Positioning refers to the place that a brand occupies in the mind of the customer and how it is distinguished from products from competitors. In order to position products or brands, companies may emphasize the distinguishing features of their brand (what it is, what it does and how, etc.) or they may try to create a suitable image (inexpensive or premium, utilitarian or luxurious, entry-level or high-end, etc.) through the marketing mix. Once a brand has achieved a strong position, it can become difficult to reposition it.
Positioning is one of the most powerful marketing concepts. Originally, positioning focused on the product and with Ries and Trout grew to include building a product's reputation and ranking among competitor's products. Primarily, it is about "the place a brand occupies in the mind of its target audience". Positioning is now a regular marketing activity or strategy. A national positioning strategy can often be used, or modified slightly, as a tool for to accommodate entering into foreign markets.
It has also be called product positioning, but that is a limiting description because it focuses on the product itself, while the positioning marketing technique focuses on the minds of the consumers.
- 1 Origins
- 2 Definitions
- 3 Developing the positioning statement
- 4 Positioning process
- 5 Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
- 6 Positioning concepts
- 7 Persuasive techniques
- 8 Repositioning a company
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
Several large brands—Lipton, Kraft, and Tide—developed "precisely worded" positioning statements that guided how products would be packaged, promoted and advertised in the 1950s and 1960s. The article, "How Brands Were Born: A Brief History of Modern Marketing," states "This marked the start of almost 50 years of marketing where 'winning' was determined by understanding the consumer better than your competitors and the getting the total 'brand mix' right. Advertising guru, David Ogilvy, stated in an article in 1963 that he believed that "the most important decision is how to position your product". This early positioning tactic was focused on the product itself—its "form, package size, and price", according to Al Ries and Jack Trout
According to Stephen A. Fox, Al Ries and Jack Trout "resurrected the concept and made it their trademark. They stated that positioning means focusing on the consumer, rather than oneself. In addition to the previous focus on the product, positioning now includes building a brand's reputation and competitive standing. Ries and Trout, former advertising executives, published articles about positioning in Industrial Marketing in 1969 and Advertising Age in 1972. By the early 1970s, positioning became a popular word with marketers, especially those in advertising and promotion. In 1981, Ries and Trout published their classic book, Positioning - The Battle for Your Mind. John P. Maggard notes that positioning provides planners with a valuable conceptual vehicle for implementation of more meaningful and productive marketing strategies.
David Ogilvy noted that while there was no real consensus as to the meaning of positioning among marketing experts, his definition is what a "product does, and who it is for". For instance, Dove has been successfully positioned as bars of soap for women with dry hands, vs. a product for men with dirty hands.
Ries and Trout advanced several definitions of positioning. In an article Industrial Marketing, published in 1969, Jack Trout stated that positioning a mental device used by consumers to simplify information inputs and store new information in a logical place. He said this is important because the typical consumer is overwhelmed with unwanted advertising, and has a natural tendency to discard all information that does not immediately find a comfortable (and empty) slot in their mind. In Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind, the duo expanded the definition as "an organized system for finding a window in the mind. It is based on the concept that communication can only take place at the right time and under the right circumstances".
Value can be expressed in numerous forms including product benefits, features, style, value for money 
Developing the positioning statement
Geoffrey Moore stated in his book, Crossing the Chasm, that the position statement should include identification of the target market, the market need, the product name and category, the key benefit delivered and the basis of the product's differentiation from any competing alternatives. Positioning statements should be written in the following format: "For (target customer) who (statement of the need or opportunity), the (product name) is a (product category) that (statement of key benefit – that is, compelling reason to buy). Unlike (primary competitive alternative), our product (statement of primary differentiation)."
Differentiation is how a companies product is unique, by being the first, least expensive, or another distinguishing factor. Whatever it is a business can use to stand out from the rest is called differentiation.
To be successful in a particular market a product must occupy an “explicit, distinct and proper place in the minds of all potential and existing consumers”. It has to also be relative to other rival products on the market of which is has to compete with.
Visibility and recognition is what product positioning is all about as the positioning of a product is what the product represents for a buyer the business is targeting. In this day and age markets are showing an increase in the intensity of rivalries and competition, which gives the buyer a greater choice and identification of the products certain intrinsic values that then become critical for the company to gain customer purchase of their products. It is vital that a product or service needs to have a clear identity and placement to the needs of the consumers targeted as they will not only purchase the product, but can warrant a larger margin for the company through increased added value.
Generally, the brand positioning process involves segmentation, targeting and positioning.
A central point to a marketing strategy is market segmentation, this makes segmentation a key decision area for organisations in all sectors. Segmentation involves using groups of customers together that have similar preferences in products and buying behaviour which helps the business’ in dealing with market heterogeneity, this then goes on to help the business’ focus resources on relatively homogeneous customer segments and so ensuring there is efficient allocation of resources.
A segmentation-driven marketing strategy can help companies design products that are responsive, promotional tactics and campaigns developments that are effective, scale of competitive positions and fine-tune current marketing plans or ideas. Marketers must also recognize that a segmentation-driven strategy is generally more costly than mass marketing and brings a major commitment by management for “customer-oriented planning, research, implementation, and control”.
- Characteristics of the customers (male, female, rich, poor, etc.)
- Benefits sought
- Systematic Product Related Behavior (by purchasing behavior or by channel)
- Cohort Analysis
- Geographic Segmentation
Targeting is the process of evaluating the attractiveness of each segment and choose a target. In order to select a target segment, firms must first balance attractiveness with capability and monitor whether actual buyers match the target segment.
One of the core parts of marketing is targeting. In the marketing strategy, targeting represents a particular stage in the process that is based on the selection of the specific segment to enter engagement with. Different customers have a variety of desires and interests in terms of buying behaviour, their needs, and benefits it can be sometimes near impossible to satisfy all customer segments with a unique value proposition.
The process through which a company engages in seeking and defining the desired customer and then develops its value proposition to reach the mind of customers is all apart of segmentation, targeting and positioning (STP) process. The foundation of positioning theory is made of one of the most important postulates of the science of marketing. Scholars Groucutt, Leanly, & Forsyth, (2004) state that “people are extremely diverse and that a product can not be liked equally by everyone” (p. 98). Referring to the postulate it is simple to define what the STP model is all about. The STP model states that for a customer to like the product we have to present the product to those consumers, who want it and are able to actually acquire that product. The STP models first two steps help us to find and define the desired consumer and correct positioning plays for us to place the product in the minds of the targeted consumers, putting it in a more desirable position.
Characteristics that may make a segment attractive include, segment size, growth, value and stability. Another is the ease of entry, or ease of competitive entry, as well as the number and strengths of the competitors. Lastly, the current company position within the segment is a characteristic.
Positioning is the process of identifying concepts for each target segment, select the best and communicate it.
Positioning strategies help shape a consumers preferences which is a major source in guiding them towards a particular brand. It is essential to assess and analyse the consumers behaviour and psyche of how they will or already do perceive the offered brand by recalling the company’s communications with them such as advertising or any marketing campaigns. The right positioning strategy at right time is what can help a brand build the right image of itself in the mind of consumer(s). Fishbein and Rosenberg’s attitude models would be good examples of what is called, quantitative approaches. These models indicate that it is possible for a business to influence and likely change the positioning of the brand by manipulating various factors that will affect a consumer’s attitude with the brand or company. Research on persons’ attitudes suggests that a brand's position in a prospective consumer’s mind is likely to be determined by the “combined total of a number of product characteristics such as the price, quality, durability, reliability, colour, and flavour”. The consumer places important weights on each of these product characteristics and it can be possible by using things such as promotional efforts to realign the weights of price, quality, durability, reliability, colour and flavour of which can then help adjust the position of a brand in the mind of the prospective consumer.
Positioning is something (perception) that happens in the minds of the target market. It is the aggregate perception the market has of a particular company, product or service in relation to their perceptions of the competitors in the same category. An important concept in positioning is that it expects that consumers compare and analyze products in the marketplace, whether based on features of the product itself (quality, multiple uses, etc.), price, and/or packaging and image.
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
To position a brand, candidate, or idea/ideology you must communicate messages which resonate to the forefront of a receptor’s mind. Communication of the brand relies on occupying the niche which appeals to the conviction of a receptor’s narrative. A model in which we use to cater these messages is best known as The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). This works alongside with Psychology, to deduce that there are two pathways of persuasive messages: Central, and Peripheral.
Traditional persuasion modelling assumes that persuasion occurs when receptors learn a message. Learning isn’t always part of persuasion, in that a receptor may dislike or disagree with a message, detest the brand/product/service, and may only receive the beginning of the message in which the receptor associates other memories as they were distracted, and don’t participate in the absorption of the initially intended message. The model indicates that prior to purchasing a high-involvement product, or engaging with a brand consciously, a receptor must process all given content, and carefully constructed a perception.
Cognitive Response Model (CRM)
States that receivers can be conscious reactive members in the persuasion process. The main theme of the CRM, is that persuasion isn’t directly caused by messages; but by thoughts which agree with the message – to align attitude of recipient, is to provide messages which build up their intuitional belief system; the receiver requires both motivation and competency to process the information centrally. “If the listener is distracted or has trouble understanding the message, he or she will lack the ability to do the central processing.”. There are two elementary renditions of CRM: Chaiken, and Heuristic and Systemic Processing Theory.
Peripheral Response Model (PRM)
Communicating the brand’s messages/ideas to the receptors involves a complex methodology of persuasion. A Peripheral route to persuasion is when a receptor’s attitude is adjusted and/or aligned by other cues (such as emotionally appealing music) rather than the message itself. The Peripheral Response Model (PRM), is formed when recipients elect an assumption with lesser active processing than the CRM.
Criticisms for ELM
Some criticisms for ELM exist for brand positioning and has adapted since 1968, in that traditional methods of communication revolve around the theory that consumers require deliberate intervention with the brand. It assumes that to communicate and persuade a receptor, is to communicate through the two designated routes. It fails to take into account that communication isn’t something that is done to the receptor, rather, the receptor co-created within reality – abstract to customer centrality perceived by salespeople.
More generally, there are three types of positioning concepts: functional, symbolic, and experiential position. Functional positions resolve problems, provide benefits to customers, or get favorable perception by investors (stock profile) and lenders. Symbolic positions address self-image enhancement, ego identification, belongingness and social meaningfulness, and affective fulfillment. Experiential positions provide sensory and cognitive stimulation.
Delivery of the aforementioned routes of persuasion is catered to the rendering and unique qualities which make up groups of persuasive powers. There are 5 main groups: Primary, Secondary, Aspirational, Dissociative, and Formal. The strongest primary band to shape the attitude of individuals is the family, but other groups can doctrine a belief system too. This group is most responsible for developing societal conform, shaping attitudes, and at its most elemental – forms the systemic institution in which an individual’s perception of the world exists. A secondary class of individuals or group are those whose influences aren’t as severely impacting to the individual’s narrative, and mostly align with their predisposed ideas - such as sports groups, political parties, charities, education facilities, etc. The third group is known as the aspirational group, where the individual aspires/desires to join this group, so shapes their perceptions to increase the likelihood on being accepted as a member. This can be observed closer in the behaviours of adolescent youths, in that they shape their opinions in favour of becoming a member of a peer group, and is lead on the ambition of becoming more endowed; financial and power. The fourth group – the Dissociative class – are the groups in which the individuals do not partake, or wish to involve themselves with. This can take many forms, but a common example is a stereotype; a person will go to great lengths to avoid being grouped with others under this segregated opinion. Previous studies have confirmed, that in the case of minority groups, members may avoid behaviours or clothing which reinforce the image of their perceived stereotype, which in turn may lead to reverse stereotype confirmation.
