|PhD or equivalent|
A postdoctoral researcher or postdoc is a person professionally conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies (typically a PhD). The ultimate goal of a postdoctoral research position is to pursue additional research, training, or teaching in order to have better skills to pursue a career in academia, research, or any other fields.[full citation needed] Postdocs often, but not always, have a temporary academic appointment, sometimes in preparation for an academic faculty position. They continue their studies or carry out research and further increase expertise in a specialist subject, including integrating a team and acquiring novel skills and research methods. Postdoctoral research is often considered essential while advancing the scholarly mission of the host institution; it is expected to produce relevant publications in peer-reviewed academic journals or conferences. In some countries, postdoctoral research may lead to further formal qualifications or certification, while in other countries it does not.
Postdoctoral research may be funded through an appointment with a salary or an appointment with a stipend or sponsorship award. Appointments for such a research position may be called postdoctoral research fellow, postdoctoral research associate or postdoctoral research assistant. Depending on the type of appointment, postdoctoral researchers may work independently or under the supervision of a principal investigator. However, a designated postdoctoral research appointment may also be taken up when other suitable positions are not available, rather than merely pursuing the deepening of scholarly experience. In many English-speaking countries, postdoctoral researchers are colloquially referred to as "postdocs".
Job security and academia
Due to the nature of their work, and an over-supply of graduating PhD students in many fields, some postdoctoral researchers face an uncertain future in academia, and a large proportion will not gain tenure or a coveted faculty position in their chosen field of research.
Regional variations in postdoctoral employment
Since the landmark ruling in the employment tribunal (Scotland) Ball vs Aberdeen University 2008 case (S/101486/08), researchers who have held successive fixed-term contracts for four years' service are no longer temporary employees but are entitled to open-ended contracts.
In the US, a postdoctoral scholar is an individual holding a doctoral degree who is engaged in mentored research or scholarly training for the purpose of acquiring the professional skills needed to pursue a career path of his or her choosing. Postdoctoral researchers play an important role in spearheading postgraduate research activity in the US. The median salary of postdoctoral researchers is $42,000 a year for up to 5 years after receiving their doctoral degrees—44% less than the $75,000 average for tenured positions. The National Postdoctoral Association (NPA) is a member-driven organization that provides a voice for postdoctoral scholars in the United States.
Postdoctoral research may be required for obtaining a tenure-track faculty position, especially at research-oriented institutions. Post-doctoral appointments that were traditionally optional have become mandatory in some fields as the degree of competition for tenure-track positions in academia has significantly increased over previous decades. In fact, the small supply of the professional positions in academia compared to the growing number of postdoctoral researchers makes it difficult to find tenure-track positions. In 2008, the proportion of postdoctoral researchers who got a tenure or tenure-track within 5 years after they received a doctoral degree was about 39%; nearly 10% of postdoctoral researchers were still waiting for tenure-track positions over 40 in 2003.[full citation needed]
On the other hand, 85 percent of engineering doctoral degrees holder are likely to initially go into business or industry sector. Under the circumstances, providing doctoral students as well as postdoctoral researchers with necessary skills for nonacademic positions has become one of the important roles for graduate schools and institutions. The America COMPETES Act recognized the importance of graduate student support for obtaining skills needed when they pursue nonacademic careers, and required National Science Foundation (NSF) to increase or decrease funding for the Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) programs at least at the same rate as it increases or decreases funding for the Graduate Research Fellowship. There are no comprehensive data of international postdoctoral researchers in the US because of the less-organized survey and the difficulty in counting international postdoctoral researchers. The proportion of postdoctoral researchers on temporary visas reached 53.6% in 2010. The life sciences hold the largest percentage of postdoctoral researchers on temporary visas; in 2008, approximately 56% of postdoctoral researchers in the life sciences were temporary residents. Of these postdoctoral researchers on temporary visas, four out of five earned their PhD outside of the United States. There exists fear that foreign PhD's are taking postdoctoral research positions from American researchers. The influx of foreign PhD's has influenced the supply of ready-researchers, and thereby, the wages. One estimate claims that a 10% increase in the supply of foreign postdoctoral researchers lower the position salary by 3–4%.
In the US, life sciences have a greater share than other fields due to higher federal funding of life and medical science areas since mid 1990 . One survey shows that 54% of postdoctoral researchers major in life sciences, whereas those who majored in physical science, mathematics, and engineering account for 28%.
In 2010, postdoctoral researchers in California formed a union, UAW Local 5810 in order to secure better working conditions such as the right to file a complaint for alleged discrimination or sexual harassment through a formal grievance procedure. In California, new postdoctoral appointments receive at least the NIH postdoctoral minimum salary ($39,264 in 2011) and many receive annual pay raises of 5–7% or more in accordance with the NIH’s Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards (NRSA).
