mantineia was built by Emperor Hadrian. In Athens on the hill of horses there was the altar of Poseidon Hippios and Athena Hippia. The temple of Poseidon was destroyed by Antigonus when he attacked Attica. He is usually the tamer of horses (Damaios ,Δαμαίος at Corinth), and the tender of horses Hippokourios Ἱπποκούριος) at Sparta, where he had a sanctuary near the sanctuary of Artemis Aiginea. In some myths he is the father of horses, either by spilling his seed upon a rock or by mating with a creature who then gave birth to the first horse. In Thessaly he had the title Petraios Πετραἵος, "of the rocks". He hit a rock and the first horse "Skyphios" appeared. He was closely related with the springs, and with the strike of his trident, he created springs. He had the epithets Krenouchos (Κρηνούχος), "ruling over springs", and nymphagetes (Νυμφαγέτης) "leader of the nymphs"  On the Acropolis of Athens he created the saltspring Sea of Erechtheus (Ἐρεχθηίς θάλασσα). Many springs like Hippocrene and Aganippe in Helikon are related with the word horse (hippos). (also Glukippe, Hyperippe). He is the father of Pegasus, whose name is deriven from πηγή, (pēgē) "spring".
Epithets like Genesios Γενέσιος at Lerna Genethlios (Γενέθλιος) "of the race or family"  Phratrios (Φράτριος) "of the brotherhood", and Patrigenios (Πατριγένειος)  indicate his relation with the genealogy trees and the brotherhood. Other epithets of Poseidon in local cults are Epoptes (Ἐπόπτης) , "overseer, watcher" at Megalopolis, Empylios (Ἑμπύλιος), "at the gate " at Thebes., Kronios (Κρόνιος) (Pindar) and semnos (σεμνός), "august, holy"  (Sophocles).
The cult of Poseidon is often related with festivals. At Corinth the Isthmian games was an athletic and music festival to honour the god who had the epithet Isthmios (Ἴσθμιος). The Amphictiony of Kalaureia belonged to him. At Tainaron he had a famous temple and festival. Other games which belonged to him are the Pohoidaia (Ποhοίδαια) in Helos and Thuria and the race in Gaiaochō (ἐν Γαιαόχω)  Poseidon Gaieochos (Γαιήοχος) had a temple near Sparta beside a Hippodrome. Τhe epithet probably means " the one who moves under the earth" ' and therefore shakes the earth. This seem to relate Poseidon with the rivers at Peloponnesus that seem to disappear and then flow under the earth. At Ephesus there was a fest "Tavria" and he had the epithet Tavreios (Tαύρειος), "related with the bull".
However, in some versions of the story, he, like his brother Zeus, did not share the fate of his other brother and sisters who were eaten by Cronus. He was saved by his mother Rhea, who concealed him among a flock of lambs and pretended to have given birth to a colt, which she gave to Cronus to devour.
According to John Tzetzes the kourotrophos, or nurse of Poseidon was Arne, who denied knowing where he was, when Cronus came searching; according to Diodorus Siculus Poseidon was raised by the Telchines on Rhodes, just as Zeus was raised by the Korybantes on Crete.
Foundation of Athens
Athena became the patron goddess of the city of Athens after a competition with Poseidon. Yet Poseidon remained a numinous presence on the Acropolis in the form of his surrogate, Erechtheus. At the dissolution festival at the end of the year in the Athenian calendar, the Skira, the priests of Athena and the priest of Poseidon would process under canopies to Eleusis. They agreed that each would give the Athenians one gift and the Athenians would choose whichever gift they preferred. Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a spring sprang up; the water was salty and not very useful, whereas Athena offered them an olive tree.
The Athenians or their king, Cecrops, accepted the olive tree and along with it Athena as their patron, for the olive tree brought wood, oil and food. After the fight, infuriated at his loss, Poseidon sent a monstrous flood to the Attic Plain, to punish the Athenians for not choosing him. The depression made by Poseidon's trident and filled with salt water was surrounded by the northern hall of the Erechtheum, remaining open to the air. "In cult, Poseidon was identified with Erechtheus," Walter Burkert noted; "the myth turns this into a temporal-causal sequence: in his anger at losing, Poseidon led his son Eumolpus against Athens and killed Erectheus."