Repositioning a company
In volatile markets, it can be necessary - even urgent - to reposition an entire company, rather than just a product line or brand. When Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley suddenly shifted from investment to commercial banks, for example, the expectations of investors, employees, clients and regulators all needed to shift, and each company needed to influence how these perceptions changed. Doing so involves repositioning the entire firm.
This is especially true of small and medium-sized firms, many of which often lack strong brands for individual product lines. In a prolonged recession, business approaches that were effective during healthy economies often become ineffective and it becomes necessary to change a firm's positioning. Upscale restaurants, for example, which previously flourished on expense account dinners and corporate events, may for the first time need to stress value as a sale tool.
Repositioning a company involves more than a marketing challenge. It involves making hard decisions about how a market is shifting and how a firm's competitors will react. Often these decisions must be made without the benefit of sufficient information, simply because the definition of "volatility" is that change becomes difficult or impossible to predict.
Positioning is however difficult to measure, in the sense that customer perception of a product may not have been tested on quantitative measures.
- Andrei, P; Ecaterina, B, R; Ionut, T. C (2010). "Does Positioning Have a Place in the Minds of our Students?". Annals of the University of Oradea, Economic Science Series.
- Maggard, John P. (1976-01-01). "Positioning Revisited". Journal of Marketing. 40 (1): 63–66. doi:10.2307/1250678. JSTOR 1250678.
- Sandra Bell (March 29, 2008). International Brand Management of Chinese Companies: Case Studies on the Chinese Household Appliances and Consumer Electronics Industry Entering US and Western European Markets. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 26. ISBN 978-3-7908-2030-0.
- Al Ries; Jack Trout (January 3, 2001). Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind. McGraw Hill Professional. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-07-170587-5.
- Marc de Swaan Aron (October 3, 2011). "How Brands Were Born: A Brief History of Modern Marketing". The Atlantic. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
- Ogilvy, D., Confessions of an Advertising Man, 1963
- Stephen R. Fox (1984). The Mirror Makers: A History of American Advertising and Its Creators. University of Illinois Press. p. 324. ISBN 978-0-252-06659-7.
- T. Ellson (March 16, 2004). Culture and Positioning as Determinants of Strategy: Personality and the Business Organization. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-230-50981-8.
- David Ogilvy (September 11, 2013). Ogilvy on Advertising. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. PT17. ISBN 978-0-8041-7005-5.
- Jack Trout (1969). "Positioning" is a game people play in today's me-too market place". Industrial Marketing: 51–55.
- Al Ries; Jack Trout (2001). Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind. McGraw Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-137358-6.
- marketing. 2011. p. 147.
- Geoffrey Moore (1991). Crossing the Chasm. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0887305199.
- Ostasevičiūtė, R; Šliburytė, L (February 2008). "Theoretical Aspects of Product Positioning in the Market". Engineering Economics.
- "Introduction to Marketing - University of Pennsylvania". Wharton - University of Pennsylvania.
- Weinstein, A (2004). Handbook of market segmentation: Strategic targeting for business and technology firms. Haworth Press. pp. 3–20.
- Venter, Peet; Wright, Alex; Dibb, Sally (2015-01-02). "Performing market segmentation: a performative perspective". Journal of Marketing Management. 31 (1-2): 62–83. doi:10.1080/0267257X.2014.980437. ISSN 0267-257X.
- Smith, Wendell R. (1956-01-01). "Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Marketing Strategies". Journal of Marketing. 21 (1): 3–8. doi:10.2307/1247695. JSTOR 1247695.
- Maimon, O; Rokach, L (2005). Data mining and knowledge discovery handbook. New York: Springer.
