Potassium bisulfate

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Potassium bisulfate
One potassium cation and one hydrogensulfate anion
Ball-and-stick model of the component ions
Potassium bisulfate crystals on filter paper
Names
IUPAC name
Potassium hydrogen sulfate
Other names
Potassium acid sulfate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.722
EC Number 231-594-1
RTECS number TS7200000
UN number 2509
Properties
KHSO4
Molar mass 136.169 g/mol
Appearance colorless solid
Odor odorless
Density 2.245 g/cm3
Melting point 197 °C (387 °F; 470 K)
Boiling point 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K) (decomposes)
36.6 g/100 mL (0 °C)
49 g/100 mL (20 °C)
121.6 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility soluble in acetone, ethanol.
−49.8·10−6 cm3/mol
Thermochemistry
-1163.3 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet External MSDS
Corrosive (C)
R-phrases (outdated) R34, R36, R37, R38
S-phrases (outdated) (S1/2), S26, S36/37/39, S45
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
2340 mg*kg−1
Related compounds
Related compounds
Sodium bisulfate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Potassium bisulfate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KHSO4 and is the potassium acid salt of sulfuric acid.

Natural Occurrence[edit]

Mercallite, the mineralogical form of potassium bisulfate, occurs very rarely. Misenite is another, more complex, form of potassium bisulfate.

Preparation[edit]

Potassium bisulfate is prepared by neutralizing sulfuric acid with an equal molar amount of a potassium containing base, for example potassium hydroxide:[1]

H2SO4 + KOH → KHSO4 + H2O

Potassium bisulfate is also formed by the union of sulfuric acid with potassium sulfate:[2]

H2SO4 + K2SO4 → 2 KHSO4

Potassium bisulfate is also the main by-product in the production of nitric acid from potassium nitrate and sulfuric acid:[3]

KNO3 + H2SO4 → KHSO4 + HNO3

Chemical Properties[edit]

Thermal decomposition of potassium bisulfate forms potassium pyrosulfate and water:[2]

2 KHSO4 → K2S2O7 + H2O

Temperatures above 600 °C further decompose potassium bisulfate to potassium sulfate and sulfur trioxide:[4]

2 KHSO4 → K2SO4 + SO3 + H2O

Aqueous solutions of potassium bisulfate behave as two separate, uncombined compounds, K2SO4 and H2SO4. Adding ethanol to the solution precipitates out potassium sulfate.[citation needed]

Uses[edit]

Potassium bisulfate is commonly used to prepare potassium bitartrate for winemaking.[citation needed] Potassium bisulfate is also used as a disintegrating agent in analytical chemistry or as a precursor to prepare potassium persulfate, a powerful oxidizing agent.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McPherson, William (1913). A Course in General Chemistry. New York: Ginn and Company. p. 156. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  2. ^ a b Washington Wiley, Harvey (1895). Principles and Practice of Agricultural Analysis: Fertilizers. Easton, PA.: Chemical Publishing Co. p. 218. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  3. ^ Pradyot, Patnaik (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 636. ISBN 0070494398. 
  4. ^ Iredelle Dillard Hinds, John (1908). Inorganic Chemistry: With the Elements of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 547. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  5. ^ Brauer, Georg (1963). Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry Vol. 1, 2nd Ed. Newyork: Academic Press. p. 392. ISBN 978-0121266011. 
Salts and esters of the sulfate ion
H2SO4 He
Li2SO4 BeSO4 B esters
ROSO3
(RO)2SO2
(NH4)2SO4
N2H6SO4
(NH3OH)2SO4
O F Ne
Na2SO4
NaHSO4
MgSO4 Al2(SO4)3
Al2SO4(OAc)4
Si P SO42− Cl Ar
K2SO4
KHSO4
CaSO4 Sc2(SO4)3 Ti(SO4)2
TiOSO4
VSO4
V2(SO4)3
VOSO4
CrSO4
Cr2(SO4)3
MnSO4
Mn2(SO4)3
FeSO4
Fe2(SO4)3
CoSO4
Co2(SO4)3
NiSO4 CuSO4
Cu2SO4
ZnSO4 Ga2(SO4)3 Ge As Se Br Kr
RbHSO4
Rb2SO4
SrSO4 Y2(SO4)3 Zr(SO4)2 Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh PdSO4 Ag2SO4 CdSO4 In2(SO4)3 SnSO4 Sb2(SO4)3 Te I Xe
Cs2SO4 BaSO4   Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg2SO4
HgSO4
Tl2SO4
Tl2(SO4)3
PbSO4 Bi2(SO4)3 Po At Rn
Fr Ra   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
La Ce2(SO4)3
Ce(SO4)2
Pr2(SO4)3 Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb2(SO4)3 Lu
Ac Th Pa U(SO4)2
UO2SO4
Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr