Potassium-ion battery

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A potassium-ion battery or K-ion battery (abbreviated as KIB) is a type of battery and analogue to lithium-ion batteries, using potassium ions for charge transfer instead of lithium ions. It was invented by the Iranian/American chemist Ali Eftekhari (President of the American Nano Society) in 2004.[1]

Prototype[edit]

The prototype device used a potassium anode and a Prussian blue compound as the cathode material[1] for its high electrochemical stability.[2] The prototype was successfully used for more than 500 cycles. A recent review showed currently that several pragmatic materials have been successfully used as the anode and cathode for the new generations of potassium-ion batteries.[3] For example, the conventional anode material graphite has been shown that it can be used as anode in potassium-ion battery.[4]

Materials[edit]

After the invention of potassium-ion battery with the prototype device, increasingly researches have been focusing on enhancing the specific capacity and cycling performance with the application of new materials to electrode and electrolyte. A general picture of the material used for potassium-ion battery can be found as follows:

Anodes: Same as the case of Lithium-ion battery, graphite could also accommodate the intercalation of potassium within electrochemical process[5]. Whereas with different kinetics, graphite anode suffers from low capacity retention during cycling within potassium-ion battery. Thus, the approach of structure engineering of graphite anode is needed to achieve stable performance. Other types of carbonaceous materials besides graphite have been employed as anode material for potassium-ion battery, such as expanded graphite, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers and also Nitrogen or Phosphorus doped carbon materials.[6] Conversion anodes which can form compound with potassium ion with boosted storage capacity and reversibility have also been studied to fit for potassium-ion battery. To buffer the volume change of conversion anode, a carbon material matrix is always applied such as MoS2@rGO, Sb2S3-SNG, SnS2-rGO and so on.[7][8] Classic alloying anodes such as Si, Sb and Sn that can form alloy with Lithium ion during cycling process are also applicable for potassium-ion battery. Among them Sb is the most promising candidate due to its low cost and the theoretical capacity up to 660 mAh g-1.[9] Other organic compounds are also being developed to achieve strong mechanical strength as well as maintaining decent performance.[10]

Cathodes: Besides the original Prussian blue cathode and its analogs, researches on cathode part of potassium ion battery focus on engineering of nanostructure and solid ionics. A series of potassium transition metal oxide such as K0.3MnO2, K0.55CoO2 have been demonstrated as cathode material with a layered structure.[11] Polyanionic compounds with inductive defects could provide the highest working voltage among other types of cathode for potassium-ion batteries. During the electrochemical cycling process, its crystal structure will be distorted to created more induced defects upon the insertion of potassium ion . Recham et al first demonstrated that fluorosulfates have a reversible intercalation mechanism with K, Na and Li, since then, other polyanionic compound such as K3V2(PO4)3, KVPO4F have been studied, while still limited to the complex synthesis process.[12] Worth noting is an orthodox approach of using organic compound as cathode for potassium-ion battery, such as PTCDA, a red pigment which can bond with 11 potassium ion within single molecule.[13]

Electrolytes: Due to the chemical activity higher than lithium, electrolytes for potassium ion battery requires more delicate engineering to address safety concerns. Commercial ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) or other traditional ether/ester liquid electrolyte showed poor cycling performance and fast capacity degradation due to the Lewis acidity of potassium, also the highly flammable feature of it has prevented further application. Ionic liquid electrolyte offers new way to expand electrochemical window of potassium ion battery with much negative redox voltage and it's especially stable with graphite anode.[14] Recently, solid polymer electrolyte for all-solid-state potassium-ion battery have attracted much attention due to its flexibility and enhanced safety, Feng et al proposed a poly (propylene carbonate)-KFSI solid polymer electrolyte with the frame work of cellulose non-woven membrane, with boosted ionic conductivity of 1.36 10-5 S cm-1.[15] Research on electrolyte for potassium-ion battery is focusing on achieving fast ion diffusion kinetics, stable SEI formation as well as enhanced safety.