This myth is construed by Robert Graves and others as reflecting a clash between the inhabitants during Mycenaean times and newer immigrants. Athens at its height was a significant sea power, at one point defeating the Persian fleet at Salamis Island in a sea battle.
The Corinthians had a similar story to the foundations of Athens, about their own city Corinth. According to the myth, Helios and Poseidon clashed, both desiring to make the city their own. Their dispute was brought to one of the Hecatoncheires, Briareos, an elder god, who was thus tasked to settle the fight between the two gods. Briareus decided to award the Acrocorinth to Helios, while to Poseidon he gave the isthmus of Corinth. In this tale, Helios and Poseidon are supposed to represent fire versus water. Helios, as the sun god, received the area that is closest to the sky, while Poseidon, who is the sea god, got the isthmus by the sea.
Walls of Troy
Poseidon and Apollo, having offended Zeus by their rebellion in Hera's scheme, were temporarily stripped of their divine authority and sent to serve King Laomedon of Troy. He had them build huge walls around the city and promised to reward them with his immortal horses, a promise he then refused to fulfill. In vengeance, before the Trojan War, Poseidon sent a sea monster to attack Troy. The monster was later killed by Heracles.
Consort, lovers, victims and children
Poseidon was said to have had many lovers of both sexes (see expandable list below). His consort was Amphitrite, a nymph and ancient sea-goddess, daughter of Nereus and Doris. In one account, attributed to Eratosthenes, Poseidon wished to wed Amphitrite, but she fled from him and hid with Atlas. Poseidon sent out many to find her, and it was a dolphin who tracked her down. The dolphin persuaded Amphitrite to accept Poseidon as her husband, and eventually took charge of their wedding. Poseidon then put him among the stars as a reward for his good services. Oppian says that the dolphin betrayed Amphitrite's whereabouts to Poseidon, and he carried off Amphitrite against her will to marry her. Together they had a son named Triton, a merman.
Poseidon was the father of many heroes. He is thought to have fathered the famed Theseus.
A mortal woman named Tyro was married to Cretheus (with whom she had one son, Aeson), but loved Enipeus, a river god. She pursued Enipeus, who refused her advances. One day, Poseidon, filled with lust for Tyro, disguised himself as Enipeus, and from their union were born the heroes Pelias and Neleus, twin boys. Poseidon also had an affair with Alope, his granddaughter through Cercyon, his son and King of Eleusis, begetting the Attic hero Hippothoon. Cercyon had his daughter buried alive but Poseidon turned her into the spring, Alope, near Eleusis.
A mortal woman named Cleito once lived on an isolated island; Poseidon fell in love with the human mortal and created a dwelling sanctuary at the top of a hill near the middle of the island and surrounded the dwelling with rings of water and land to protect her. She gave birth to five sets of twin boys; the firstborn, Atlas, became the first ruler of Atlantis.
Not all of Poseidon's children were human. In an archaic myth, Poseidon once pursued Demeter. She spurned his advances, turning herself into a mare so that she could hide in a herd of horses; he saw through the deception and became a stallion, captured and raped her. Their child was a horse, Arion, which was capable of human speech. Poseidon also raped Medusa on the floor of a temple to Athena. Medusa was then changed into a monster by Athena. When she was later beheaded by the hero Perseus, Chrysaor and Pegasus emerged from her neck.
The philosopher Plato was held by his fellow ancient Greeks to have traced his descent to the sea-God Poseidon through his father Ariston and his mythic predecessors the demigod kings Codrus and Melanthus.
Poseidon was also took the young Nerites, the son of Nereus and Doris (and thus brother to Amphitrite) as a lover. Nerites was also Poseidon's charioteer, and impressed all marine creatures with his speed. But one day the sun god, Helios, turned Nerites into a shellfish. Aelian, the author of this tale, says it is not clear why Helios did this, but theorizes he might have been offended somehow, or that he and Poseidon were rivals in love, and Helios wanted Nerites to travel among the constellations instead of the sea-monsters.
|Poseidon's family tree |
In literature and art
In Greek art, Poseidon rides a chariot that was pulled by a hippocampus or by horses that could ride on the sea. He was associated with dolphins and three-pronged fish spears (tridents). He lived in a palace on the ocean floor, made of coral and gems.
