Potamotrygon

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Potamotrygon
Potamotrygon adventure aquarium.jpg
Potamotrygon motoro
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Order: Myliobatiformes
Family: Potamotrygonidae
Genus: Potamotrygon
Garman, 1877
Type species
Trygon hystrix
J. P. Müller & Henle, 1841

Potamotrygon is a genus of freshwater stingrays in the family Potamotrygonidae native to the rivers of South America,[1] and sometimes seen in the aquarium trade.[2]

Like other stingrays, the fishes of this genus have venomous barbs at the base of their tails, and their stings are dangerous to humans.[2] It is said that the natives of South America fear the stingray more than they do the piranha.[3]

Potamotrygon vary considerably in color, pattern and size, with the maximum disc width ranging from 31 cm (1 ft) in P. wallacei to 1.5 m (5 ft) in P. brachyura.[4][5]

In the aquarium[edit]

Though freshwater stingray of other genera do appear in the trade, most are from Potamotrygon. They are best kept with a deep, sandy substrate, in which they bury themselves, often with only the eyes visible. They are not territorial with other animals and can be kept in groups, provided a large enough aquarium is provided. They are carnivorous bottom feeders and require strong filtration as they are rather sensitive to water conditions.[2] Many species of stingray have been bred in captivity and males can be determined by the presence of claspers as in other Chondrichthyans.

Species[edit]

There are currently 27 recognized species in this genus:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2016). Species of Potamotrygon in FishBase. October 2016 version.
  2. ^ a b c Dawes, J. (2001). Complete Encyclopedia of the Freshwater Aquarium. New York: Firefly Books Ltd. ISBN 1-55297-544-4. 
  3. ^ Axelrod, H.R. (1996). Exotic Tropical Fishes. T.F.H. Publications. ISBN 0-87666-543-1. 
  4. ^ a b Carvalho, M.R.d., Rosa, R.S. & Araújo, M.L.G. (2016): A new species of Neotropical freshwater stingray (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) from the Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil: the smallest species of Potamotrygon. Zootaxa, 4107 (4): 566-586.
  5. ^ Oddone, M.C., G. Velasco & G. Rincon (2008). Occurrence of freshwater stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) in the Uruguay River and its tributaries, Uruguay, South America. International Journal of Ichthyology 14 (2): 69-76.
  6. ^ a b Carvalho, M.R.d. (2016): Description of two extraordinary new species of freshwater stingrays of the genus Potamotrygon endemic to the rio Tapajós basin, Brazil (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), with notes on other Tapajós stingrays. Zootaxa, 4167 (1): 1–63.
  7. ^ a b Loboda, T.S. & Carvalho, M.R.d. (2013): Systematic revision of the Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841) species complex in the Paraná-Paraguay basin, with description of two new ocellated species (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae). Neotropical Ichthyology, 11 (4): 693–737.
  8. ^ Rosa, R.S., Carvalho, M.R.d. & Wanderley, C.d.A. (2008): Potamotrygon boesemani (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae), a new species of Neotropical freshwater stingray from Surinam. Neotropical Ichthyology, 6 (1): 1–8.
  9. ^ Fontenelle, J.P., Silva, J.P.C.B.d. & Carvalho, M.R.d. (2014): Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., a new species of freshwater stingray from the upper Madeira River system, Amazon basin (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae). Zootaxa, 3765 (3): 249–268.
  10. ^ Carvalho, M.R.d. (2016): Potamotrygon rex, a new species of Neotropical freshwater stingray (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) from the middle and upper rio Tocantins, Brazil, closely allied to Potamotrygon henlei (Castelnau, 1855). Zootaxa, 4150 (5): 537–565.
  11. ^ Carvalho, M.R.d., Sabaj Pérez, M.H. & Lovejoy, N.R. (2011): Potamotrygon tigrina, a new species of freshwater stingray from the upper Amazon basin, closely related to Potamotrygon schroederi Fernandez-Yépez, 1958 (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae). Zootaxa, 2827: 1–30.