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Post-disco is a term to describe an aftermath in popular music history circa 1979–1986, imprecisely beginning with the backlash against disco music in the United States, leading to civil unrest and a riot in Chicago known as the Disco Demolition Night on July 12, 1979, and indistinctly ending with the mainstream appearance of new wave in 1980.[1][contradictory] During its dying stage, disco displayed an increasingly electronic character that soon served as a stepping stone to new wave, old-school hip hop, Euro disco, and was succeeded by an underground club music called hi-NRG, which was its direct continuation.

An underground movement of disco music, which was simultaneously "stripped-down" and featured "radically different sounds,"[2] took place on the East Coast that "was neither disco and neither R&B."[3] This scene, known as post-disco,[nb 1] catering to the New York metropolitan area, was initially led by urban contemporary artists partially in response to the perceived over-commercialization and artistic downfall of disco culture. It was developed from the rhythm and blues sound exemplified by Parliament-Funkadelic,[6] the electronic side of disco, dub music techniques, and other genres. Post-disco was typified by New York City music groups like "D" Train[3] and Unlimited Touch[3] who followed a more urban approach while others, like Material[7] and ESG,[8] followed a more experimental one. Post-disco was, like disco, a singles-driven market[2] controlled mostly by independent record companies that generated a cross-over chart success all through the early-to-mid 1980s. Most creative control was in the hands of record producers and club DJs[2] which was a trend that outlived the dance-pop era.

The term post-disco is often conflated with individual styles of its era, such as boogie,[2][9] synth-funk, or electro-funk.[10] Other musical styles that emerged in the post-disco era include dance-pop[11][12] and Italo disco, and the genre led to the development of the early alternative dance,[2] club-centered house[11][13][14][15] and techno music.[14][16][17][18][19]


Synthesizers played a crucial part in the development of post-disco.

Drum machines, synthesizers, sequencers were either partly or entirely dominant in a composition or mixed up with various acoustic instruments, depending on the artist and on the year. Electronic instruments became more and more prevalent for each year during the period and dominated the genre completely by the mid 1980s.

Darryl Payne argued about the minimal approach of post-disco, saying:

Producers are using a lot more sounds and a lot less instruments: the "Forget Me Nots" and "Don't Make Me Wait" tracks are really empty, but there's a sophistication people can get into.[20]

The main force in post-disco was mainly the 12" single format and short-lived collaborations (many of them one-hit wonders) while indie record producers were instrumental in the musical direction of what the scene was headed to. The music that mostly catered to dance and urban audiences later managed to influence more popular and mainstream acts like Madonna, New Order or Pet Shop Boys.[1]

Musical elements


The music tended to be technology-centric, keyboard-laden, melodic, with funk-oriented bass lines (often performed on a Minimoog), synth riffs, dub music aesthetics, and background jazzy or blues-y piano layers.[1][2][21][22][23] For strings and brass sections, synthesizer sounds were preferred to the lush orchestration heard on many disco tracks, although such arrangements would later resurface in some house music.[citation needed] Soulful female vocals, however, remained an essence of post-disco.

Term usage


Bridging the so-called death of disco and the birth of house, all this early-to-mid-'80s music lacks a name beyond drably functional and neutral terms like "dance" or "club music."

— Simon Reynolds, SPIN magazine[24]

The term "post-disco" was used as early as 1984 by Cadence magazine when defining post-disco soul as "disco without the loud bass-drum thump."[25] New York Magazine used the word in an article appearing in the December 1985 issue; it was Gregory Hines's introduction of post-disco and electronic funk to Russian-American dance choreographer Mikhail Baryshnikov "who has never heard this kind of music."[26] AllMusic states that the term denotes a music genre in the era between the indistinct "end" of disco music and the equally indistinct emergence of house music.[2]

In other historical instances the term had been used in a derisive manner. Spy implicitly mocked the usage of both the terms "post-punk" and "post-disco" in their Spy's Rock Critic-o-Matic article, whereas spoofing various music reviews published by Rolling Stone, The Village Voice and Spin.[27] Cuban-American writer Elías Miguel Muñoz in his 1989 novel Crazy Love, in a passage where musicians after moving to America discuss what their "style" may be, used the term in a satirical manner.[28]



Background events

Disco music backlash had started around 1977.