In the Iliad Poseidon favors the Greeks, and on several occasion takes an active part in the battle against the Trojan forces. However, in Book XX he rescues Aeneas after the Trojan prince is laid low by Achilles.
In the Odyssey, Poseidon is notable for his hatred of Odysseus who blinded the god's son, the Cyclops Polyphemus. The enmity of Poseidon prevents Odysseus's return home to Ithaca for many years. Odysseus is even told, notwithstanding his ultimate safe return, that to placate the wrath of Poseidon will require one more voyage on his part.
In the Aeneid, Neptune is still resentful of the wandering Trojans, but is not as vindictive as Juno, and in Book I he rescues the Trojan fleet from the goddess's attempts to wreck it, although his primary motivation for doing this is his annoyance at Juno's having intruded into his domain.
A hymn to Poseidon included among the Homeric Hymns is a brief invocation, a seven-line introduction that addresses the god as both "mover of the earth and barren sea, god of the deep who is also lord of Helicon and wide Aegae, and specifies his twofold nature as an Olympian: "a tamer of horses and a saviour of ships."
In modern culture
Movies and television
Poseidon has been very popular especially in god-related films. John Putch directed the movie The Poseidon Adventure. Wolfgang Petersen also film adapted Paul Gallico's novel and directed the movie Poseidon.
Poseidon appears in Percy Jackson and the Olympians as the father of Percy Jackson and Tyson the Cyclops. He also appears in the ABC television series Once Upon a Time as the guest star of the second half of season four played by Ernie Hudson. In this version, Poseidon is portrayed as the father of the Sea Witch Ursula.
Poseidon has made multiple appearances in video games, such as in God of War 3 by Sony. In the game, Poseidon appears as a boss for the player to defeat. He also appears in Smite as a playable character.
Many military weapons from multiple countries have been named after Poseidon. Such examples are the P8 Poseidon, & the "Poseidon" which is a Russian nuclear-armed unmanned underwater vehicle.
- Poseidon myths as told by story tellers
Bibliography of reconstruction:
- Homer, Odyssey, 11.567 (7th century BC)
- Pindar, Olympian Odes, 1 (476 BC)
- Euripides, Orestes, 12–16 (408 BC)
- Bibliotheca Epitome 2: 1–9 (140 BC)
- Ovid, Metamorphoses, VI: 213, 458 (AD 8);
- Hyginus, Fables, 82: Tantalus; 83: Pelops (1st century AD)
- Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.22.3 (AD 160 – 176)
Bibliography of reconstruction:
- Pindar, Olympian Ode, I (476 BC)
- Sophocles, (1) Electra, 504 (430 – 415 BC) & (2) Oenomaus, Fr. 433 (408 BC)
- Euripides, Orestes, 1024–1062 (408 BC)
- Bibliotheca Epitome 2, 1–9 (140 BC)
- Diodorus Siculus, Histories, 4.73 (1st century BC)
- Hyginus, Fables, 84: Oinomaus; Poetic Astronomy, ii (1st century AD)
- Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.1.3 – 7; 5.13.1; 6.21.9; 8.14.10 – 11 (c. AD 160 – 176)
- Philostratus the Elder Imagines, I.30: Pelops (AD 170 – 245)
- Philostratus the Younger, Imagines, 9: Pelops (c. 200 – 245)
- First Vatican Mythographer, 22: Myrtilus; Atreus et Thyestes
- Second Vatican Mythographer, 146: Oenomaus
- Family tree of the Greek gods
- Ionian League
- Panionium – Ionian festival to Poseidon
- Trident of Poseidon
- Jones, Daniel (2003) , Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-3-12-539683-8
- Burkert 1985, pp. 136–139.
- Seneca quaest. Nat. VI 6 :Nilsson Vol I p.450
- Nilsson Vol I p.450
- Hesiod, Theogony 456.
- Plato (1971). Timaeus and Critias. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd. pp. 167. ISBN 9780140442618.
- Timaeus 24e–25a, R. G. Bury translation (Loeb Classical Library).
- Also it has been interpreted that Plato or someone before him in the chain of the oral or written tradition of the report accidentally changed the very similar Greek words for "bigger than" ("meson") and "between" ("mezon") – Luce, J.V. (1969). The End of Atlantis – New Light on an Old Legend. London: Thames and Hudson. p. 224.
