History of Sri Lanka (1948–present)

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The history of Sri Lanka from 1948 to present is marked by the independence of the country through to Dominion and becoming a Republic.

Dominion (1948-1972)[edit]

Further information: Dominion of Ceylon

Republic (1972-2009)[edit]

Under Bandaranaike the country became a republic, the Free Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka,[1] the Senate was abolished and Sinhala was established as the official language (with Tamil as a second language). Full independence came as the last remaining constitutional ties with the United Kingdom were broken (e.g., the right of appeal to the United Kingdom's Judicial Committee of the Privy Council ceased, thus establishing the Supreme Court as the country's ultimate court of appeal). Colonial plantations were nationalised to fulfil the election pledges of the Marxist program and to "prevent the ongoing dis-investment by the owning companies".

An attempt was made at economic independence, with a five-year plan to achieve industrial development. However, this was stymied by a shortage of foreign exchange, a very expensive welfare program, and the oil crisis of 1974. These, combined with an unprecedented drought severely affected the harvest of rice, the staple food of the people. Strides were made in the fields of heavy industry, automotive parts and electronics. The strongly centralized economy, functioning via a set of state corporations, grew very sluggishly.

In 1971 a group variously labelled Maoist or Guevarist, the People's Liberation Front (JVP) launched a rebellion. It was led by Rohana Wijeweera, a marxist who had his education at the Lumumba University in the Soviet Union. This movement was not connected with the traditional Sri Lankan Marxist parties which were then in power. Most of the "insurgents" were unemployed literate youth who were the product of the post-independence population explosion. Although the JVP rebellion was brutally suppressed, the JVP found a place in Sri Lankan politics as a voice of leftist Sinhalese nationalism, along with the right-wing movement in the UNP associated with Cyril Matthew. Militant Tamil Chauvinist movements, e.g., the Pulip Padai, had been launched in Trincomalee in 1965. The Jaffna university was "ethnically cleansed" of non-Tamils in 1976, and the city itself began to be subject to similar "ethnic cleansing", eliminating Muslim and Sinhala residents.

The extreme-Tamil groups rejected and physically eliminated the main Colombo-Tamil leadership of the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF). Tamil public servants or members of parliament working with the government were harassed. The mayor of Jaffna was assassinated in 1975. The militants claimed their independence, their rights, and their "traditional homeland",[2] and formed armed separatist groups such as the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam ('Tamil Tigers'), demanding an independent Tamil state called Eelam. Much of this had the implicit and material support of politicians in India.[3][4]

New constitution[edit]

By 1977 the voters were tired of Bandaranaike's socialist policies and elections returned the UNP to power under Junius Jayewardene on a manifesto pledging a market economy and "a free ration of 8 seers (kilograms) of cereals". The SLFP and the left-wing parties were virtually wiped out in Parliament (although they garnered 40% of the popular vote), leaving the Tamil United Liberation Front, led by Appapillai Amirthalingam, as the official opposition. This created a dangerous ethnic cleavage in Sri Lankan politics.

Bandaranaike had her civic rights removed by an act of Parliament. In 1978 Jayewardene introduced a new constitution making Sri Lanka a presidential 'Democratic Socialist' republic, with himself as executive President [1]. In 1980 he crushed a general strike by the trade-union movement, jailing its leaders. When the UNP member for the parliamentary constituency of Kalawana was removed on an election petition by his Communist opponent, Jayawardene allowed him to continue sitting in the house [2].

In 1977, Colombo abandoned state controlled economic policies and its import substitution trade policy for market-oriented policies and export-oriented trade. This included the opening of free-trade zones with a heavy emphasis on exports of garments from these zones.

Elections to District Councils in 1981 were marred by the open theft of ballot boxes in Jaffna. The Jaffna Library, the repository of thousands of valuable documents was burned down by thugs alleged to be linked with the government.

President Jayawardene had the constitution amended (one of 13 amendments during his 10 years in office) to allow presidential elections to be held early, in 1982. The main opposition candidate, Hector Kobbekaduwa was garlanded with onions by the farmers of the Jaffna peninsular, impoverished by the policy of unrestricted imports.

