Sunscreen on back under normal and UV light
|Other names||Sun screen, sunblock, suntan lotion, sunburn cream, sun cream, block out|
Sunscreen, also known as sunblock, sun cream or suntan lotion, is a lotion, spray, gel, foam (such as an expanded foam lotion or whipped lotion), stick or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn. Diligent use of sunscreen can also slow or temporarily prevent the development of wrinkles, moles and sagging skin.
Depending on the mode of action, sunscreens can be classified into physical sunscreens (i.e., those that reflect the sunlight) or chemical sunscreens (i.e., those that absorb the UV light).
Medical organizations such as the American Cancer Society recommend the use of sunscreen because it aids in the prevention of squamous cell carcinomas. The routine use of sunscreens may also reduce the risk of melanoma. However, many sunscreens do not block UVA (UVA) radiation, yet protection from UVA has been shown to be important for the prevention of skin cancer.
To provide a better indication of their ability to protect against skin cancer and other diseases associated with UVA radiation (such as phytophotodermatitis), the use of broad-spectrum (UVA/UVB) sunscreens has been recommended. The use of the term "Broad Spectrum" on the label sunscreen products is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Sunscreens are commonly rated and labeled with a sun protection factor (SPF) that measures the fraction of sunburn-producing UV rays that reach the skin. For example, "SPF 15" means that 1⁄15 of the burning radiation reaches the skin through the recommended thickness of sunscreen. Other rating systems indicate the degree of protection from non-burning UVA radiation. Sunscreens are designed to remain effective at original strength for up to three years, and are typically of doubtful value after that period. Some sunscreens include an expiration date — a date indicating when they are no longer expected to be effective.
- 1 Health effects
- 2 Measurements of protection
- 3 Active ingredients
- 4 Application
- 5 Regulation
- 6 Environmental effects
- 7 History
- 8 Research
- 9 Notes
A 2013 study concluded that the diligent, everyday application of sunscreen can slow or temporarily prevent the development of wrinkles and sagging skin. The study involved 900 white people in Australia and required some of them to apply a broad-spectrum sunscreen every day for four and a half years. It found that people who did so had noticeably more resilient and smoother skin than those assigned to continue their usual practices.
In 2009, the Therapeutic Goods Administration of Australia updated a review of sunscreen safety studies and concluded: "The potential for titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in sunscreens to cause adverse effects depend primarily upon the ability of the nanoparticles to reach viable skin cells. To date, the current weight of evidence suggests that TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles do not reach viable skin cells." Sunscreen ingredients typically undergo extensive review by government regulators in multiple countries, and ingredients that present significant safety concerns (such as PABA) tend to be withdrawn from the consumer market.
Vitamin D production. Concerns have also been raised about potential vitamin D deficiency arising from prolonged use of sunscreen. Typical use of sunscreen does not usually result in vitamin D deficiency; however, extensive usage may. Sunscreen prevents ultraviolet light from reaching the skin, and even moderate protection can substantially reduce vitamin D synthesis. However, adequate amounts of vitamin D can be produced with moderate sun exposure to the face, arms and legs, averaging 5–30 minutes twice per week without sunscreen. (The darker the complexion, or the weaker the sunlight, the more minutes of exposure are needed, approximating 25% of the time for minimal sunburn.) Vitamin D overdose is impossible from UV exposure thanks to an equilibrium the skin reaches in which vitamin D degrades as quickly as it is created.
These earlier studies were confirmed in 2019 which showed that sunscreen with a high UVA protection factor enabled significantly higher vitamin D synthesis than a low UVA protection factor sunscreen, likely because it allows more UVB transmission
Measurements of protection
Sun protection factor and labeling 
The sun protection factor (SPF rating, introduced in 1974) is a measure of the fraction of sunburn-producing UV rays that reach the skin. For example, "SPF 15" means that 1⁄15 of the burning radiation will reach the skin, assuming sunscreen is applied evenly at a thick dosage of 2 milligrams per square centimeter (mg/cm2). A user can determine the effectiveness of a sunscreen by multiplying the SPF by the length of time it takes for him or her to suffer a burn without sunscreen. Thus, if a person develops a sunburn in 10 minutes when not wearing a sunscreen, the same person in the same intensity of sunlight will take 150 minutes to develop a sunburn of the same severity if wearing a sunscreen with an SPF of 15. It is important to note that sunscreens with higher SPF do not last or remain effective on the skin any longer than lower SPF and must be continually reapplied as directed, usually every two hours.