- Burkert 1983, pp. 149, 157.
- Martin Nilsson (1967). Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion. Erster Band. Verlag C. H. Beck. p. 444.
- Liddell & Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, Ποσειδῶν Archived 9 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- Pierre Chantraine Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue grecque Paris 1974–1980 4th s.v.; Lorenzo Rocci Vocabolario Greco-Italiano Milano, Roma, Napoli 1943 (1970) s.v.
- R. S. P. Beekes. Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 324 (s.v. "Δημήτηρ")
- Δημήτηρ. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
- Adams, John Paul, Mycenean divinities – List of handouts for California State University Classics 315. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Martin Nilsson, p. 417, p. 445. Michael Janda, pp. 256–258.
- "The Greeks believed that the cause of the earthquakes was the erosion of the rocks by the waters" : Seneca quaest. Nat. VI 6 :Nilsson Vol I p.450
- Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, p. 324.
- Plato, Cratylus, 402d–402e
- van der Toorn, Karel; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter Willem (1999), Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (second ed.), Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdman's Publishing Company, ISBN 0-8028-2491-9
- Adams, John Paul. "Mycenaean Divinities". List of Handouts for Classics 315. Archived from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2006.
- Dietrich, pp. 220 Archived 23 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine–221 Archived 24 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
- Dietrich, p. 109 Archived 23 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
- Dietrich, p. 181 Archived 23 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
- Ventris/Chadwick,Documents in Mycenean Greek p. 242; Dietrich, p. 172, n. 218 Archived 24 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
- George Mylonas (1966), Mycenae and the Mycenean world. p.159. Princeton University Press
- "Wa-na-ssoi, wa-na-ka-te, (to the two queens and the king). Wanax (Greek : Αναξ) is best suited to Poseidon, the special divinity of Pylos. The identity of the two divinities addressed as wanassoi, is uncertain ": George Mylonas (1966) Mycenae and the Mycenean age p. 159 .Princeton University Press
- Pausanias VIII 23. 5; Raymond Bloch "Quelques remarques sur Poseidon, Neptunus et Nethuns" in Comptes-rendus des séances de l' Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Letres 2 1981 p. 345.
- L. H. Jeffery (1976). Archaic Greece: The Greek city states c.800-500 B.C (Ernest Benn Limited) p 23 ISBN 0-510-03271-0
- F.Schachermeyer: Poseidon und die Entstehung des Griechischen Gotter glaubens :Nilsson p 444
- The river god Acheloos is represented as a bull
- Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke 3.1.4 Archived 4 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- Ruck and Staples 1994:213.
- Dietrich, p. 167 Archived 23 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- "Poseidon – God of the Sea". www.crystalinks.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
- Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Müller's ed. Papyrus Oxyrrhincus Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum 148, 44, col. 2; quoted by Robin Lane Fox, Alexander the Great (1973) 1986:168 and note. Alexander also invoked other sea deities: Thetis, mother of his hero Achilles, Nereus and the Nereids
- "(Hippocrates), On the Sacred Disease, Francis Adams, tr". Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- Brunwasser, Matthew (20 June 2013). "The Greeks Who Worship Ancient Gods". BBC. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
- Souli, Sarah (4 January 2018). "Greece's Old Gods Are Ready for Your Sacrifice". The Outline. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
- Walter Burkert (Peter Bing, tr.) Homo Necans 1983, p. 149 gives references for this observation
- Iliad 13.21 Nilsson Vol I p.446
- "Iliad 10.751".
- Iliad 20.404.
- "Seven against Thebes 131".
- Diedrich p. 185 n. 305
- "Suda, tau, 206".
- "Pausanias 3.14.7".
- "Iliad 20.144".
- Nilsson Vol I p.449
- Strabo, ix. p. 405
- Virgil, Aeneid iii. 74, where Servius erroneously derives the name from the Aegean Sea
- Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Aegaeus". In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. 1. Boston. p. 24.