United States


Midwesterners didn't want that intimidating [disco] style shoved down their throats[29]

Shortly after the "Disco Sucks" movement of disco bashing throughout the United States, American radio stations began to pay attention to other popular formats of music such as reggae, punk rock or new wave while top mainstream labels and record companies like Casablanca, TK Records or RSO went bankrupt. Since disco music had been on the way of [its] electronic progression, it split itself into subscenes and styles like Hi-NRG, freestyle, Italo disco and boogie.[30][1][29] The last one is closely associated with post-disco more than any other offshoots of post-disco.[31][32]

Brazilian record producer and fusion jazz pioneer Eumir Deodato, well aware of current trends in American underground music, turned around the career of a failing funk music group Kool & the Gang by adopting and pursuing a light pop–post-disco sound that not only revitalized the band's image but also turned out to be the most successful hits in their entire career.[23] B. B. & Q. Band (Capitol) and Change (Atlantic) acts' creator Jacques Fred Petrus, a French-Italian hi-NRG Italo disco music record producer, reflects on his decision to shift from conventional disco music to post-disco "[our] sound changed to more of a funky dance/R&B style to reflect the times."[33] French-born songwriting duo Henri Belolo and Jacques Morali, creators of the successful Village People act, moved their former disco act Ritchie Family to RCA Victor to release their next album co-produced by funk musician Fonzi Thornton and Petrus, I'll Do My Best, which mirrors their radical musical shift.[33] On the West Coast, especially in California, a different approach lead to a different sound. Dick Griffey and Leon Sylvers III of SOLAR Records, who pioneered their own signature sound, produced Ohio-based group Lakeside's album Rough Riders which already displayed these new trends and, "instrumentally demonstrates economic arrangements (featuring brass, keyboards and guitar)," as noted by Billboard, praising the album.[34] A watershed album of post-disco was Michael Jackson's Off The Wall, produced by Quincy Jones, which helped establish a direction of R&B/dance music and influenced many young producers who were interested in this kind of new music.[35]

Other examples of early American artists drawing from post-disco are Rick James, Change and Teena Marie.[20]



Disco in Europe remained relatively untouched by the events in the U.S., decreasing only in Britain, but this was mostly because of the emergence of the new wave and new romantic movements around 1981,[36] and continued to flourish within the Italo disco scene although the interest for electronic music in general was indeed growing.

United Kingdom


Unlike in the United States, where anti-disco backlash generated prominent effect on general perception of disco music, in Britain, the new wave movement initially drew heavily from disco music (although this association would be airbrushed out by the end of 1979) and took many elements from American post-disco and other genres, thus creating a characteristic scene.[20] According to Billboard, American post-disco was merely a crossover of different genres, while focusing on the electronic and R&B overtones, whereas jazz-funk was a crucial element of the British post-disco scene that generated musicians like Chaz Jankel, Central Line or Imagination.

1980s: Golden age


This section summary shows 80s commercially successful records from the post-disco movement.

Compare "Jungle Boogie" (1974) with "Celebration" (1980) by Kool & The Gang; "Boogie Wonderland" (1979) with "Let's Groove" (1981) by Earth, Wind & Fire; "Shame" (1978) with "Love Come Down" (1982) by Evelyn "Champagne" King; "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty" (1976) with "Give It Up" (1982) by KC & the Sunshine Band; and "Machine Gun" (1974) with "Lady (You Bring Me Up)" by Commodores (1981).[37]