The Presidential election, held amidst widespread acts of electoral malpractice (Hector Kobbekaduwa arrived at the polling station only to find his vote had already been cast) resulted in Jayawardene's re-election. He followed this with an infamous plebiscite on postponing parliamentary elections for six years. Associates of Kobbekaduwa, such as TB Ilangaratne and Vijaya Kumaratunga, were jailed as 'Naxalites', a political creed unheard of in Sri Lanka, before or since. The Commissioner of Elections, in his report on the referendum, reported that it was flawed.

In 1983 following a demonstration against the US establishment of a military base in Diego Garcia, former MP Vivienne Goonewardena was physically assaulted at a police station. Her fundamental rights application in this matter was upheld by the Supreme Court in an act of judicial independence [3]. Following this, thugs stoned the houses of the Supreme Court judges who had made the ruling and the police officer who had been convicted had his fine paid by the government and received a promotion.

Civil war (1983 to 2009)[edit]

Main article: Sri Lankan Civil War

In July 1983 communal riots took place due to the ambush and killing of 13 Sri Lankan Army soldiers by the Tamil Tigers. Using the voters list which contained the exact addresses of Tamils, the Tamil community faced a backlash from Sinhalese rioters including the destruction of shops, homes and savage beatings. However, quite a few Sinhalese kept Tamil neighbours in their homes to protect them from the rioters. During these riots the government did nothing to control the mob. Conservative government estimates put the death toll at 400 [4], while the real death toll is believed to be around 3000 [5]. Also around 18,000 Tamil homes and 5,000 homes were destroyed, with 150,000 leaving the country resulting in a Tamil Diaspora in Canada, UK, Australia and other western countries.

Jayewardene held office until 1989, ruling as a virtual dictator under emergency powers. In 1987, following an army offensive in the Vadamarachchi peninsular, India started getting deeply involved in the ethnic conflict.[6] A convoy sent by India was stopped in Sri Lankan waters by the Sri Lankan Navy and the Indian Air Force retaliated with an air drop of supplies onto the Jaffna peninsula. While the UNP organised street protests against India, Jayawardene declared that he would defend the country's independence to the last bullet.

However, the air drop also caused Jayawardene to reconsider his position and he then accepted the offer of Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi of a Peace Accord.[7] Rajiv Gandhi's offer to send troops into Sri Lanka was deeply unpopular with the Sinhalese and, although initially popular with the Tamils, led to an outbreak of hostilities between the Tamil Tigers and the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) - Eelam War II.

In 1989 Jayewardene was succeeded by his own choice as President, Ranasinghe Premadasa, who asked for the Indian troops to be withdrawn - which was later done by Indian Prime Minister V.P. Singh. Premadasa was assassinated by a Tamil Tiger suicide bomber in 1993. Rajiv Gandhi had already met a similar fate (assassinated by a Tamil Tiger ) in 1991.

Premadasa was succeeded by Dingiri Banda Wijetunga, with Ranil Wickremasinghe as Prime Minister. In August 1994 the People's Alliance under Bandaranaike's daughter Chandrika Kumaratunga won legislative elections on a platform of concessions to the Tamils and a 'balanced economy'. Kumaratunga became Prime Minister and in November she was elected President, appointing her 78-year-old (but still active) mother Prime Minister. A ceasefire ensued, which broke down by the Tamil tigers after several months - the beginning of Eelam War III. Under the Bandaranaikes the war dragged on, with the military unable to defeat the separatists and the government opposed to negotiations. By 2000 an estimated 65,000 people had been killed in the conflict.

At Presidential elections in 1999, former Prime Minister Wickremesinghe of the UNP contested on a platform of no concessions to the Tamils, but was defeated by Kumaratunga. A 180-degree turn in UNP policy occurred and in December 2001 the UNP returned to office on a policy of a negotiated settlement with the Tigers, with Wickremasinghe as Prime Minister. A cease fire began, the first long cessation of hostilities since the beginning of the conflict. But the 1978 constitution left the Prime Minister with little power against a hostile President. In March 2004 she dismissed Wickremesinghe and called fresh elections, which returned the SLFP to office under Mahinda Rajapakse.

By 2005 there had been no further progress towards either a military or political solution. The assassination of Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar in August 2005, by the LTTE (although they denied responsibility), further hardened attitudes. His successor was Anura Bandaranaike, the President's brother and putative political heir. Twenty years of civil conflict had done immense damage to Sri Lankan society and the economy, which has fallen behind other Asian economies, although it remains the second most prosperous nation in South Asia.