Advantages[edit]

Along with the sodium-ion battery, the potassium-ion battery is the prime candidate to replace lithium-ion batteries.[16] The potassium battery has certain advantages over similar lithium batteries (e.g., lithium-ion batteries): the cell design is simple and both the material and the fabrication procedure are cheaper. The key advantage is the abundance and low cost of potassium in comparison with lithium, which makes potassium batteries a promising candidate for large scale batteries such as household energy storage and electric vehicles.[17] Another advantage of potassium-ion battery over lithium-ion battery is the possibility for charging faster.[18] This means that the next generation of mobile phones based on potassium-ion batteries can be charged within a few minutes only. [19]

The prototype employed a KBF
4
electrolyte though almost all common electrolyte salts can be used. In addition, ionic liquids have also recently been reported as stable electrolytes with a wide electrochemical window.[20][21] The chemical diffusion coefficient of K+
in the cell is higher than that of Li+
in lithium batteries, due to a smaller Stokes radius of solvated K+
. Since the electrochemical potential of K+
is identical to that of Li+
, the cell potential is similar to that of lithium-ion. Potassium batteries can accept a wide range of cathode materials which can offer rechargeability lower cost. One noticeable advantage is the availability of potassium graphite, which is used as an anode material in some lithium-ion batteries. Its stable structure guarantees a reversible intercalation/de-intercalation of potassium ions under charge/discharge.

Applications[edit]

In 2005, a potassium battery that uses molten electrolyte of KPF
6
was patented.[22][23] In 2007, Chinese company Starsway Electronics marketed the first potassium battery-powered portable media player as a high-energy device.[24]

Potassium batteries have been proposed for large-scale energy storage given its exceptional cycleability.[25][26]

Biological potassium battery[edit]

The interesting and unique feature of potassium-ion battery in comparison with other types of batteries is that the life on the planet is somehow based on biological potassium-ion batteries. K+ is the key charge carrier in plants. Circulation of K+ ions facilitates the energy storage in plants by forming decentralized potassium batteries.[27] This is not only an iconic feature of potassium-ion batteries but also indicates how important it is to understand the role of K+ charge carriers to understand the living mechanism of plants.

Other potassium batteries[edit]