The SPF is an imperfect measure of skin damage because invisible damage and skin aging are also caused by ultraviolet type A (UVA, wavelengths 315–400 or 320–400 nm), which does not primarily cause reddening or pain. Conventional sunscreen blocks very little UVA radiation relative to the nominal SPF; broad-spectrum sunscreens are designed to protect against both UVB and UVA. According to a 2004 study, UVA also causes DNA damage to cells deep within the skin, increasing the risk of malignant melanomas. Even some products labeled "broad-spectrum UVA/UVB protection" have not always provided good protection against UVA rays. Titanium dioxide probably gives good protection, but does not completely cover the UVA spectrum, as early 2000s research suggests that zinc oxide is superior to titanium dioxide at wavelengths 340–380 nm.
Owing to consumer confusion over the real degree and duration of protection offered, labeling restrictions are enforced in several countries. In the EU, sunscreen labels can only go up to SPF 50+ (initially listed as 30 but soon revised to 50). Australia's Therapeutic Goods Administration increased the upper limit to 50+ in 2012. In its 2007 and 2011 draft rules, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a maximum SPF label of 50, to limit unrealistic claims. (As of February 2017, the FDA has not adopted the SPF 50 limit.) Others have proposed restricting the active ingredients to an SPF of no more than 50, due to lack of evidence that higher dosages provide more meaningful protection. Different sunscreen ingredients have different effectiveness against UVA and UVB.
The SPF can be measured by applying sunscreen to the skin of a volunteer and measuring how long it takes before sunburn occurs when exposed to an artificial sunlight source. In the US, such an in vivo test is required by the FDA. It can also be measured in vitro with the help of a specially designed spectrometer. In this case, the actual transmittance of the sunscreen is measured, along with the degradation of the product due to being exposed to sunlight. In this case, the transmittance of the sunscreen must be measured over all wavelengths in sunlight's UVB–UVA range (290–400 nm), along with a table of how effective various wavelengths are in causing sunburn (the erythemal action spectrum) and the standard intensity spectrum of sunlight (see the figure). Such in vitro measurements agree very well with in vivo measurements[attribution needed].
The ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) is a similar scale developed for rating fabrics for sun protective clothing. According to recent testing by Consumer Reports, UPF ~30+ is typical for protective fabrics, while UPF ~20 is typical for standard summer fabrics.
Mathematically, the SPF (or the UPF) is calculated from measured data as
where is the solar irradiance spectrum, the erythemal action spectrum, and the monochromatic protection factor, all functions of the wavelength . The MPF is roughly the inverse of the transmittance at a given wavelength.
The above means that the SPF is not simply the inverse of the transmittance in the UVB region. If that were true, then applying two layers of SPF 5 sunscreen would always be equivalent to SPF 25 (5 times 5). The actual combined SPF may be lower than the square of the single-layer SPF.
Persistent pigment darkening
The persistent pigment darkening (PPD) method is a method of measuring UVA protection, similar to the SPF method of measuring sunburn protection. Originally developed in Japan, it is the preferred method used by manufacturers such as L'Oréal.
Instead of measuring erythema, the PPD method uses UVA radiation to cause a persistent darkening or tanning of the skin. Theoretically, a sunscreen with a PPD rating of 10 should allow a person 10 times as much UVA exposure as would be without protection. The PPD method is an in vivo test like SPF. In addition, Colipa has introduced a method that, it is claimed, can measure this in vitro and provide parity with the PPD method.
As part of revised guidelines for sunscreens in the EU, there is a requirement to provide the consumer with a minimum level of UVA protection in relation to the SPF. This should be a "UVA PF" of at least 1/3 of the SPF to carry the UVA seal.
A set of final US FDA rules effective from summer 2012 defines the phrase "broad spectrum" as providing UVA protection proportional to the UVB protection, using a standardized testing method.
Star rating system
In the UK and Ireland, the Boots star rating system is a proprietary in vitro method used to describe the ratio of UVA to UVB protection offered by sunscreen creams and sprays. Based on original work by Brian Diffey at Newcastle University, the Boots Company in Nottingham, UK, developed a method that has been widely adopted by companies marketing these products in the UK.