In elections held on 17 November 2005, Mahinda Rajapakse, the son of Don Alwin Rajapaksa, was elected President, defeating Wickremasinghe. He appointed Ratnasiri Wickremanayake Prime Minister and Mangala Samaraweera Foreign Minister. Negotiations with the LTTE stalled and low-intensity conflict began. The violence dipped off after talks in February, but escalated in April and the conflict continued until the military defeat of the LTTE in May 2009.

Defeat of the LTTE[edit]

The Sri Lankan government declared total victory on Monday, 18 May 2009. On 19 May 2009, the Sri Lankan military effectively concluded its 26 year operation against the LTTE.Its military forces recaptured all remaining LTTE controlled territories in the Northern Province, including notably Killinochchi (2 January), the Elephant Pass (9 January) and the ultimately the entire district of Mullaitivu.

The 58 Division of the Sri Lankan Army led by Brig. Shavendra Silva, 59 Division led by Brig. Prasanna de Silva and the 53 Division commanded by Gen. Kamal Gunaratne, after having boxed in the remaining LTTE cadres into a small area of territory near Nandhikkadal lagoon, linked up and eliminated the remaining cadres. This final battle claimed the lives of several top LTTE leaders and Velupillai Prabhakaran who was reported to have attempted to flee. On the morning of the 19th, soldiers of the 4th Vijayabahu infantry regiment led by Lt. Col Rohitha Aluvihare claimed to have found the body of Prabhakaran, and so militarily ending a separatist war that had defined Sri Lanka's history for three decades.

On 22 May 2009, Sri Lankan Defence Secretary Gotabhaya Rajapaksa confirmed that 6,261 personnel of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces had lost their lives and 29,551 were wounded during Eelam War IV since July 2006. Brig. Udaya Nanayakkara added that approximately 22,000 LTTE cadres had died during this time. Later the LTTE admitted Prabhakaran's death and accepted defeat.

During this final phase of the conflict many non-governmental organizations expressed serious concerns about the ultra-aggressive government and LTTE tactics. Many claims have been made of the gross negligence of human rights at the internment camps for refugees. During the conflict, makeshift hospitals and refugee areas were shelled and destroyed although it was not entirely clear who was responsible for the shelling.[5]

UN officials and Media representatives from other countries were sent to undertake investigations into the conflict.

The Times newspaper of the UK accused the government of a massacre on the coastline of a refugee camp caught between the fire.[6] This raised the estimate of deaths to 20, 000, many times that of the official figures released by the government. Furthermore it was uncovered that the Sri Lankan Government was receiving arms and munitions as well as several fighter planes from the Chinese government in exchange for a Chinese naval base to be built on the Sri Lankan coast. This is a move by Beijing to cement a stronger position in the geopolitical struggle for power over the energy trade routes along the Indian ocean.[7]

Post-conflict (2009-present)[edit]

Main article: Sri Lankan Civil War

Sri Lankan government declaration of total victory on 16 May 2009 marked the end of the 26-year-long civil war. President Mahinda Rajapaksa, while attending the G11 summit in Jordan, addressed the summit stating "my government, with the total commitment of our armed forces, has in an unprecedented humanitarian operation finally defeated the LTTE militarily".[8] However the fighting continued for a couple of days thereafter. On the same day, Sri Lankan troops killed 70 rebels attempting to escape by boat, as the last LTTE strongpoints crumbled.[9] The whereabouts of LTTE leader Vellupillai Prabhakaran and other major rebel leaders were not certain at the time. On 17 May 2009, Selvarasa Pathmanathan, the LTTE chief of international relations, admit the organization's defeat stating "This battle has reached its bitter end ... We have decided to silence our guns. Our only regrets are for the lives lost and that we could not hold out for longer".[10][11]

On May 18, 2009 Velupillai Prabhakaran was erroneously claimed to be killed by the Sri Lankan armed forces. It was claimed that on the morning of that day, he was killed by gunfire, while trying to escape the conflict zone in an ambulance with his closest aides. State television announced that the military had surrounded Prabhakaran in a tiny patch of jungle in the north-east. The Daily Telegraph wrote that, according to Sri Lankan TV, Prabhakaran was "... killed in a rocket-propelled grenade attack as he tried to escape the war zone in an Ambulance. Colonel Soosai, the leader of his "Sea Tigers" navy, and Pottu Amman, his intelligence chief were also killed in the attack."[12]

