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Post-anarchism or postanarchism is an anarchist philosophy that employs post-structuralist and postmodernist approaches (the term post-structuralist anarchism is used as well, so as not to suggest having moved beyond anarchism). Post-anarchism is not a single coherent theory, but rather refers to the combined works of any number of post-modernists and post-structuralists such as Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Jacques Lacan, Jacques Derrida, Jean Baudrillard; postmodern feminists such as Judith Butler; and alongside those of classical anarchist and libertarian philosophers such as Zhuang Zhou, Emma Goldman, Max Stirner, and Friedrich Nietzsche. Thus, the terminology can vary widely in both approach and outcome.
|Preceded by Modernism|
|Criticism of postmodernism|
The term "post-anarchism" was coined by philosopher of post-left anarchy Hakim Bey in his 1987 essay "Post-Anarchism Anarchy". Bey argued that anarchism had become insular and sectarian, confusing the various anarchist schools of thought for the real experience of lived anarchy. In 1994, academic philosopher Todd May initiated what he called "poststructuralist anarchism", arguing for a theory grounded in the post-structuralist understanding of power, particularly through the work of Michel Foucault and Emma Goldman, while taking the anarchist approach to ethics.
The "Lacanian anarchism" proposed by Saul Newman utilizes the works of Jacques Lacan and Max Stirner more prominently. Newman criticizes classical anarchists, such as Michael Bakunin and Peter Kropotkin, for assuming an objective "human nature" and a natural order; he argues that from this approach, humans progress and are well-off by nature, with only the Establishment as a limitation that forces behavior otherwise. For Newman, this is a Manichaen worldview, which depicts the reversal of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan, in which the "good" state is subjugated by the "evil" people.
Lewis Call has attempted to develop post-anarchist theory through the work of Friedrich Nietzsche, rejecting the Cartesian concept of the "subject." From here, a radical form of anarchism is made possible: the anarchism of becoming. This anarchism does not have an eventual goal, nor does it flow into "being"; it is not a final state of development, nor a static form of society, but rather becomes permanent, as a means without end. Italian autonomist Giorgio Agamben has also written about this idea. In this respect it is similar to the "complex systems" view of emerging society known as panarchy. Call critiques liberal notions of language, consciousness, and rationality from an anarchist perspective, arguing that they are inherent in economic and political power within the capitalist state organization.
- Rousselle, Duane and Evren, Süreyyya (eds) Post-Anarchism: A Reader. London: Pluto Press. (2011)
- Call, Lewis (2002). Postmodern Anarchism. Lexington: Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0522-1.
- Fabbri, Lorenzo. "From Inoperativeness to Action: On Giorgio Agamben’s Anarchism", "Radical Philosophy Review," Volume 4, Number 1, 2011.
- Ferguson, Kathy (1984). The Feminist Case against Bureaucracy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 0-87722-400-5.
- Franks, Benjamin (June 2007). "Postanarchism: A critical assessment". Journal of Political Ideologies. Routledge. 12 (2). ISSN 1356-9317.
- May, Todd (1994). The Political Philosophy of Poststructuralist Anarchism. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01046-0.
- Mümken, Jürgen (2003). Freiheit, Individualität und Subjektivität. Staat und Subjekt in der Postmoderne aus anarchistischer Perspektive. Frankfurt am Main: Edition AV. ISBN 3-936049-12-2.
- Mümken (editor), Jürgen (2005). Anarchismus in der Postmoderne. Beiträge zur anarchistischen Theorie und Praxis. Frankfurt am Main: Edition AV, Verlag. ISBN 3-936049-37-8.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Newman, Saul (2001). From Bakunin to Lacan. Anti-Authoritarianism and the Dislocation of Power. Lexington: Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0240-0.
- Moore, John (2004). I Am Not a Man, I Am Dynamite!: Friedrich Nietzsche and the Anarchist Tradition. Autonomedia. ISBN 1-57027-121-6.
- Michel Onfray La puissance d'exister, Paris, Grasset, (2006) ISBN 2-246-71691-8
- Michel Onfray Politique du rebelle: traité de résistance et d'insoumission (1997)
- Michel Onfray La philosophie féroce : exercices anarchistes. (2004)
- Colson, Daniel. "Anarchist Subjectivities and Modern Subjectivity".
- Colson, Daniel. "Deleuze et le renouveau de la pensée libertaire"
- Call, Lewis et al. "Post-anarchism today", Anarchist Developments in Cultural Studies, volume 1, 2010.
- Springer, S. 2012. "Violent accumulation: a postanarchist critique of property, dispossession, and the state of exception in neoliberalizing Cambodia." Annals of the Association of American Geographers.