Posidonia

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For other uses, see Posidonia (disambiguation).
Posidonia
Posidonia 2 Alberto Romeo.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Alismatales
Family: Posidoniaceae
Hutch.[1]
Genus: Posidonia
K.D.Koenig
Species

See text.

Posidonia oceanica range map.png
Posidonia distribution range

Posidonia is a genus of flowering plants. It contains nine species of marine plants [2]) ("seagrass"), found in the seas of the Mediterranean and around the south coast of Australia.

The APG system (1998) and APG II system (2003) accept this genus as constituting the sole genus in the family Posidoniaceae, which it places in the order Alismatales, in the clade monocots. The AP-Website concludes that the three families Cymodoceaceae, Posidoniaceae and Ruppiaceae form a monophyletic group. Earlier systems classified this genus in the family Potamogetonaceae or in the family Posidoniaceae but belonging to order Zosterales.

Species[edit]

This is a list of species that are nominally contained by the genus:[3]

The species described by Linnaeus, Posidonia oceanica, is found in the Mediterranean; the rest are located around the southern coast of Australia. Some species are endemic seagrasses of Western Australia, all the Australian species are found in that region's diverse habitats. This arrangement was divided into two complexes: the Posidonia australis and Posidonia ostenfeldii groups.[7] Some species descriptions may only be regional characteristics, and may need further revision.[3][8]

In 2006 a huge clonal colony of P. oceanica was discovered south of the island of Ibiza. At 8 km across and possibly up to 100,000 years of age, it may be one of the largest and oldest clonal colonies on Earth.[9]

Taxonomy[edit]

Marine grasses families: Zosteraceae, Cymodoceaceae, Ruppiaceae and Posidoniaceae. Related families: Potamogetonaceae and (and sometimes including) Zannichelliaceae.