19 May 2009 saw President Mahinda Rajapaksa giving a victory speech to the Parliament and declared that Sri Lanka is liberated from terrorism.[13][14] Around 9:30 a.m., the same day, troops attached to Task Force VIII of Sri Lanka Army, reported to its commander, Colonel G.V. Ravipriya that a body similar to Velupillai Prabhakaran has been found among the mangroves in Nandikadal lagoon.[15]

Sarath Fonseka officially announced Prabhakaran's death on the State television ITN. Later, his body was shown on Swarnavahini for the first time, while the identity was confirmed by Karuna Amman, his former confidant. DNA tests against his son, who had been killed earlier by the Sri Lanka Military, also confirmed the death.[16] Prabakaran's identity was[17] However, contradicting the government claims, Selvarasa Pathmanathan on the same day claimed that "Our beloved leader is alive and safe."[18] But finally on the 24 May 2009, he admitted the death of Prabhakaran, retracting the previous statement.[19] The Sri Lankan military effectively concluded its 26 year operation against the LTTE, its military forces recaptured all remaining LTTE controlled territories in the Northern Province.[20][21][22]

The Sri Lankan civil war cost the lives of an estimated 80,000–100,000 people. This included more than 23,327 Sri Lankan soldiers and policemen, 1,155 Indian soldiers and 27,639 Tamil fighters. The numbers were confirmed by Secretary of Defence Ministry Gotabhaya Rajapaksa in an interview with state television on 22 May 2009. 23,790 Sri Lankan military personnel were killed since 1981 (it was not specified if police or other non-armed forces personnel were included in this particular figure). From the August 2006 recapture of the Mavil Aru reservoir until the formal declaration of the cessation of hostilities (on May 18), 6261 Sri Lankan soldiers were killed and 29,551 were wounded.[23] The Sri Lankan military estimates that up to 22,000 LTTE militants were killed in the last three years of the conflict.[24] While Gotabhaya Rajapaksa confirmed that 6,261 personnel of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces had lost their lives and 29,551 were wounded during the Eelam War IV since July 2006. Brigadier Udaya Nanayakkara added that approximately 22,000 LTTE fighters had died during this time.

Following the LTTE's defeat, Tamil National Alliance, the largest political party in Sri Lanka dropped its demand for a separate state, in favour of a federal solution.[25][26] Sri Lanka, emerging after a 26-year war, has become one of the fastest growing economies of the world.[27][28][29][30]

Post war development[edit]

Presidential elections were completed in January 2010. Mahinda Rajapaksa won the elections with 59% of the votes, defeating General Sarath Fonseka who was the united opposition candidate.

Under Mahinda Rajapaksa large infrastructure projects and Mega projects such as the Magampura Mahinda Rajapaksa Port were carried out.[31] Large hydro power projects as well as coal powered power plants like the Sampur and Norocholai Power Stations[32] and Sustainable power stations such as the Hambantota Solar Power Station were also built to supply the rising need for power in the country.[33] By 2010 Sri Lanka's poverty rate was 8.9% while it was 15.2% in 2006.[34] Sri Lanka also made it into the "high" category of the Human Development Index during this time.[35]

However, the government came under fierce criticism for corruption and Sri Lanka ranked 79 from among 174 countries in the Transparency International corruption index.[36]

New administration[edit]

In 2014 November Mahinda Rajapksa called for early elections as signs of declining public support started to appear.[37] Taking the chance the General Secretary of the ruling Sri Lanka Freedom Party and Health minister Maithripala Sirisena defected and said he would contest President Mahinda Rajapaksa at the upcoming presidential election. He was backed by the former president Chandrika Kumaratunga, UNP and its leader Ranil Wickremesinghe, Jathika Hela Urumaya as well as Sarath Fonseka. In his speech he promised to end Thuggery, embezzlement, crime, drug mafia, nepotism and corruption.[38] The largest Muslim party of Sri Lanka also left the government and joined Maithripala[39]