- Sanfelice, Gaetano (2014-04-01). "Hit with One Shot: Assessing the Drivers of Target Marketing Effectiveness". Knowledge and Process Management. 21 (2): 143–148. doi:10.1002/kpm.1441. ISSN 1099-1441.
- Sally Dibb; Lyndon Simkin (1991-03-01). "Targeting, segments and positioning". International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management. 19 (3). doi:10.1108/09590559110143800. ISSN 0959-0552.
- Dennis J. Cahill (1997-02-01). "Target marketing and segmentation: valid and useful tools for marketing". Management Decision. 35 (1): 10–13. doi:10.1108/00251749710160133. ISSN 0025-1747.
- Groucutt, J; Leadley, P; Forsyth, P (2004). Marketing: essential principles, new realities. London, Sterling: Kogan Page.
- Sair, S. A (2014). "Consumer Psyche and Positioning Strategies". Pakistan Journal of Commerce & Social Sciences.
- Ray, Michael L. (1973-01-01). "A Decision Sequence Analysis of Developments in Marketing Communication". Journal of Marketing. 37 (1): 29–38. doi:10.2307/1250772. JSTOR 1250772.
- Charles Lamb (2012). Essentials of Marketing (7e ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. pp. 279–82. ISBN 978-0-538-47834-2.
- Larson, C. U. (2009). Persuasion: Reception and Responsibility. Cengage Learning.
- Blythe, Jim (2009). Key Concepts in Marketing. London: Sage Publications. ISBN 978-1-84787-498-6.
- Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1984). "The effects of involvement on responses to argument quantity and quality: Central and peripheral routes to persuasion". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: 46, 69–81.
- Bencit, William. "Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM); Two "Routes" to Persuasion". CIOS Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2016-03-31.
- Shavitt, Swan, Lowrey, & Wanke (1994). "The interaction of endorser attractiveness and involvement in persuasion depends on the goal that guides message processing.". Journal of Consumer Psychology: 3, 137–162.
- Zhu, Min (2012). Business, Economics, Financial Sciences, and Management - Springer. Springer Science & Business Media. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-27966-9.
- Perloff & Brock (1980). 'And thinking makes it so': Cognitive responses to persuasion. Persuasion: New directions in theory and research. Sage Publications. pp. 67–99.
- Bencit, W. L. (1987). "Southern Speech Communication Journal". Arguement and credibility appeals in persuasion: 181–197.
- Pfau, Michael; Price, James; Dillard (2002). The Persuasion Handbook: Developments in Theory and Practice. Wisconsin-Madison: Sage Publications.
- Raffia, Muhammed; Ahmed, Peter (1992). The Marketing Mix Reconsidered. Salford: Marketing Education Group. pp. 430–451.
- Baize, Dr. Robert D. (2011). Religious Addiction: Doctrine or Denial. Raleigh: Lulu Enterprises. pp. 39, 42–47, 51.
- Elliot, Andrew J (2013). Group, Taylor & Francis, ed. Handbook of Approach and Avoidance Motivation. New York: Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-8058-6019-1.
- Business Dictionary, Definition of Positioning, Online: http://www.businessdictionary.com
- Trout, J., "Positioning" is a Game People Play in Today’s me-too Market Place," Industrial Marketing, Vol.54, No.6, (June) 1969, pp 51–55.
- Ries, A. and Trout, J., Positioning, The battle for your mind, New York, Warner Books - McGraw-Hill Inc., 1981, ISBN 0-446-34794-9
- Trout, J. and Rivkin, S., The New Positioning : The Latest on the World's #1 Business Strategy, McGraw Hill, New York, 1996, ISBN 0-07-065291-0
- Moore, G., Crossing the Chasm, Harper Collins, 1991.
- Levi, K., Differentiate or Diminish: The Art and Necessity of Business Positioning, 2nd ed., Greenstock, 2011