One-star products provide the lowest ratio of UVA protection, five-star products the highest. The method was recently revised in light of the Colipa UVA PF test and the revised EU recommendations regarding UVA PF. The method still uses a spectrophotometer to measure absorption of UVA versus UVB; the difference stems from a requirement to pre-irradiate samples (where this was not previously required) to give a better indication of UVA protection and photostability when the product is used. With the current methodology, the lowest rating is three stars, the highest being five stars.
In August 2007, the FDA put out for consultation the proposal that a version of this protocol be used to inform users of American product of the protection that it gives against UVA; but this was not adopted, for fear it would be too confusing.
Asian brands, particularly Japanese ones, tend to use The Protection Grade of UVA (PA) system to measure the UVA protection that a sunscreen provides. The PA system is based on the PPD reaction and is now widely adopted on the labels of sunscreens. According to the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association, PA+ corresponds to a UVA protection factor between two and four, PA++ between four and eight, and PA+++ more than eight. This system was revised in 2013 to include PA++++ which corresponds to a PPD rating of sixteen or above.
Sunblock typically refers to opaque sunscreen that is effective at blocking both UVA and UVB rays and uses a heavy carrier oil to resist being washed off. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are two minerals that are used in sunblock.
The use of the word "sunblock" in the marketing of sunscreens is controversial. Since 2013, the FDA has banned such use because it can lead consumers to overestimate the effectiveness of products so labeled. Nonetheless, many consumers use the words sunblock and sunscreen synonymously.
For total protection against damage from the sun, the skin needs to be protected from UVA, UVB, and also IRA (infrared-A light). Roughly 35% of solar energy is IRA.. However, note that there is continuing debate within the dermatology community over the impact of sun-sourced IRA: Some sources indicate that early morning IRA exposure may be protective against further sun exposure by increasing cell proliferation and initiating anti-inflammatory cascades; these effects are not observed for artificial sources of intense IRA.
In addition to moisturizers and other inactive ingredients, sunscreens contain one or more of the following active ingredients, which are either chemical or mineral in nature:
- Organic chemical compounds that absorb ultraviolet light.
- Inorganic particulates that reflect, scatter, and absorb UV light (such as titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, or a combination of both).
- Organic particulates that mostly absorb UV light like organic chemical compounds, but contain multiple chromophores that reflect and scatter a fraction of light like inorganic particulates. An example is Tinosorb M. The mode of action is about 90% by absorption and 10% by scattering.
The principal active ingredients in sunscreens are usually aromatic molecules conjugated with carbonyl groups. This general structure allows the molecule to absorb high-energy ultraviolet rays and release the energy as lower-energy rays, thereby preventing the skin-damaging ultraviolet rays from reaching the skin. So, upon exposure to UV light, most of the ingredients (with the notable exception of avobenzone) do not undergo significant chemical change, allowing these ingredients to retain the UV-absorbing potency without significant photodegradation. A chemical stabilizer is included in some sunscreens containing avobenzone to slow its breakdown; examples include formulations containing. The stability of avobenzone can also be improved by bemotrizinol, octocrylene and various other photostabilisers. Most organic compounds in sunscreens slowly degrade and become less effective over the course of several years if stored properly, resulting in the expiration dates calculated for the product.
Sunscreening agents are used in some hair care products such as shampoos, conditioners and styling agents to protect against protein degradation and color loss. Currently, benzophenone-4 and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate are the two sunscreens most commonly used in hair products. The common sunscreens used on skin are rarely used for hair products due to their texture and weight effects.
