A potassium-ion battery is a type of battery and analogue to lithium-ion batteries, using potassium ions for charge transfer instead of lithium ions. It was introduced by the Iranian/American chemist Ali Eftekhari (President of the American Nano Society). The device used a potassium compound Prussian blue as the cathode material for its high electrochemical stability. The prototype was successfully used for more than 500 cycles. A recent review showed currently that several pragmatic materials have been successfully used as the anode and cathode for the new generations of potassium-ion batteries.
The potassium battery has certain advantages over similar lithium batteries (e.g., lithium-ion batteries): the cell design is simple and both the material and the fabrication procedure are cheaper. The prototype employed a KBF
4 electrolyte though almost all common electrolyte salts can be used. The chemical diffusion coefficient of K+
in the cell is higher than that of Li+
in lithium batteries, due to a smaller Stokes radius of solvated K+
. Since the electrochemical potential of K+
is identical to that of Li+
, the cell potential is similar to that of lithium-ion. Potassium batteries can accept a wide range of cathode materials which can offer rechargeability lower cost. One noticeable advantage is the availability of potassium graphite, which is used as an anode material in some lithium-ion batteries. Its stable structure guarantees a reversible intercalation/de-intercalation of potassium ions under charge/discharge.
In 2005, a potassium battery that uses molten electrolyte of KPF
6 was patented. In 2007, Chinese company Starsway Electronics marketed the first potassium battery-powered portable media player as a high-energy device.
Researchers demonstrated a potassium-air (K−O2) battery with low overpotential. Its charge/discharge potential gap of about 50 mV is the lowest reported value in metal−air batteries. This provide round-trip energy efficiency of >95%. In comparison, Li-O2 batteries have a much higher overpotential of 1–1.5 V, which results in 60% round-trip efficiency.
- Lithium-ion battery
- Sodium-ion battery
- Lithium–air battery
- Thin-film battery
- Rechargeable electricity storage system
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- Eftekhari, A; Jian, Z; Ji, X (2017). "Potassium Secondary Batteries". ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 9 (5): 4404. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b07989.
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- Melanson, D (24 October 2007). "China's Starsway touts potassium battery-powered PMP". Engadget. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- "New Battery Technology Could Provide Large-Scale Energy Storage for the Grid". 25 November 2011.
- "Battery electrode's 40,000 charge cycles look promising for grid storage". 22 November 2011.
- "A Low-Overpotential Potassium−Oxygen Battery Based on Potassium Superoxide".