- Smith, >Steven D. (2019), Maria Kanellou; Ivana Petrovic; Chris Carey (eds.), "Art, Nature, Power: Garden Epigrams from Nero to Heraclius", Greek Epigram from the Hellenistic to the Early Byzantine Era, Oxford University Press, p. 348, ISBN 978-0-192-57379-7
- Leonhard Schmitz (1870). "Epactaeus". In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
- Nilsson Vol I p.451,452
- Nilsson Vol I p.448
- Pausanias 8.37.9–10
- "Pausanias 8.10.3".
- "Pausanias 1.30.4".
- "Pausanias 3.14.2".
- Nilsson Vol I p. 447
- " Oceanus is the primeval water, the origin of all springs and rivers" : Nilsson Vol I p.450
- "Apollodorus 3.14.1".
- Nilsson Vol I p.450-451
- "Pausanias 2.38.4".
- Nilsson Vol I p.452
- Pausanias 3.21.8.
- Nilsson Vol I p.447- 448
- contest at Sparta : Γαάοχοι
- Hesych. "ὁ ὐπό τῆς γῆς ὁχούμενος " Nilsson Vol I p. 448
- Nilsson Vol I p. 449
- In the 2nd century AD, a well with the name of Arne, the "lamb's well", in the neighbourhood of Mantineia in Arcadia, where old traditions lingered, was shown to Pausanias. (Pausanias, VIII.8.2.)
- Tzetzes, ad Lycophron 644.
- Diodorus, Bibliotheca Historica (Book V, Ch. 55.
- Homer's Iliad (Book XV, ln. 184-93 Archived 11 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine)
- Homer, Odyssey 5.380
- Burkert 1983, pp. 143–149.
- Fowler 1988, p. 98 n. 5; Pausanias, Description of Greece 2.1.6, 2.4.6.
- Dio Chrysostom, Discourses 37.11–12
- Grummond and Ridgway, p. 69, "Helios' higher position would correspond to the sun's location in the sky versus Poseidon's lower venue in the sea, opposite Demeter on land."
- Ogden, Daniel (2021). The Oxford Handbook of Heracles. Oxford University Press. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-19-065098-8.
- Hyginus, Astronomica 2.17.1
- Oppian, Halieutica 1.38
- Hesiod, Theogony 930–933
- Smith, s.v. Tyro
- Hard, p. 344
- Hyginus, Fabulae 169.
- Apollodorus, Epitome.1.22
- Pausanias, 8.25.5
- Pausanias, 8.25.7
- Gill, N.S. (2007). "Mates and Children of Poseidon". Archived from the original on 23 December 2006. Retrieved 5 February 2007.
- Seelig 2002, p. 895–911.
- Philip Freeman (2013). Oh My Gods: A Modern Retelling of Greek and Roman Myths. p. 30. ISBN 9781451609981.
- Great Books of the Western World, Plato's Dialogues. Biographical Note
- Diogenes Laertius Plato 1
- Aelian, De Natura Animalium 14.28
- Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History, 1 in Photius, 190
- Hesiod, Theogony 930–933
- Apollodorus, 3.15.4
- Pindar, Olympian Odes 7.14
- Apollodorus, 2.5.11
- Servius, Commentary on Virgil's Aeneid 3.420
- Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 40a as cited in Oxyrhynchus Papyri 1358 fr. 2
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 8.25.7, 8.42.1.
- Apollodorus, 3.6.8; Pausanias, 8.25.5 & 8.25.7
- Herodorus, fr. 62 Fowler (Fowler 2000, p. 253), apud schol. Pindar, Olympian Odes 7.24–5; Fowler 2013, p. 591
- Giovanni Boccaccio's Famous Women translated by Virginia Brown 2001; Cambridge and London, Harvard University Press; ISBN 0-674-01130-9; p. 42
- Apollodorus, 2.4.2.
- Suida, Suda Encyclopedia s.v. Ergiske
- Apollodorus, 3.10.3.
- Apollodorus, 3.10.1.
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 2.30.7
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 9.22.5
- Hyginus, Fabulae 157
- Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Ode 10.83 quoted in Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 64
- Apollodorus, 3.14.2.
- Hyginus, Fabulae 188
- Tzetzes on Lycophron, 875
- also said to be the daughter of Ergeus
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 2.12.4
- Apollodorus, 3.12.6.