The following are the FDA allowable active ingredients in sunscreens:
|UV-filter||Other names||Maximum concentration||Permitted in these countries||Results of safety testing||UVA||UVB|
|p-Aminobenzoic acid||PABA||15% (EU: banned from sale to consumers from 8 October 2009)||USA, AUS||Protects against skin tumors in mice. Shown to increase DNA defects, however, and is now less commonly used.||X|
|Padimate O||OD-PABA, octyldimethyl-PABA, σ-PABA||8% (EU, USA, AUS) 10% (JP)
(Not currently supported in EU and may be delisted)
|EU, USA, AUS, JP||X|
|Phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid||Ensulizole, Eusolex 232, PBSA, Parsol HS||4% (US, AUS) 8% (EU) 3% (JP)||EU, USA, AUS, JP||Genotoxic in bacteria||X|
|Cinoxate||2-Ethoxyethyl p-methoxycinnamate||3% (US) 6% (AUS)||USA, AUS||X||X|
|Oxybenzone||Benzophenone-3, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567||6% (US) 10% (AUS, EU) 5% (JP)||EU, USA, AUS, JP||X||X|
|Homosalate||Homomethyl salicylate, HMS||10% (EU, JP) 15% (US, AUS)||EU, USA, AUS, JP||X|
|Menthyl anthranilate||Meradimate||5%||USA, AUS||X|
|Octocrylene||Eusolex OCR, Parsol 340, 2-Cyano-3,3-diphenyl acrylic acid, 2-ethylhexylester||10%||EU, USA, AUS, JP||Increases ROS||X||X|
|Octyl methoxycinnamate||Octinoxate, EMC, OMC, Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, Escalol 557, 2-Ethylhexyl-paramethoxycinnamate, Parsol MCX||7.5% (US) 10% (EU, AUS) 20% (JP)||EU, USA, AUS, JP||Banned in Hawaii starting in 2021 - harmful to coral||X|
|Octyl salicylate||Octisalate, 2-Ethylhexyl salicylate, Escalol 587,||5% (EU, USA, AUS) 10% (JP)||EU, USA, AUS, JP||X|
|Sulisobenzone||2-Hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid, 3-Benzoyl-4-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzenesulfonic acid, Benzophenone-4, Escalol 577||5% (EU) 10% (US, AUS, JP)||EU, USA, AUS, JP||X||X|
|Trolamine salicylate||Triethanolamine salicylate||12%||USA, AUS||X|
phenyl)propane-1,3-dione, Butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane, BMDBM, Parsol 1789, Eusolex 9020
|3% (US) 5% (EU, AUS) 10% (JP)||EU, USA, AUS, JP||X|
|Ecamsule||Mexoryl SX, Terephthalylidene Dicamphor Sulfonic Acid||10%||EU, AUS (US: approved in certain formulations up to 3% via New Drug Application (NDA) Route)||Protects against skin tumors in mice||X|
|Titanium dioxide||CI77891||25% (US) No limit (JP)||EU, USA, AUS, JP||X|
|Zinc oxide||25% (US) No limit (AUS, JP)||EU, USA, AUS, JP||Protects against skin tumors in mice||X||X|
Zinc oxide was approved as a UV filter by the EU in 2016.
|UV-filter||Other names||Maximum concentration||Permitted in|
|4-Methylbenzylidene camphor||Enzacamene, Parsol 5000, Eusolex 6300, MBC||4%*||EU, AUS|
|Parsol Max, Tinosorb M||Bisoctrizole, Methylene Bis-Benzotriazolyl Tetramethylbutylphenol, MBBT||10%*||EU, AUS, JP|
|Parsol Shield, Tinosorb S||Bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenol triazine, Bemotrizinol, BEMT, anisotriazine||10% (EU, AUS) 3% (JP)*||EU, AUS, JP|
|Tinosorb A2B||Tris-Biphenyl Triazine||10%||EU|
|Neo Heliopan AP||Bisdisulizole Disodium, Disodium phenyl dibenzimidazole tetrasulfonate, bisimidazylate, DPDT||10%||EU, AUS|
|Mexoryl XL||Drometrizole Trisiloxane||15%||EU, AUS|
|Benzophenone-9||Uvinul DS 49, CAS 3121-60-6, Sodium Dihydroxy Dimethoxy Disulfobenzophenone ||10%||JP|
|Uvinul T 150||Octyl triazone, ethylhexyl triazone, EHT||5% (EU, AUS) 3% (JP)*||EU, AUS|
|Uvinul A Plus||Diethylamino Hydroxybenzoyl Hexyl Benzoate||10% (EU, JP)||EU, JP|
|Uvasorb HEB||Iscotrizinol, Diethylhexyl butamido triazone, DBT||10% (EU) 5% (JP)*||EU, JP|
|Parsol SLX||Dimethico-diethylbenzalmalonate, Polysilicone-15||10%||EU, AUS, JP|
|Amiloxate||Isopentyl-4-methoxycinnamate, Isoamyl p-Methoxycinnamate, IMC, Neo Heliopan E1000||10%*||EU, AUS|
* Time and Extent Application (TEA), Proposed Rule on FDA approval originally expected 2009, now expected 2015.