In 2014, postdoctoral researchers in Boston organized the "Future of Research" Symposium to respond to a conversation about the state of biomedical research from the perspective of junior scientists. The meeting included panel discussions with academics concerned about the scientific enterprise, a video message from Massachusetts senator Elizabeth Warren, and workshops discussing training, funding, the structure of the biomedical workforce, and metrics and incentives in science which were used to generate recommendations in a white paper. Meetings organized by postdoctoral researchers in 2015 spread to New York University (NYU), Chicago and San Francisco and a second meeting in Boston discussed data collection, labor economics and evidence-based policy to advocate for changes to science, including the future of the PhD.
Most of India's premier engineering, science and management institutes (like Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISERs) and Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs)) have postdoctoral positions. The salary typically varies from INR 40,000 – 70,000 per month. For example, IIT Kharagpur, IIT Delhi, IIT Kanpur, IIT Bombay, IIT Madras, IISER Mohali, IISER Pune, IISER Kolkata, IIM Kolkata offer postdoctoral fellowships.
Salaried appointments at the minimum Level A, Step 6 for academic salaries, for doctoral qualified employees (beginning in 2008) are set at A$75,612 p.a. at the University of Sydney, A$75,404 p.a. at the University of Melbourne,[full citation needed] and A$75,612 p.a. at the University of New South Wales.[full citation needed]
Alternatively the Australian Research Council (ARC) provides Postdoctoral Fellowships. For example, their Discovery Projects, funds 3 year Fellowships, beginning in 2009, with A$61,399 p.a. Furthermore, a mandatory superannuation payment of 11–17% is paid by Universities.
The postdoctoral system in China was founded in 1985 upon suggestion by Chinese American physicist and Nobel laureate Tsung-Dao Lee. The Office of the National Administrative Committee of Postdoctoral Researchers (Chinese: 全国博士后管理委员会办公室) regulates all postdoctoral mobile stations (Chinese: 博士后科研流动站) at universities and postdoctoral work stations (Chinese: 博士后科研工作站) at institutes and enterprises in mainland China. Applicants to postdoctoral positions have to pass a detailed medical check-up in order to enter the stations (Chinese: 进站). Postdoctoral researchers are required to undergo regular evaluations, and submit a research report for evaluation at the end of the postdoctoral period to obtain approval to leave the stations (Chinese: 出站). Those who are approved to leave the stations will receive a postdoctoral certificate from the national administration office. In some universities, postdoctoral researchers who fail to leave their stations normally, either due to failing their evaluations or early withdrawal from the stations (Chinese: 退站), may be asked to pay back the grants or even the salaries that they have received. Because of the way that the postdoctoral system is managed, postdoctoral research is widely mistaken to be an academic degree in China. Also, the government's administration of the postdoctoral system is blasted for hindering innovative research, as too much effort is spent on evaluations, and overemphasis on performance prevents the creation of a relaxing research environment.
- Nature, volume 520, 9 April 2015.
- Postdoctoral study, Cornell University[full citation needed]
- "What is a Postdoc?". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
- Powell, Kendall (2015). "The future of the postdoc: There is a growing number of postdocs and few places in academia for them to go". Nature. 520 (7546): 144–7. doi:10.1038/520144a. PMID 25855437.
- "National Postdoctoral Association: Career Development Resources". NationalPostDoc.org. Archived from the original on 2015-03-16.
- Bourne, P. E.; Friedberg, I. (2006). "Ten Simple Rules for Selecting a Postdoctoral Position". PLoS Computational Biology. 2 (11): e121. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0020121. PMC 1664706. PMID 17121457.
- Ruben, A. (2013). "The Postdoc: A Special Kind of Hell". Science. doi:10.1126/science.caredit.a1300256.
- Brooks, I. M. (2008). "Postdoc glut means academic pathway needs an overhaul". Nature. 454 (7208): 1049. doi:10.1038/4541049a. PMID 18756230.
- Theodosiou, M; Rennard, J. P.; Amir-Aslani, A (2012). "The rise of the professional master's degree: The answer to the postdoc/PhD bubble". Nature Biotechnology. 30 (4): 367–8. doi:10.1038/nbt.2180. PMID 22491294.
- Odom, D. T. (2014). "Survival strategies for choosing the right postdoc position". Genome Biology. 15 (3): 107. doi:10.1186/gb4163. PMC 4053951. PMID 25001498.
- Lauto, G.; Sengoku, S. (2015). "Perceived incentives to transdisciplinarity in a Japanese university research center". Futures. 65: 136–149. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2014.10.010.
- Cyranoski, D.; Gilbert, N.; Ledford, H.; Nayar, A.; Yahia, M. (2011). "Education: The PhD factory". Nature. 472 (7343): 276–279. doi:10.1038/472276a. PMID 21512548.
- McCook, A. (2011). "Education: Rethinking PhDs. Fix it, overhaul it or skip it completely — institutions and individuals are taking innovative approaches to postgraduate science training". Nature. 472 (7343): 280–282. doi:10.1038/472280a. PMID 21512549.