Hits of the golden age of post-disco
Year Song Label Artist U.S. Dance[38] U.S. R&B[38] U.S. Pop[38] U.S. M.R.[38] U.K. Pop
1979 "I Wanna Be Your Lover"[39] Warner Bros. Prince #2 #1 #11 #41
"And the Beat Goes On"[40][41] SOLAR Records The Whispers #1 #1 #19 #2
1980 "Celebration"[42] De-Lite Kool & the Gang #1 #1 #1 ('81) #7
"He's So Shy"[43] Planet The Pointer Sisters #26 #10 #3
1981 "Let's Groove"[44] Columbia Earth, Wind & Fire #3 #1 #3 #3
"Get Down on It"[45] De-Lite Kool & the Gang #4 #10 #3
"Pull Up to the Bumper"[46] Island Records Grace Jones #2 #5 #12
1982 "Everybody"[47] Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #3 #107
"Forget Me Nots"[48] Elektra Records Patrice Rushen #2 #4 #23 #8
"Last Night a DJ Saved My Life"[49] Sound of New York Indeep #2 #10 #101 #13
"Love Come Down"[50][51] RCA Evelyn King #1 #1 #17 #7
"Do I Do"[52] Tamla Stevie Wonder #1 #2 #13 #10
1983 "Holiday"[47] Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #25 #16 #2
"Give It Up"[53] Meca KC #18 #1
"Billie Jean"[54] Epic Michael Jackson #1 #1 #1 #1
1984 "Caribbean Queen"[55] Jive Billy Ocean #1 #1 #1 #6
"Let's Dance"[54] EMI David Bowie #1 #14 #1 #6 #1
"Cool It Now"[56] MCA New Edition #1 #4 #43
"Dr. Beat"[57] Epic Miami Sound Machine #17 #6
"I'm So Excited"[58] Planet The Pointer Sisters #28 #46 #9 #11
1985 "Into the Groove"[59] Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #19 #1
"Chain Reaction"[60] RCA Records Diana Ross #7 #85 #66 #1
"Object of My Desire" Elektra Starpoint #12 #8 #25 #96
1986 "Rumors"[56] Jay Timex Social Club #1 #1 #8 #13
"Ain't Nothin' Goin' on But the Rent"[61] Polydor Records Gwen Guthrie #1 #1 #42 #5
1987 "Rhythm Is Gonna Get You"[57] Epic Miami Sound Machine #27 #5 #16

2000s: Post-disco revival


During the late 1990s and throughout the 2000s, electronic and, especially, house musicians were influenced by post-disco. Some of these musicians are: Daft Punk, a French house music group, adopted elements of post-disco, disco and synth-pop into Discovery.[62] Another artist, Les Rythmes Digitales, released a post-disco/electro-influenced album, Darkdancer.[63] Canadian music group Chromeo debuted in 2004 with the album She's in Control.[64] Similar Los Angeles-based musician Dâm-Funk recorded Toeachizown, a boogie- and electro-influenced album released in 2009.[65] Another band called Escort, who hails from New York City, surfaced on the post-disco and post-punk revival scenes around 2006. The story about Escort appeared on New York Times in November 2011.[66] Sampling disco and post-disco songs became a distinctive feature of R&B music at the turn of the century. Artists such as Mariah Carey and Janet Jackson incorporated strong post-disco elements in their work, with post-disco-influenced songs such as Heartbreaker, Honey, Fantasy and All For You peaking at #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

Contemporary compilation albums featuring post-disco and electro artists (e.g. Imagination, Level 42, Afrika Bambaataa) include The Perfect Beats series (volume 1–4).[67] Another compilation series are Nighttime Lovers (volume 1-10) and the mixed-up album titled The Boogie Back: Post Disco Club Jams.

Pioneers and followers


"Thanks To You" and "Don't Make Me Wait" came out and started the whole dub thing in disco.[68]