The dose used in FDA sunscreen testing is 2 mg/cm2 of exposed skin. If one assumes an "average" adult build of height 5 ft 4 in (163 cm) and weight 150 lb (68 kg) with a 32-inch (82-cm) waist, that adult wearing a bathing suit covering the groin area should apply approximately 30 g (or 30 ml, approximately 1 oz) evenly to the uncovered body area. This can be more easily thought of as a "golf ball" size amount of product per body, or at least six teaspoonfuls. Larger or smaller individuals should scale these quantities accordingly. Considering only the face, this translates to about 1/4 to 1/3 of a teaspoon for the average adult face.
Some studies have shown that people commonly apply only 1/4 to 1/2 of the amount recommended for achieving the rated sun protection factor (SPF), and in consequence the effective SPF should be downgraded to a square root or 4th root of the advertised value. A later study found a significant exponential relation between SPF and the amount of sunscreen applied, and the results are closer to linearity than expected by theory.
Claims that substances in pill form can act as sunscreen are false and disallowed in the United States.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018)
- United States
Sunscreen labeling standards have been evolving in the United States since the FDA first adopted the SPF calculation in 1978. The FDA issued a comprehensive set of rules in June 2011, taking effect in 2012–2013, designed to help consumers identify and select suitable sunscreen products offering protection from sunburn, early skin aging, and skin cancer:
- To be classified as "broad spectrum", sunscreen products must provide protection against both UVA and UVB, with specific tests required for both.
- Claims of products being "waterproof" or "sweatproof" are prohibited, while "sunblock" and "instant protection" and "protection for more than 2 hours" are all prohibited without specific FDA approval.
- "Water resistance" claims on the front label must indicate how long the sunscreen remains effective and specify whether this applies to swimming or sweating, based on standard testing.
- Sunscreens must include standardized "Drug Facts" information on the container. However, there is no regulation that deems it necessary to mention whether the contents contain nanoparticles of mineral ingredients. (The EU has stricter regulation against the use of nanoparticles, and in 2009 introduced labeling requirements for nanoparticle ingredients in certain sunscreens and cosmetics.)
Media reports link oxybenzone in sunscreens to coral bleaching, although some environmental experts dispute the claim. A 2015 study published in the Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology linked oxybenzone to affects on cell culture experiments and juvenile coral, but the study has no environmental relevance and was fraught with methodological errors and was poorly controlled. The purported link between oxybenzone and coral decline is widely disputed within the environmental community.
A 2019 study of UV filters in oceans found far lower concentrations of oxybenzone than previously reported, and lower than known thresholds for environmental toxicity. Additionally, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has indicated that coral decline is instead associated with effects from climate change (warming oceans, rising water levels, acidification), overfishing, and pollution from agriculture, wastewater, and urban run-off.
Early civilizations used a variety of plant products to help protect the skin from sun damage. For example, ancient Greeks used olive oil for this purpose, and ancient Egyptians used extracts of rice, jasmine, and lupine plants whose products are still used in skin care today. Zinc oxide paste has also been popular for skin protection for thousands of years. Among the nomadic sea-going Sama-Bajau people of the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia, a common type of sun protection was a paste called borak or burak, which was made from water weeds, rice and spices. It was used most commonly by women to protect the face and exposed skin areas from the harsh tropical sun at sea.
Among widely used modern sunscreens, one of the earliest was produced in 1944 for the US military by Benjamin Green, an airman and later a pharmacist, as the hazards of sun overexposure became apparent to soldiers in the Pacific tropics at the height of World War II. The product, named Red Vet Pet (for red veterinary petrolatum), had limited effectiveness, working as a physical blocker of ultraviolet radiation. It was a disagreeable red, sticky substance similar to petroleum jelly. Sales boomed when Coppertone improved and commercialized the substance under the Coppertone girl and Bain de Soleil branding in the early 1950s.
In 1946, Austrian chemist Franz Greiter introduced what may have been the first effective modern sunscreen. The product, called Gletscher Crème (Glacier Cream), subsequently became the basis for the company Piz Buin, which is still today a marketer of sunscreen products, named in honor of the mountain where Greiter allegedly received the sunburn that inspired his concoction. In 1974, Greiter adapted earlier calculations from Friedrich Ellinger and Rudolf Schulze and introduced the "sun protection factor" (SPF), which has become a worldwide standard for measuring the effectiveness of sunscreen. It has been estimated that Gletscher Crème had an SPF of 2.
