Bromic acid, potassium salt
|Jmol interactive 3D||Image|
|Molar mass||167.00 g/mol|
|Appearance||white crystalline powder|
|Melting point||350 °C (662 °F; 623 K)|
|Boiling point||370 °C (698 °F; 643 K) (decomposes)|
|3.1 g/100 mL (0 °C)
6.91 g/100 mL (20 °C)
13.3 g/100 mL (40 °C)
49.7 g/100 mL (100 °C)
|Solubility||slightly soluble in alcohol
insoluble in acetone, ethanol
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||ICSC 1115|
EU classification (DSD)
|Carc. Cat. 2
|R-phrases||R45 R9 R25|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (Median dose)
|157 mg/kg (oral, rat)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Uses in baking
Although banned for use in foods by many countries, in the USA Potassium bromate is typically used as a flour improver (E number E924). It acts to strengthen the dough and to allow higher rising. It is an oxidizing agent, and under the right conditions, will be completely used up in the baking bread. However, if too much is added, or if the bread is not baked long enough or not at a high enough temperature, then a residual amount will remain, which may be harmful if consumed. Potassium bromate might also be used in the production of malt barley where the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has prescribed certain conditions where it may be used safely, which includes labeling standards for the finished malt barley product. It is a very powerful oxidizer (E° = 1.5 volts comparable to potassium permanganate).
A dramatic reaction to the use of potassium bromate in baked goods was famously portrayed in an episode of Fringe (TV series), wherein a main character, upon reading the ingredients on a box mass-produced, strawberry-flavored toaster pastries, exclaims: "Death! Delicious, strawberry-flavored death!"
Potassium bromate has been banned from use in food products in the European Union, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Nigeria, South Korea, Peru and some other countries. It was banned in Sri Lanka in 2001 and China in 2005.
In the United States of America, it has not been banned. The FDA sanctioned the use of bromate before the Delaney clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act—which bans potentially carcinogenic substances— went into effect in 1958. But since 1991 the FDA has urged bakers to voluntarily stop using it. In California a warning label is required when bromated flour is used.
Japanese baked goods manufacturers stopped using potassium bromate voluntarily in 1980; however, Yamazaki Baking resumed its use in 2005, claiming they had new production methods to reduce the amount of the chemical which remained in the final product.
- Section 172.730 Potassium Bromate, Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption, US Code of Federal Regulations, US Food and Drug Administration
- "5 Things That Were Awesome In Last Week's Fringe". io9. Gawker Media. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
...this scene has already become a Youtube classic.
- Fringe Season 2, Episode 21: "Northwest Passage" 6 May 2010
- Powell, Bonnie. "Health risks of potassium bromate maybe not so ‘Fringe’". Grist (magazine). Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- IARC--Summaries & Evaluations: Potassium Bromate (Group 2B), International Agency for Research on Cancer
- Bridges Across Borders, Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide
- California OEHHA Bromate Meets the Criteria for Listing
- AsiaPulse News: Japan's Yamazaki Baking to use potassium bromate in bread