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 10.6.13
- Apollodorus, 3.15.4
- Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.72.3
- Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 5.55
- Plutarch, Quaestiones Graecae 19
- Apollodorus, 2.5.9.
- Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Aspledon
- Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Astakos, with a reference to Arrian
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 2.2.2
- Hyginus, Fabulae 175
- Scholia on Homer, Iliad 2.517
- Scholia on Theocritus, Idylls 7.76
- Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.72.1–5
- Probus on Virgil's Georgics 2.197
- Homer, Odyssey 1.70–73
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 7.4.8
- Hyginus, Fabulae 157
- Hyginus, Fabulae 14
- Tzetzes on Lycophron, Alexandra 1206
- Hyginus, Fabulae 187
- Scholia on Homer, Iliad 2.499
- Apollodorus, 2.1.5, 2.7.4; Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 1.133–139; Hyginus, Fabulae 14, 169.
- Plutarch, Parallela minora 38
- Apollodorus, 2.5.11.
- Apollodorus, 3.10.3.
- Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 4.67.3–4
- Hyginus, Fabulae 186
- Hyginus, Fabulae 186
- Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9. 29. 1
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 7.4.1
- Apollodorus, 2.7.1.
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 2.5.7
- Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Ode 2.147
- Tzetzes on Lycophron, Alexandra 232
- Murray, John (1833). A Classical Manual, being a Mythological, Historical and Geographical Commentary on Pope's Homer, and Dryden's Aeneid of Virgil with a Copious Index. Albemarle Street, London. p. 78.
- Apollodorus, 1.7.4
- Strabo, Geographica 12.8.18
- Tzetzes on Lycophron, Alexandra 838
- Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Byzantion
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 9.36.4
- Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3.1094
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 13.328 ff.
- Plato, Critias 113d-144c
- Tzetzes, Chiliades 2.43
- Hyginus, Fabulae 14; Pindar, Pythian Ode 4.45
- John Lempière, Argonautae
- Apollodorus, 1.4.3.
- Scholia on Homer, Odyssey 11.326 = Hesiod, fr. 62 (Loeb edition, 1914)
- Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.230-3b
- Scholia on Pindar, Pythian Odes 4.122
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 5.1.8
- Conon, Narrations 14
- Hesiod, Ehoiai fr. 7
- Apollodorus, 1.9.3
- Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Almopia
- Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Catasterismi 19; Hyginus, Poeticon astronomicon 2.20
- Apollodorus, 2.4.5
- Homer, Odyssey 11.305–8
- Apollodorus, Epitome 1.2
- Tripp, Edward. The Meridian Handbook of Classical Mythology. Meridian, 1970, p. 522.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Antiquitates Romanae 1.17.3
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 2.30.5
- Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 2.1.4.
- Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 2.1.4.
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 1.44.3
- Tzetzes on Lycophron, Alexandra 208
- Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Dyrrhakhion
- Apollodorus, 2.7.2
- Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Mytilene
- Conon, Narrations 10
- Homer, Odyssey 7.56–57
- Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Torōnē
- Tzetzes on Lycophron, Alexandra 923
- Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica 5.53.1
- Apollodorus, 4.68.3
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 1.14.3
- Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 2.5.10.
- eponym of Dicaea, a city in Thrace as cited in Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Dikaia
- Conon, Narrations 17
- Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.216
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 9.29.5
- eponym of a river in Thessaly as cited in Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.596
- Scholia on Statius, Thebaid 1.34
- Pseudo-Plutarch, De fluviis 21.1
- Apollodorus, 2.88
- Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Kalaureia
- Aelian, Varia Historia 1.24
- Hyginus, Fabulae, 38.
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 2.1.3
- Hesiod, Theogony 817–819
- Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.185, 2.896.
- Apollodorus, 2.5.10
- Antoninus Liberalis. Metamorphoses, 22 vs Cerambus Archived 2 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine
- Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica s.v. Gerēn
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 10.12.1
- Eustathius ad Homer, Odyssey p. 1649
- Virgil, Aeneid 7.691
- Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio 9.26.5
- Pseudo-Plutarch, De fluviis 11.1
- Apollodorus, 1.9.21
- Suda s.v. Phorbanteion
- Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.179
- Apollodorus, 3.1.1
- Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Odes 14.5
- Hyginus, Fabulae 161
- This chart is based upon Hesiod's Theogony, unless otherwise noted.