Water-resistant sunscreens were introduced in 1977, and recent development efforts have focused on overcoming later concerns by making sunscreen protection both longer-lasting and broader-spectrum, as well as more appealing to use.
New products are in development such as sunscreens based on bioadhesive nanoparticles. These function by encapsulating commercially used UV filters, while being not only adherent to the skin but also non-penetrant. This strategy inhibits primary UV-induced damage as well as secondary free radicals.
- "Preventing melanoma". Cancer Research UK. Archived from the original on May 22, 2008. Retrieved September 22, 2009.
- "Skin Cancer - Skin Cancer Facts - Common Skin Cancer Types". www.cancer.org. Archived from the original on April 10, 2008.
- Levy, Stanley B (April 3, 2018). "Sunscreens and Photoprotection". Medscape. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
- Poon, Terence SC Poon; Barnetson, Ross StC; Halliday, Gary M (2003). "Prevention of Immunosuppression by Sunscreens in Humans Is Unrelated to Protection from Erythema and Dependent on Protection from Ultraviolet A in the Face of Constant Ultraviolet B Protection". J Invest Dermatol. 121 (1): 184–90. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2003.12317.x. PMID 12839580.
- Baugh, William P (September 8, 2016). "Phytophotodermatitis". Medscape. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
- "Questions and Answers: FDA announces new requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen products marketed in the U.S." June 23, 2011. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. "Is sunscreen from last year still good? When does sunscreen expire?". Mayo Clinic.
- Kanavy HE, Gerstenblith MR (December 2011). "Ultraviolet radiation and melanoma". Semin Cutan Med Surg. 30 (4): 222–8. doi:10.1016/j.sder.2011.08.003. PMID 22123420.
- World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 5.14. ISBN 978-9283204299.
- Azoury, SC; Lange, JR (October 2014). "Epidemiology, risk factors, prevention, and early detection of melanoma". The Surgical Clinics of North America. 94 (5): 945–62, vii. doi:10.1016/j.suc.2014.07.013. PMID 25245960.
- Burnett M.E.; Wang S.Q. (April 2011). "Current sunscreen controversies: a critical review". Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine. 27 (2): 58–67. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0781.2011.00557.x. PMID 21392107.
- Kütting B, Drexler H (December 2010). "UV-induced skin cancer at workplace and evidence-based prevention". Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 83 (8): 843–54. doi:10.1007/s00420-010-0532-4. PMID 20414668.
- Hughes, MCB; Williams, GM; Baker, P; Green, AC (June 4, 2013). "Sunscreen and Prevention of Skin Aging". Annals of Internal Medicine. 158 (11): 781–790. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-158-11-201306040-00002. PMID 23732711.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Dresbach S.H.; Brown W. (2008). "Ultraviolet Radiation" (PDF). Ohioline Fact Sheet Series. Ohio State University Extension. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 12, 2008.
- Australian Government: Therapeutic Goods Administration (July 2009). "A review of the scientific literature on the safety of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide or zinc oxide in sunscreens" (PDF). Archived from the original on April 6, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2015.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- Lim, Henry W. "Quantum Leaps: New, Improved Sunscreens Have Arrived". The Skin Cancer Foundation. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- Norval, M; Wulf, HC (October 2009). "Does chronic sunscreen use reduce vitamin D production to insufficient levels?". The British Journal of Dermatology. 161 (4): 732–6. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09332.x. PMID 19663879.
- Holick MF (December 2004). "Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80 (6 Suppl): 1678S–1688S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/80.6.1678S. PMID 15585788.
- Sayre, Robert M.; Dowdy, John C. (2007). "Darkness at Noon: Sunscreens and Vitamin D3". Photochemistry and Photobiology. 83 (2): 459–463. doi:10.1562/2006-06-29-RC-956. PMID 17115796.
- Holick MF (February 2002). "Vitamin D: the underappreciated D-lightful hormone that is important for skeletal and cellular health". Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity. 9 (1): 87–98. doi:10.1097/00060793-200202000-00011.
- Holick MF (September 2002). "Sunlight and Vitamin D". Journal of General Internal Medicine. 17 (9): 733–735. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2002.20731.x. PMC 1495109. PMID 12220371.
