Potassium fluoride

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Potassium fluoride
Potassium-fluoride-3D-ionic.png
Names
IUPAC name
Potassium fluoride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.228
EC Number 232-151-5
RTECS number TT0700000
UNII
Properties
KF
Molar mass 58.0967 g/mol (anhydrous)
94.1273 g/mol (dihydrate)
Appearance colourless
Density 2.48 g/cm3
Melting point 858 °C (1,576 °F; 1,131 K) (anhydrous)
41 °C (dihydrate)
19.3 °C (trihydrate)
Boiling point 1,502 °C (2,736 °F; 1,775 K)
anhydrous:
92 g/100 mL (18 °C)
102 g/100 mL (25 °C)
dihydrate:
349.3 g/100 mL (18 °C)
Solubility soluble in HF
insoluble in alcohol
−23.6·10−6 cm3/mol
Structure
cubic
Hazards
GHS pictograms The skull-and-crossbones pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word Danger
H301, H311, H331[1]
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gasReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
0
3
0
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
245 mg/kg (oral, rat)[2]
Related compounds
Other anions
Potassium chloride
Potassium bromide
Potassium iodide
Potassium astatide
Other cations
Lithium fluoride
Sodium fluoride
Rubidium fluoride
Caesium fluoride
Francium fluoride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula KF. After hydrogen fluoride, KF is the primary source of the fluoride ion for applications in manufacturing and in chemistry. It is an alkali halide and occurs naturally as the rare mineral carobbiite. Solutions of KF will etch glass due to the formation of soluble fluorosilicates, although HF is more effective.

Preparation[edit]

Potassium fluoride is prepared by dissolving potassium carbonate in excess hydrofluoric acid. Evaporation of the solution forms crystals of potassium bifluoride. The bifluoride on heating yields potassium fluoride:

K2CO3 + 4HF → 2KHF2 + CO2↑ + H2O
KHF2 → KF + HF↑

The salt must not be prepared in glass or porcelain vessels as HF and the aqueous solution of KF corrode glass and porcelain. Heat resistant plastic or platinum containers may be used.

Applications in organic chemistry[edit]

In organic chemistry, KF can be used for the conversion of chlorocarbons into fluorocarbons, via the Finkelstein reaction.[3] Such reactions usually employ polar solvents such as dimethyl formamide, ethylene glycol, and dimethyl sulfoxide.[4]

Safety considerations[edit]

Like other sources of the fluoride ion, F, KF is poisonous, although lethal doses approach gram levels for humans. It is harmful by inhalation and ingestion. It is highly corrosive, and skin contact may cause severe burns.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Potassium Fluoride". sigmaaldrich.com. Retrieved 2018-12-20.
  2. ^ Chambers, Michael. "ChemIDplus - 7789-23-3 - NROKBHXJSPEDAR-UHFFFAOYSA-M - Potassium fluoride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information". chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov.
  3. ^ Vogel, A. I.; Leicester, J.; Macey, W. A. T. "n-Hexyl Fluoride". Organic Syntheses.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link); Collective Volume, 4, p. 525
  4. ^ Han, Q.; Li, H-Y. "Potassium Fluoride" in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, 2001 John Wiley & Sons,New York. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rp214