Particular psychedelic soul artists like Sly and the Family Stone liked to push the boundaries of conventional music by employing what was to be a precursor to synthesizer, electronic organ. Multi-instrumentalist Stevie Wonder was one of the early artists venturing into the realms of analog synthesizer after being impressed by the work of T.O.N.T.O. Expanding Head Band, an influential multinational electronic music duo of sound designers. Wonder remarked, "How great it is at a time when technology and the science of music is at its highest point of evolution ... A toast to greatness, a toast to Zero Time, forever." With an increasing growth of personalized synthesizers on the market they were becoming more commercially available and easy-to-use, especially those produced by Roland Corporation. One of their first users was cutting-edge artist George Clinton and his Parliament-Funkadelic collective project. Funk rhythms, psychedelic guitars, synthetic bass-rich lines, the particularly melodic endeavor and music minimalism of P-Funk. Brooklyn Transit Express member Kashif, noted for his use of bass synthesizer[69] during the group's tour, later went solo as a record producer and began crafting funk-influenced songs for Evelyn "Champagne" King that shown a minimalism-akin approach, the disregard of disco music arrangements, and affiliation to the method of "one-man band" previously paved through by Wonder.[69] Other spheres of influence include the move by pioneering DJs and record producers to release alternative mixes of the same single, so-called dub mixes. DJ Larry Levan implemented elements of dub music in his productions and mixes for various post-disco artists, including his own group The Peech Boys. Musically, there was a search for out-of-mainstream music to derive new ideas from, most commonly blues, and other styles like reggae and so on, were also incorporated.

Sinnamon's "Thanks to You", D-Train's "You're the One for Me",[70] The Peech Boys' "Don't Make Me Wait"—all these songs and its attributes and trends of post-disco later influenced a new "never-before-heard" music style which would become house music.[71][72]

The new post-disco sound was flourishing among predominately New York City record companies, including West End Records, Prelude Records, Tommy Boy Records, SAM Records, and others.[72][73] Most of them were independently owned and had their own distribution[74] but some particular mainstream labels, notably RCA Records,[33] were too, responsible for popularizing and capitalizing on the new sound.



Although there is no exact point when post-disco started, many synthpop and electronic musicians of that time continued to enhance the raw minimalist sound, while focusing on synthesizers, and keyboard instruments. As noted by Payne, drum machines also played an important part in the urban-oriented music in general.[20]

# Event[72][75][76][77][78][6][79][80][81]

While disco music was in its heyday, the horn and string sections were a main component of disco and pop songs. This sound is also called disco orchestration. However, some of the musicians and producers dropped the lavish sound of orchestra completely, which attributed a new direction of dance music.

  • Few international examples, including French music project Black Devil Disco Club, French musician Cerrone and Belgian group Telex.
  • Parliament-Funkadelic in the United States. They are known for heavily use of bass and "regular" synthesizers and inventing the P-Funk style.

After the success of Quincy Jones-produced album Off the Wall and other semi-mainstream urban-oriented music groups like Lakeside, other disco music groups either dissolved or adapted the new sounds (e.g. The Whispers, The SOS Band, Inner Life, Earth, Wind & Fire, and Shalamar in the U.S.; Nick Straker Band, and Freeez in UK). Other musicians influenced by post-disco include Stacy Lattisaw, Kurtis Blow, and George Duke.


Golden age post-disco era, where post-disco sound entered mainstream. However most of the musicians were mostly successful on the other charts, beside Billboard Hot 100.

This era also spanned experimental No Wave-oriented post-disco acts like Material, Liquid Liquid, Dinosaur L and Was (Not Was).

The most significant post-disco album is Michael Jackson's Thriller, which also became the best-selling album of all time.[82] Larry Levan and the NYC Peech Boys recorded proto-house number "Don't Make Me Wait". New bands and musicians of the era appeared, including Imagination, D. Train, Skyy, Aurra, Komiko, Vicky D, Rockers Revenge, Dayton, and Unlimited Touch.


During this era, post-disco was at its highest peak. Meanwhile, Madonna's commercially successful debut album was released, which was produced by Reggie Lucas of Mtume and Jellybean, another producers of this movement.

It also began to interfere with garage house and freestyle music, thus successfully shaping post-disco into electro. This change could be also heard in breakdancing- and hip-hop -themed movies like Beat Street and Breakin'.


During this era, post-disco had been dissolved in various music fields and scenes, including

As the post-disco reached its climax, overdubbing techniques as recorded by Peech Boys and other early-1980s artists were almost omitted by then and replaced by synthpop variants instead. The movement survived as a post-disco–freestyle crossover music that spanned Raww, Hanson & Davis, Timex Social Club, Starpoint and Miami Sound Machine.