Families and Genera crosses (Sea grasses)
Kubitzki (ed. 1998[10]) Watson & Dallwitz (delta-intkey)[11] data.kew[12] APWeb (mobot.org)[13]
Zosteraceae
1. Zostera L. Zostera Zostera L. Zostera L. (including Heterozostera den Hartog, Macrozostera Tomlinson & Posluzny, Nanozostera Tomlinson & Posluzny, Zosterella J. K. Small)
2. Heterozostera den Hartog Heterozostera Heterozostera (Setch.) Hartog (in Zostera)
3. Phyllospadix Hook. Phyllospadix Phyllospadix Hook. Phyllospadix J. D. Hooker
Cymodoceaceae
1. Syringodium Kütz Syringodium Syringodium Kutz. (in Cymodocea)
2. Halodule Endl. Halodule Halodule Endl. Halodule Endlicher
3. Cymodocea König Cymodocea Cymodocea K.Koenig (including Phycoschoenus (Asch.) Nakai ) Cymodocea König (including Amphibolis Agardh ?, Syringodium Kütz. ?, Thalassodendron den Hartog ?)
4. Amphibolis Agardh Amphibolis Amphibolis C.Agardh (including Pectinella J.M.Black) (in Cymodocea)
5. Thalassodendron de Hartog (name not found) Thalassodendron Hartog (in Cymodocea)
Ruppiaceae
Ruppia L. Ruppia (in Ruppia L. in Potamogetonaceae) Ruppia L.
Posidoniaceae
Posidonia König Posidonia Posidonia K.Koenig Posidonia König
Families and Genera crosses (Potamogetonaceae)
Kubitzki (ed. 1998[10]) Watson & Dallwitz (delta-intkey)[14] data.kew[15] APWeb (mobot.org)[16]
Potamogetonaceae
1. Potamogeton L. Potamogeton Potamogeton L. Potamogeton L. (including Coleogeton Les & Haynes, Stuckenia Börner)
2. Groenlandia J. Gray Groenlandia Groenlandia J.Gay Groenlandia J. Gay
(in Ruppia in Ruppiaceae) (in Ruppia in Ruppiaceae) Ruppia L. (in Ruppia in Ruppiaceae)
(in Althenia: Zannichelliaceae and Lepilaena: Zannichelliaceae) (in Althenia: Zannichelliaceae and Lepilaena: Zannichelliaceae) (in Althenia F.Petit: Zannichelliaceae and Lepilaena J.L.Drumm. ex Harv.:Zannichelliaceae) Althenia Petit (including Lepilaena Harvey)
(in Pseudalthenia including Vleisia: Zannichelliaceae) (in Pseudalthenia: Zannichelliaceae and Vleisia: Zannichelliaceae) (Pseudalthenia not found, Vleisia Toml. & Posl.: Zannichelliaceae) Pseudalthenia Nakai (including Vleisia Tomlinson & Posluszny)
(in Zannichellia L.: Zannichelliaceae) (in Zannichellia: Zannichelliaceae) (in Zannichellia L.: Zannichelliaceae) Zannichellia L.
Zannichelliaceae
1. Zannichellia L. Zannichellia Zannichellia L. (in Zannichellia L.: Potamogetonaceae)
2. Pseudalthenia Nakai (including Vleisia) Pseudalthenia (excluding Vleisia) (name not found) (in Pseudalthenia: Potamogetonaceae)
3. Althenia Petit (excluding Lepilaena Drumm. ex. Harv.) Althenia (excluding Lepilaena) Althenia F.Petit (excluding Lepilaena J.L.Drumm. ex Harv.) Althenia Petit (including Lepilaena Harvey)
4. Lepilaena Drumm. ex. Harv. Lepilaena Lepilaena J.L.Drumm. ex Harv. (in Althenia Petit)
(in Pseudalthenia) Vleisia Vleisia Toml. & Posl. (in Pseudalthenia: Potamogetonaceae)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  2. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1. 
  3. ^ a b Mike van Keulen. "The genus Posidonia König (nom. cons.) (Posidoniaceae).". Murdoch University. 
  4. ^ Cambridge, M.L. and Kuo, J. (1979) Two new species of seagrass from Australia, Posidonia sinuosa and Posidonia angustifolia (Posidoniaceae). Aquat. Bot. 6, 307-328 f. Keulen
  5. ^ Kuo, J. and Cambridge, M.L. (1984) A taxonomic study of the Posidonia ostenfeldii complex (Posidoniaceae) with descriptions of four new Australian seagrasses. Aquat. Bot. 20, 267-95. f. Keulen
  6. ^ den Hartog, C. (1970) Seagrasses of the World. Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetens. Afd. Naturk. Ser. 2 59:139 f. Keulen
  7. ^ Kuo, J. and McComb, A.J. (1989) In: "Biology of Seagrasses. A treatise on the biology of seagrasses with special reference to the Australian region." (Eds. A.W.D. Larkum, A.J. McComb, S.A. Shepherd) (Aquatic Plant Studies 2) (Elsevier, Amsteredam). p. 6-73 f. Keulen
  8. ^ Campey, M.L.; Waycott M.; Kendrick G.A. (January 2000). "Re-evaluating species boundaries among members of the Posidonia ostenfeldii species complex (Posidoniaceae) - morphological and genetic variation". Aquatic Botany. 66 (1): 41–56(16) Research article. doi:10.1016/S0304-3770(99)00015-7. [dead link]
  9. ^ Ibiza Spotlight (28 May 2006). "Ibiza's Monster Marine Plant". Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  10. ^ a b Kubitzki (ed.) 1998. The families and genera of vascular plants, vol 4, Monocotyledons: Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae). Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  11. ^ Watson & Dallwitz. Zosteraceae. The families of flowering plants. http://delta-intkey.com/angio/www/zosterac.htm
  12. ^ Vascular Plant Families and Genera. List of genera in family CYMODOCEACEAE (accessed 2016-06-02) http://data.kew.org/cgi-bin/vpfg1992/genlist.pl?CYMODOCEACEAE
  13. ^ VASCULAR PLANT FAMILIES and GENERA. List of Genera in CYMODOCEACEAE (accessed 2016-06-02) http://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/orders/alismatalesweb.htm#Cymodoceaceael
  14. ^ Watson & Dallwitz. Potamogetonaceae. The families of flowering plants. http://delta-intkey.com/angio/www/potamoge.htm
  15. ^ Vascular Plant Families and Genera. List of genera in family POTAMOGETONACEAE (accessed 2016-06-02) http://data.kew.org/cgi-bin/vpfg1992/genlist.pl?POTAMOGETONACEAE
  16. ^ VASCULAR PLANT FAMILIES and GENERA. List of Genera in POTAMOGETONACEAE (accessed 2016-06-02) http://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/orders/alismatalesweb.htm#Potamogetonaceae

External links[edit]

Media related to Posidonia at Wikimedia Commons