Researchers demonstrated a potassium-air battery (K−O2) with low overpotential. Its charge/discharge potential gap of about 50 mV is the lowest reported value in metal−air batteries. This provide round-trip energy efficiency of >95%. In comparison, lithium–air batteries (Li-O2) have a much higher overpotential of 1–1.5 V, which results in 60% round-trip efficiency.[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Eftekhari, A (2004). "Potassium secondary cell based on Prussian blue cathode". Journal of Power Sources. 126 (1): 221–228. Bibcode:2004JPS...126..221E. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2003.08.007.
  2. ^ Itaya, K; Ataka, T; Toshima, S (1982). "Spectroelectrochemistry and electrochemical preparation method of Prussian Blue modified electrodes". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 104 (18): 4767. doi:10.1021/ja00382a006.
  3. ^ Eftekhari, A; Jian, Z; Ji, X (2017). "Potassium Secondary Batteries". ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 9 (5): 4404–4419. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b07989. PMID 27714999.
  4. ^ Luo, W; Wan, J; Ozdemir, B (2015). "Potassium Ion Batteries with Graphitic Materials". Nano Letters. 15 (11): 7671–7. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b03667. PMID 26509225.
  5. ^ Jian, Zelang; Luo, Wei; Ji, Xiulei (2015-09-16). "Carbon Electrodes for K-Ion Batteries". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 137 (36): 11566–11569. doi:10.1021/jacs.5b06809. ISSN 0002-7863. PMID 26333059.
  6. ^ Hwang, Jang-Yeon; Myung, Seung-Taek; Sun, Yang-Kook (2018). "Recent Progress in Rechargeable Potassium Batteries". Advanced Functional Materials. 28 (43): 1802938. doi:10.1002/adfm.201802938. ISSN 1616-3028.
  7. ^ Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei (2017-02-08). "Potassium Secondary Batteries". ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 9 (5): 4404–4419. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b07989. ISSN 1944-8244. PMID 27714999.
  8. ^ Tian, Yuan; An, Yongling; Feng, Jinkui (2019-03-13). "Flexible and Freestanding Silicon/MXene Composite Papers for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries". ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 11 (10): 10004–10011. doi:10.1021/acsami.8b21893. ISSN 1944-8244.
  9. ^ An, Yongling; Tian, Yuan; Ci, Lijie; Xiong, Shenglin; Feng, Jinkui; Qian, Yitai (2018-12-26). "Micron-Sized Nanoporous Antimony with Tunable Porosity for High-Performance Potassium-Ion Batteries". ACS Nano. 12 (12): 12932–12940. doi:10.1021/acsnano.8b08740. ISSN 1936-0851.
  10. ^ Chen, Xiudong; Zhang, Hang; Ci, Chenggang; Sun, Weiwei; Wang, Yong (2019-03-26). "Few-Layered Boronic Ester Based Covalent Organic Frameworks/Carbon Nanotube Composites for High-Performance K-Organic Batteries". ACS Nano. 13 (3): 3600–3607. doi:10.1021/acsnano.9b00165. ISSN 1936-0851.
  11. ^ Pramudita, James C.; Sehrawat, Divya; Goonetilleke, Damian; Sharma, Neeraj (2017). "An Initial Review of the Status of Electrode Materials for Potassium-Ion Batteries". Advanced Energy Materials. 7 (24): 1602911. doi:10.1002/aenm.201602911. ISSN 1614-6840.
  12. ^ Recham, Nadir; Rousse, Gwenaëlle; Sougrati, Moulay T.; Chotard, Jean-Noël; Frayret, Christine; Mariyappan, Sathiya; Melot, Brent C.; Jumas, Jean-Claude; Tarascon, Jean-Marie (2012-11-27). "Preparation and Characterization of a Stable FeSO4F-Based Framework for Alkali Ion Insertion Electrodes". Chemistry of Materials. 24 (22): 4363–4370. doi:10.1021/cm302428w. ISSN 0897-4756.
  13. ^ Chen, Yanan; Luo, Wei; Carter, Marcus; Zhou, Lihui; Dai, Jiaqi; Fu, Kun; Lacey, Steven; Li, Tian; Wan, Jiayu; Han, Xiaogang; Bao, Yanping (2015-11-01). "Organic electrode for non-aqueous potassium-ion batteries". Nano Energy. 18: 205–211. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.10.015. ISSN 2211-2855.
  14. ^ Beltrop, K.; Beuker, S.; Heckmann, A.; Winter, M.; Placke, T. (2017). "Alternative electrochemical energy storage: potassium-based dual-graphite batteries". Energy & Environmental Science. 10 (10): 2090–2094. doi:10.1039/C7EE01535F. ISSN 1754-5692.
  15. ^ Fei, Huifang; Liu, Yining; An, Yongling; Xu, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Guifang; Tian, Yuan; Ci, Lijie; Xi, Baojuan; Xiong, Shenglin; Feng, Jinkui (2018-09-30). "Stable all-solid-state potassium battery operating at room temperature with a composite polymer electrolyte and a sustainable organic cathode". Journal of Power Sources. 399: 294–298. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.07.124. ISSN 0378-7753.
  16. ^ "New battery concept: potassium instead of lithium". 8 October 2015.
  17. ^ "High-Capacity Aqueous Potassium-Ion Batteries for Large-Scale Energy Storage". 2 December 2016.
  18. ^ "Potassium Ions Charge Li Batteries Faster". 20 January 2017.
  19. ^ "Researchers reveal 'supercharger' battery breakthrough that could lead to phones that charge in minutes". 18 January 2017.
  20. ^ Yamamoto, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Hagiwara, Rika; Nohira, Toshiyuki (7 August 2017). "Physicochemical and Electrochemical Properties of K[N(SO2F)2]–[N-Methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium][N(SO2F)2] Ionic Liquids for Potassium-Ion Batteries". The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 121 (34): 18450–18458. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b06523.
  21. ^ "Rechargeable potassium-ion batteries with honeycomb-layered tellurates as high voltage cathodes and fast potassium-ion conductors". 20 September 2018.
  22. ^ US 20090263717  Ramasubramanian, M; Spotnitz, RM
  23. ^ US 2005017219  Li, W; Kohoma, K; Armand, M; Perron, G
  24. ^ Melanson, D (24 October 2007). "China's Starsway touts potassium battery-powered PMP". Engadget. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  25. ^ "New Battery Technology Could Provide Large-Scale Energy Storage for the Grid". 25 November 2011.
  26. ^ "Battery electrode's 40,000 charge cycles look promising for grid storage". 22 November 2011.
  27. ^ Gajdanowicz, Pawel (2010). "Potassium (K+) gradients serve as a mobile energy source in plant vascular tissues". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (2): 864–869. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108..864G. doi:10.1073/pnas.1009777108. PMC 3021027. PMID 21187374.
  28. ^ Ren, Xiaodi; Wu, Yiying (2013). "A Low-Overpotential Potassium−Oxygen Battery Based on Potassium Superoxide". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 135 (8): 2923–2926. doi:10.1021/ja312059q. PMID 23402300.

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