- According to Homer, Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey 8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
- According to Hesiod, Theogony 927–929 Archived 5 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Hephaestus was produced by Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.
- According to Hesiod, Theogony 886–890 Archived 5 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena "from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84.
- According to Hesiod, Theogony 183–200 Archived 5 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Aphrodite was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
- According to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus (Iliad 3.374, 20.105 Archived 2 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine; Odyssey 8.308 Archived 2 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine, 320) and Dione (Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
- The ancient palace-city that was replaced by Vergina
- Beyond the Poseidon Adventure, Paul Gallico
- Andreeva, Nellie (19 December 2014). "Ernie Hudson To Play Poseidon On 'Once Upon a Time'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- "God Of War: 15 Gods Kratos Took Down & How He Did It". TheGamer. 10 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
- "SMITE – Poseidon". www.smitegame.com. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
- "Boeing: P-8".
- "Russia is Building Four Special Submarines to Haul Its Weird Doomsday Drone". Forbes.
- Apollodorus, Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. ISBN 0-674-99135-4. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Apollonius of Rhodes, Apollonius Rhodius: the Argonautica, translated by Robert Cooper Seaton, W. Heinemann, 1912. Internet Archive.
- Burkert, Walter (1983), Homo Necans, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1983. ISBN 978-0-520-05875-0.
- Burkert, Walter (1985), Greek Religion, Wiley-Blackwell 1985. ISBN 978-0-631-15624-6. Internet Archive.
- Dietrich, B. C., The Origins of Greek Religion, Bristol Phoenix Press, 2004. ISBN 978-1-904675-31-0.
- Diodorus Siculus, Library of History, Volume III: Books 4.59-8, translated by C. H. Oldfather, Loeb Classical Library No. 340. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1939. ISBN 978-0-674-99375-4. Online version at Harvard University Press. Online version by Bill Thayer.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Roman Antiquities, Volume I: Books 1–2, translated by Earnest Cary. Loeb Classical Library No. 319. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1937. Online version by Bill Thayer. Online version at Harvard University Press.
- Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2).
- Halieutica in Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus. Oppian, Colluthus, and Tryphiodorus. Translated by A. W. Mair, edited by W. H. D. Rouse. Loeb Classical Library 219. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1928.
- Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, Massachusetts., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Homer, The Iliad with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PhD in two volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Homer; The Odyssey with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Hyginus, Gaius Julius, De Astronomica, in The Myths of Hyginus, edited and translated by Mary A. Grant, Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1960. Online version at ToposText.
- Hyginus, Gaius Julius, Fabulae, in The Myths of Hyginus, edited and translated by Mary A. Grant, Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1960. Online version at ToposText.
- Janda, Michael, Eleusis. Das indogermanische Erbe der Mysterien, Innsbruck 2000, pp. 256–258 (Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft, vol. 96)
- Jenks, Kathleen (April 2003). "Mythic themes clustered around Poseidon/Neptune". Myth*ing links. Archived from the original on 27 September 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
- Ovid, Heroides in Heroides. Amores. Translated by Grant Showerman. Revised by G. P. Goold. Loeb Classical Library No. 41. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1977. ISBN 978-0-674-99045-6. Online version at Harvard University Press.
- Ovid, Metamorphoses, Brookes More, Boston, Cornhill Publishing Co. 1922. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Pausanias, Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1918. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Plato, Cratylus in Plato in Twelve Volumes, Vol. 12 translated by Harold N. Fowler, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1925. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Plato, Critias in Plato in Twelve Volumes, Vol. 9 translated by W.R.M. Lamb, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1925. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Seelig, Beth J. (August 2002), "The Rape of Medusa in the Temple of Athena: Aspects of Triangulation in the Girl", The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 83 (4): 895–911, doi:10.1516/3NLL-UG13-TP2J-927M, PMID 12204171, S2CID 28961886
- Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, London (1873). Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Strabo, Geography, Editors, H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A., London. George Bell & Sons. 1903. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Tzetzes, John, Scolia eis Lycophroon, edited by Christian Gottfried Müller, Sumtibus F.C.G. Vogelii, 1811. Internet Archive.
- Virgil, Aeneid, Theodore C. Williams. trans. Boston. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1910. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article "Poseidon".|