Michael Jackson 1988
Madonna 1990
Michael Jackson and Madonna are the most successful artists of post-disco.

The 1980s post-disco sounds also inspired many Norwegian dance music producers.[83] Some rappers such as Ice Cube or EPMD built their careers on funk-oriented post-disco music (they were inspired for example by dance-floor favorites like Zapp and Cameo).[84] Also Sean "Puffy" Combs has been influenced by R&B-oriented post-disco music in an indirect way.[85]




Boogie (or electro-funk)[72][86] is a post-disco subgenre with funk and new wave influences that had a minor exposure in the early to mid-1980s. Sean P. described it as "largely been ignored, or regarded as disco's poor cousin – too slow, too electronic, too R&B ... too black, even."[87]



Another post-disco movement is merely connected with post-punk/no wave genres with fewer R&B/funk influences. An example of this "post-disco" is Gina X's "No G.D.M."[88] and artists like Liquid Liquid, Polyrock,[89] Dinosaur L, and the Disco Not Disco (2000) compilation album.[90][91] This movement also connects with dance-oriented rock; Michael Campbell, in his book Popular Music in America defines that genre as "post-punk/post-disco fusion."[92] Campbell also cited Robert Christgau, who described dance-oriented rock (or DOR) as umbrella term used by various DJs in the 1980s.[93]



Dance-pop is a dance-oriented pop music that appeared slightly after the demise of disco and the first appearance of "stripped-down" post-disco. One of the first dance-pop songs were "Last Night a D.J. Saved My Life" by Indeep and "Love Come Down" by Evelyn "Champagne" King, whereas the latter crossed over to Billboard charts including Adult Contemporary, while peaking at number 17 on the pop chart in 1982.[94] Another crossover post-disco song was "Juicy Fruit" by Mtume, peaking at number 45 on the Hot 100 in 1983.[95] Same year also saw the release of Madonna's eponymous album that incorporated post-disco, urban and club sounds. British variation of dance-pop, pioneered by Stock Aitken Waterman, was more influenced by house and hi-NRG and sometimes was labeled as "eurobeat."[96]

Italo disco


Italo disco is a disco subgenre, influenced by post-disco, hi-NRG, electronic rock, and European music. Originally music mostly played by Italian musicians, but it soon made its way to Canada and United States. One of the earliest post–disco-oriented groups were Klein + M.B.O. and Kano, while New York-based Bobby Orlando was located abroad.[2]

Prominent record labels



Released Album Label Info
2000 VA – Disco Not Disco Strut compilation
2002 VA – Disco Not Disco 2 Strut compilation
2002–2008 VA – Opération Funk Vol. 1–5
(mixed by Kheops)
mix album, compilation
2004 VA – Choice: A Collection of Classics
(mixed by Danny Tenaglia)
Azuli mix album, compilation
2004–2009 VA – Nighttime Lovers Vol. 1–10 PTG compilation
2008 VA – Disco Not Disco 3 Strut compilation
2009 VA – Night Dubbin'
(mixed by Dimitri from Paris)
BBE mix album, compilation
2009 VA – The Boogie Back: Post Disco Club Jams
(compiled by DJ Spinna)
BBE mix album, compilation
2010 VA – Boogie's Gonna Getcha: '80s New York Boogie BreakBeats compilation

See also



  1. ^ Various terms to describe the sound of what seemed to be post-disco were introduced, such as, but not limited to, "dance", "club music", "R&B", and "disco". The last, however, become an unfashionable term, hence the increasing use of "dance"[4][5] vis-à-vis the word "disco".


  1. ^ a b c d Reynolds, Simon (2009) Grunge's Long Shadow - In praise of "in-between" periods in pop history (Slate, MUSIC BOX). Retrieved on 2-2-2009"
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Post-Disco Music Genre Overview". AllMusic. Retrieved 2023-03-01.
  3. ^ a b c Kellman, Andy. "Unlimited Touch" artist biography. Retrieved 2014-10-01
  4. ^ Rodgers, Nile (2011). Le Freak: An Upside Down Story of Family, Disco, and Destiny. Random House LLC. p. 42. ISBN 978-0679644033. By now 'dance' was a loaded word for me. The Disco Sucks backlash had given me a post-traumatic-stress–like disorder, and I'd vowed not to write any songs with that word in them for a long time. I was shamed out of using a word—'dance'.
  5. ^ Goldschmitt, Kariann Elaine (2004). Foreign bodies: innovation, repetition, and corporeality in electronic dance music (Digitized 13 Sep 2010). University of California, San Diego. p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4.
  6. ^ a b Parliament/Funkadelic. (2009). In Student's Encyclopædia Archived 2009-04-21 at the Wayback Machine: "Combining funk rhythms, psychedelic guitar, and group harmonies with jazzed-up horns, Clinton and his ever-evolving bands set the tone for many post-disco and post-punk groups of the 1980s and 1990s.". Retrieved August 15, 2009, from Britannica Student Encyclopædia.
  7. ^ "Material - Biography, Albums, Streaming Links - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  8. ^ "ESG - Biography, Albums, Streaming Links". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  9. ^ Reynolds, Simon (2011-05-03). "Name it on the 'boogie' – the genre tag that won't sit still (2011)". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  10. ^ "DJ Spinna: The Boogie Back: Post Disco Club Jams, PopMatters". PopMatters. 2010-01-18. Retrieved 2023-03-01.
  11. ^ a b "The 100 Greatest Dance Songs – Feature". Slantmagazine.com. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  12. ^ Smay, David & Cooper, Kim (2001). Bubblegum Music Is the Naked Truth: The Dark History of Prepubescent Pop, from the Banana Splits to Britney Spears: "... think about Stock-Aitken-Waterman and Kylie Minogue. Dance pop, that's what they call it now — Post-Disco, post-new wave and incorporating elements of both." Feral House: Publisher, p. 327. ISBN 0-922915-69-5.
  13. ^ Haggerty, George E. (2000). Gay Histories and Cultures: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4. House music is a form of post-disco dance music made popular in the mid-1980s in Chicago clubs ..."
  14. ^ a b Demers, Joanna (2006). "Dancing Machines: 'Dance Dance Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, and Musical Taste". Popular Music. 25 (3). Cambridge University Press: 25, 401–414. doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012. S2CID 162637991. "In terms of its song repertoire, DDR is rooted in disco and post-disco forms such as techno and house. But DDR can be read as the ultimate postmodern dance experience because the game displays various forms of dance imagery without stylistic or historical continuity (Harvey 1990, p. 62, ...)
  15. ^ Riley, Marcus & Trotter, Lee Ann (Apr 1, 2014) Chicago House Music Legend Frankie Knuckles Dead at 59 WMAQ-TV. NBCUniversal. Retrieved 2014-04-24
  16. ^ Campbell, Michael (2008). Popular Music in America. Cengage Learning. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-495-50530-3. Glossary: techno – post-disco dance music in which most or all of the sounds are electronically generated
  17. ^ AllMusic - explore music ... House: "House music grew out of the post-disco dance club culture of the early '80s." Retrieved on 12-27-2009
  18. ^ St. John, Graham George Michael, (2004), Rave Culture and Religion, p. 50, ISBN 0-415-31449-6, " [sic] house music. As a post-disco party music, house features a repetitive 4/4 beat and a speed of 120 or more beats per minute ..."
  19. ^ "Though it makes sense to classify any form of dance music made since disco as post-disco, each successive movement has had its own characteristics to make it significantly different from the initial post-disco era, whether it's dance-pop or techno or trance." — Allmusic
  20. ^ a b c d "The Music Steps Beyond Disco: Where The Beat Meets The Street/Danceable Rock Generates First Bevy of Crossover Stars". Billboard. No. 94. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 19 Jun 1982. p. 36. ISSN 0006-2510.
  21. ^ Kellman, Andy (review). Anthology (1995) - Aurra. Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2014-04-24.
  22. ^ Nelson, George (2003). The Death of Rhythm and Blues. Penguin. ISBN 1101160675. Synthesizers of every description, drum machines, and plain old electric keyboards began making MFSB and other human rhythm sessions nonessential to the recording process. For producers, a control-oriented bunch, this was heaven. No more rehearsals. Low session fees. An artist who envisioned himself as a future Stevie Wonder—the first great one-man synthesizer band—could express his creativity in the basement or the bathroom.
  23. ^ a b "Walsh, Fintan (June, 2012): Eumir Deodato and the exploration of Post-Disco". The 405 magazine (UK). Archived from the original on 2013-11-09. Retrieved 2012-06-30.
  24. ^ Simon Reynolds, Slate, p. May 29, 2009
  25. ^ Cadence. 10: 56. 1984. {{cite journal}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  26. ^ New York (New York Media, LLC). 18: 121. 2 December 1985. ISSN 0028-7369. {{cite journal}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  27. ^ "That's the Way (Uh-huh, Uh-huh) I Like It - introducing SPY'S ROCK-CRITIC-o-MATIC (by David Bourgeois)". Spy. Sussex Publishers, LLC: 33. May 1992. ISSN 0890-1759. "In their first album since their eponymous effort of last year, Donald and the Vulgarians, without a doubt one of the best post-punk groups of the 1980s, return with their latest release, I Who Have Nothing and Other Songs for the Nineties. Filled with self-absorbed Trinidadian soca, the album screams post-punk/post-disco art-school pop with its use of guitar riff sawing".
  28. ^

