"the process of evaluating buildings in a systematic and rigorous manner after they have been built and occupied for some time"
Purpose of POE
The British Council for Offices (BCO) summarises that a POE provides feedback of how successful the workplace is in supporting the occupying organization and the requirements of individual end-users. The BCO also suggests that POE can be used to assess if a project brief has been met. Furthermore, the BCO recommends that POE is used as part of the Evidence-based design process, where the project usually refers to a building design fit-out or refurbishment, or to inform the project brief where the project is the introduction of a new initiative, system or process. POE usually involves feedback from the building occupants, through questionnaires, interviews and workshops, but may also involve more objective measures such as environmental monitoring, space measurement and cost analysis.
Components of POE
A POE usually includes a mix of quantitative and qualitative techniques. Most POEs will involve seeking feedback from the occupants of the place being evaluated; this may be achieved through various survey methodology including questionnaire, interview or focus group. The occupant feedback may be supplemented by environmental monitoring, such as temperature, noise levels, lighting levels and indoor air quality. More recently, POEs tend to include sustainable measures such as energy consumption, waste levels, and water usage. Other commonly used quantitative measures include space metrics, for example occupational density, space utilization and tenant efficiency ratio. Cost, either expressed as the cost of the project per square metre or the total cost of occupancy, is considered a key metric in building evaluation and may be compared with the occupant feedback to provide a better understanding of value.
Pre and post project evaluation
The term "post occupancy" can be confusing and simply refers to an occupied building rather than a vacant one. As a consequence a POE may be carried out pre- and post-project. Furthermore, POEs may be conducted at regular intervals to monitor how the building facilities and its operation are currently supporting the occupants. A pre-project POE may be used to:
- measure project success
- feedback and feed-forward
- set a baseline for measurement
- establish benchmark data
- inform the design process
- input to the change management programme
- Highlight where future investments may be best placed
A post-project POE is usually carried out six to twelve months after the project completion. However, interim project reviews may be carried during the project delivery phase and on completion.
Methods of POE
POE applies to all environments
POE's are not only conducted in offices, the focus of the BCO guide, and there are many published POEs of a variety of other types of environment. For example, learning environments, libraries, jails, police stations, housing, health centres and even zoos.
POE is usually carried out by trained professionals with a social science or workplace consulting background. Ideally the POE is conducted by an independent consultant who can offer an impartial assessment of the place undergoing evaluation.
- Preiser W F E, Rabinowitz H Z and White E T (1988) Post Occupancy Evaluation. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
- Oseland N A (2007) British Council for Offices Guide to Post-Occupancy Evaluation. London: BCO.
- Barlex M J (2006) Guide to Post Occupancy Evaluation. London: HEFCE/AUDE.
- Lackney J A and Zajfen P (2005) Post-occupancy evaluation of public libraries: Lessons learned from three case studies. Library Administration and Management, 19(1)
- Enright S (2002) Post-occupancy evaluation of UK library building projects. Liber Quarterly, 12, pp 26-45.
- Wener R E (1994) Post Occupancy Evaluation Procedure: Instruments & Instructions for Use. Orange County Corrections Division and National Institute of Correction Jail Centre.
- Home Office (2009) Design Policy, Post Occupancy Evaluation: North Kent Police. London: Home Office.
- Stevenson, F and Leaman A 2010) Housing occupancy feedback: Linking performance with behaviour. Building Research and Information, 38 (5).
- Carthey J (2006) Post occupancy evaluation: Development of a standardised methodology for Australian health projects. The International Journal of Construction Management, pp 57-75.
- Wilson M et al (2003) Post-occupancy evaluation of zoo Atlanta's Giant Panda Conservation Center. Zoo Biology, 22 (4) pp 365-363.