In Sri Lankan presidential election, 2015 in January Maithripala won the election with 51.28% of the votes and took oath as president.[40] He removed politically appointed officials such as the Chief of Justice Mohan Peiris and launched a major anti-corruption campaign[41]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ K. M. de Silva, History of Sri Lanka, Penguin 1995, ch. 37
  2. ^ K.M. de Silva, Conflict and Violence in South Asia, p.384 ICES, 2004
  3. ^ R. Gunaratna, International Regional Security Implications of the Sri Lankan Tamil Insurgency, 1997
  4. ^ M. R. Singer, Asian Survey 32, part II, p 168 1991
  5. ^ Civilians 'die in Lanka shelling'- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7845311.stm
  6. ^ The hidden massacre: Sri Lanka’s final offensive against Tamil Tigers - http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article6383449.ece
  7. ^ Sri Lanka's crucial role in Indian Ocean power struggle - http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article6401262.ece
  8. ^ "Sri Lankan President Declares Military Defeat of Rebels". Voice of America. 16 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  9. ^ "Sri Lankan troops 'kill' 70 escaping Tamil Tigers". London: Times Online. 17 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  10. ^ From correspondents in Colombo (May 17, 2009). "Tamil Tigers admit defeat in civil war after 37-year battle". News.com.au. Retrieved 17 May 2009. 
  11. ^ Bosleigh, Robert; Page, Jeremy (18 May 2009). "Tamil Tigers admit defeat after battle reaches 'bitter end'". London: Times Online. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  12. ^ Nelson, Dean (18 May 2009). "Sri Lanka: Tamil Tiger leader Velupillai Prabhakaran and his lieutenants 'eliminated'". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  13. ^ "Sri Lankan TV broadcasts 'video of body of Tamil Tiger leader' as President declares the country liberated from terrorism". London: Daily Mail. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  14. ^ Weaver, Matthew; Chamberlain, Gethin (19 May 2009). "Sri Lanka declares end to war with Tamil Tigers". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  15. ^ "No peace offer from Prabhakaran – only war". Lanka Web. 2011-06-11. Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
  16. ^ "Sri Lanka Army – Defenders of the Nation". Army.lk. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  17. ^ Bosleigh, Robert (2008-05-09). "DNA tests on body of Prabhakaran, Sri Lankan rebel leader". The Times (London). Retrieved 2010-05-02. 
  18. ^ "Rebel leader Prabhakaran 'alive and safe' Tigers claim". The Times (London). 19 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  19. ^ "LTTE admits Prabhakaran is dead, finally". Indian Express. 24 May 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  20. ^ "Sri Lanka Army – Defenders of the Nation". Army.lk. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  21. ^ "Sri Lanka Army – Defenders of the Nation". Army.lk. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  22. ^ "Troops recover more military equipments in search and clear operations". defence.lk. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009. 
  23. ^ "Victory's price: 6,200 Sri Lankan troops". News.smh.com.au. 22 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  24. ^ "/ UK – Sri Lankan army and Tamil Tiger death tolls reveal grim cost of years of civil war". Ft.com. 23 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009. 
  25. ^ "Sri Lanka Tamil party drops statehood demand". BBC. 13 March 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  26. ^ "Sri Lankan Tamils drop demand for separate independent homeland". The Guardian. 14 March 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2011. 
  27. ^ "Merryl Lynch lists Sri Lanka among 10 fast growth economies". 8 August 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  28. ^ Ganguly, Šumit(Author); Michael, E. Brown(Editor) (2003). Fighting Words: language policy and ethnic relations in Asia. The MIT Press. pp. 136–138. ISBN 978-0-262-52333-2. 
  29. ^ Schmidt, Bettina(Editor); Schroeder, Ingo(Editor) (2001). Anthropology of Violence and Conflict. Routledge. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-415-22905-0. 
  30. ^ "Sri Lanka leader hails 'victory'". BBC News. 2009-05-19. Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  31. ^ "The Hambantota Port Declared Open". 
  32. ^ "Sampur coal power project on track". 
  33. ^ "500 KW Solar Power Plant commissioned in H'tota". 
  34. ^ "Millennium Development Goals-Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty". 
  35. ^ "'Rise of the South' - Sri Lanka ranked high in human development". 
  36. ^ "Sri Lanka Is A Corrupt Nation". 
  37. ^ "Sri Lanka president calls early election". 
  38. ^ "UNP names Maithripala as the common candidate.". 
  39. ^ "Sri Lanka's main Muslim party quits government, pledges to support opposition ahead of election". 
  40. ^ "Maithripala Sirisena takes oath as President". 
  41. ^ "Video: Dr. Shirani Bandaranayake resumes duties as CJ". 

External links[edit]