- Anon (2014). "Harsh reality: Two reports highlight the plight of postdocs on both sides of the pond aiming for academia". Nature. 516 (7529): 7–8. doi:10.1038/516007b. PMID 25471843.
- Kaplan, K. (2010). "Academia: The changing face of tenure". Nature. 468 (7320): 123–125. doi:10.1038/nj7320-123a.
- Jones, A. (2013). "The explosive growth of postdocs in computer science". Communications of the ACM. 56 (2): 37. doi:10.1145/2408776.2408801.
- Anon (2011). "Fix the PhD: No longer a guaranteed ticket to an academic career, the PhD system needs a serious rethink". Nature. 472 (7343): 259–260. doi:10.1038/472259b. PMID 21512527.
- Rohn, J. (2011). "Give postdocs a career, not empty promises". Nature. 471 (7336): 7. doi:10.1038/471007a. PMID 21368781.
- Alberts, B; Kirschner, M. W.; Tilghman, S; Varmus, H (2015). "Opinion: Addressing systemic problems in the biomedical research enterprise". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (7): 1912–3. doi:10.1073/pnas.1500969112. PMC 4343141. PMID 25691698.
- "UK GRAD Programme: Physical sciences and engineering PhD graduates from 2003 at a glance". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 4 December 2007.
- "UCU – University and College Union – Research staff".
- "Science and Engineering Labor Force. In Science and Engineering Indicators 2012" (PDF).
- Gewin, V (2010). "The spread of postdoc unions". Nature. 467 (7316): 739–41. doi:10.1038/467638a. PMID 20930810.
- http://www.sigmaxi.org/postdoc/highlights.pdf Archived 23 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine[full citation needed]
- "Pathway Through Graduate School and Into Careers" (PDF).
- "Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship Program".
- "Graduate Enrollment in Science and Engineering Grew Substantially in the Past Decade but Slowed in 2010".
- Stephan, Paula (2012). How Economics Shapes Science. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 166–167, 195. ISBN 978-0-674-04971-0.
- "Budget of NSF for the fiscal year 2015".
- "Postdoctoral Education Survey Summary of Results".
- Kristen Minogue (Aug 13, 2010). "California Postdocs Embrace Union Contract". Science Insider. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
- "Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA) Stipends, Tuition/Fees and Other Budgetary Levels Effective for Fiscal Year 2012". National Institutes of Health.
- Alberts, Bruce; Kirschner, Marc W.; Tilghman, Shirley; Varmus, Harold (2014-04-22). "Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (16): 5773–5777. doi:10.1073/pnas.1404402111. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 4000813. PMID 24733905.
- McDowell, Gary S.; Gunsalus, Kearney T. W.; MacKellar, Drew C.; Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Pai, Vaibhav P.; Goodwin, Patricia R.; Walsh, Erica M.; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A. (2014). "Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists". F1000Research. 3: 291. doi:10.12688/f1000research.5878.2. PMC 4304227. PMID 25653845.
- Gould, Julie (2015). "How to build a better PhD". Nature. 528 (7580): 22–25. doi:10.1038/528022a. PMID 26632571.
- IIT Delhi, PostDoc. "Postdoc in IIT Delhi". IIT Delhi. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 August 2009. Retrieved 29 July 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link), Retrieved on 4 June 2012
- http://policy.unimelb.edu.au/UOM0115#section-1.1.1, Retrieved on 4 June 2012[full citation needed]
- http://www.hr.unsw.edu.au/services/salaries/acadsal.html, Retrieved on 4 June 2012[full citation needed]
- Discovery Projects – Australian Research Council (ARC) Archived 19 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Appendix 3, p. 58, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link), Retrieved on 22 July 2008
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link), Retrieved on 22 July 2008
- "China establishes 4,300 postdoc research centers". People's Daily. November 29, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2018.
- Ministry of Personnel of the PRC. "关于印发《博士后管理工作规定》的通知". 中国博士后网 (in Chinese). Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- "复旦大学博士后退站流程". Fudan University (in Chinese). Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- "上海交通大学关于调整博士后相关管理工作规定的通知". Shanghai Jiao Tong University (in Chinese). Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- "药学院博士后流动站管理工作实施细则". School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University (in Chinese). Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- "西安理工大学博士后研究人员管理办法". Xi'an University of Technology (in Chinese). Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- "上海体育学院博士后管理办法". Shanghai University of Sport (in Chinese). Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- "华东政法大学师资博士后研究人员工作协议". East China University of Political Science and Law (in Chinese). Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- "求助：博后中途退站——退还之前发放生活补贴？". 小木虫 (in Chinese). Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- "两会热点校长说：校长后加副部级丢人 把博士后当成学位很荒唐". Guancha (in Chinese). March 10, 2015. Retrieved November 18, 2018.