    * Julian: "Now we're going American. What's the name they've given this new thing we're doing?

    • Joe: "Post-punk-post-new-wave-post-disco ..."
    • Roli: "post-country -post-rapping - post-post- post-Beatles."
    • Lucho: "Post-Elvis-post-Simon-and-Garfunkel-post-Billy-Idol-post-British-Invasion-post-Cyndi-Lauper-post-Blues-post-Soul-post-Michael-Jackson-post-Hustle-post-Donna-Summer-post-Gloria-Gaynor-post-Prince-post-Madonna."
      — "Crazy Love" (Elías Miguel Muñoz, 1989)
  29. ^ a b Why 'Disco sucks!' sucked. The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-02-21
  30. ^ Billboard. No. 92. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 18 Jul 1980. ISSN 0006-2510. Disco Business > An Art Unto Itself: Programming of Mobiles - Chicago {{cite magazine}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  31. ^ Serwer, Jesse (2009) XLR8R: Jesse Serwer in an interview with Dam-Funk. Retrieved on 2-2-2010.
  32. ^ Webber, Stephen (2007). DJ Skills: The Essential Guide to Mixing and Scratching. Focal Press, 2007. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-240-52069-8.
  33. ^ a b c Aerna, James (2013). First Ladies of Disco: 32 Stars Discuss the Era and Their Singing Careers. Penguin. pp. 186–87. ISBN 978-1476603322.
  34. ^ "Billboard's Top Album Picks (1979). Billboard SPECIAL SURVEY For Week Ending 10/13/79". Billboard. No. 91. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Oct 13, 1979. ISSN 0006-2510.
  35. ^ The '80s Producers Archived 2016-04-13 at the Wayback Machine. Danceclassics.net.
  36. ^ Collins, Nick; Schedel, Margaret; Wilson, Scott (2013). Electronic Music. Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-1107244542.
  37. ^ Commodores allmusic.com Retrieved 20 January 2024
  38. ^ a b c d Kool & the Gang: Billboard SinglesDavid Bowie: Billboard SinglesSOS Band: Billboard SinglesIndeep: Billboard SinglesEarth, Wind & Fire: Billboard SinglesMichael Jackson: Billboard SinglesBilly Ocean: Billboard SinglesThe Pointer Sisters: Billboard SinglesThe Whispers: Billboard SinglesMadonna: Billboard SinglesAmerica: Billboard Singles by Allmusic. Retrieved on August 24, 2014.
  39. ^ "Post-Disco Music Songs - AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  40. ^ Stanley, Bob (14 July 2014). Yeah! Yeah! Yeah!: The Story of Pop Music from Bill Haley to Beyoncé. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393242706.
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