- Holick MF (July 2007). "Vitamin D deficiency". The New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (3): 266–281. doi:10.1056/NEJMra070553. PMID 17634462.
- "Are Vitamin D Levels Jeopardized by Sunscreen?". GEN - Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News. May 10, 2019. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
- Young, A. R.; Narbutt, J.; Harrison, G. I.; Lawrence, K. P.; Bell, M.; O'Connor, C.; Olson, P.; Grys, K.; Baczynska, K. "Optimal sunscreen use, during a sun-holiday with a very high UV index, allows vitamin D synthesis without sunburn". British Journal of Dermatology. 0 (ja). doi:10.1111/bjd.17888. ISSN 1365-2133.
- "Sunscreen: The comprehensive guide to sunscreen in Australia". Surf Nation. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
- Sunblock. Archived June 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine UCSF. School of Medicine. Dept of Dermatology.
- "Sunscreen FAQs". American Academy of Dermatology. Archived from the original on July 21, 2014. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
- Stege, H.; Budde; Grether-Beck; Richard; Rougier; Ruzicka; Krutmann (2002). "Sunscreens with high SPF values are not equivalent in protection from UVA induced polymorphous light eruption". European Journal of Dermatology : EJD. 12 (4): IV–VI. PMID 12118426.
- Haywood, R.; Wardman, P.; Sanders, R.; Linge, C. (2003). "Sunscreens inadequately protect against ultraviolet-A-induced free radicals in skin: implications for skin aging and melanoma?". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 121 (4): 862–868. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2003.12498.x. PMID 14632206.
- Moyal, D.; Fourtanier, A. (2008). "Broad-spectrum sunscreens provide better protection from solar ultraviolet-simulated radiation and natural sunlight-induced immunosuppression in human beings". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 58 (5 Suppl 2): S149–S154. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2007.04.035. PMID 18410801.
- Berneburg M, Plettenberg H, Medve-König K, Pfahlberg A, Gers-Barlag H, Gefeller O, Krutmann J (2004). "Induction of the photoaging-associated mitochondrial common deletion in vivo in normal human skin". J Invest Dermatol. 122 (5): 1277–83. doi:10.1111/j.0022-202X.2004.22502.x. PMID 15140232.
- "Sunscreen makers sued for misleading claims". Associated Press. April 24, 2006. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
- Pinnell SR, Fairhurst D, Gillies R, Mitchnick MA, Kollias N (April 2000). "Microfine zinc oxide is a superior sunscreen ingredient to microfine titanium dioxide". Dermatol Surg. 26 (4): 309–14. doi:10.1046/j.1524-4725.2000.99237.x. PMID 10759815.
- "Commission Recommendation of 22 September 2006 on the efficacy of sunscreen products and the claims made relating thereto". Official Journal of the European Union. September 22, 2006. Retrieved September 25, 2009.
- "UV Resource Guide - Sunscreens". Arpansa. December 20, 2008. Archived from the original on November 19, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2009.
- "SPF50+ Sunscreen". February 1, 2013. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
- "Questions and Answers on the 2007 Sunscreen Proposed Rule". Archived from the original on September 21, 2008.
- Department of Health and Human Services: Food and Drug Administration (June 17, 2011). "Revised Effectiveness Determination; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use" (PDF). Federal Register. 76 (117): 35672–35678. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
- Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and. "Status of OTC Rulemakings - Rulemaking History for OTC Sunscreen Drug Products". www.fda.gov.
- "Sunscreen Takes Some Heat: New Dangers, New Rules". June 16, 2011. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- "The Burning Facts" (PDF). 2006. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- Moyal, Dominique (June 2008). "How to measure UVA protection afforded by suncreen products". Expert Rev. Dermatol. 3 (3): 307–313. doi:10.1586/17469818.104.22.1687.
- "What to Know About Sunscreen Before Buying It". Consumer Reports. May 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
- Faurschou A, Wulf HC (April 2007). "The relation between sun protection factor and amount of sunscreen applied in vivo". Br. J. Dermatol. 156 (4): 716–9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2006.07684.x. PMID 17493070.
- "www.colipa.com". June 9, 2008. Archived from the original on June 9, 2008.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "www.cosmeticseurope.eu". Archived from the original on August 26, 2014.
- "Nanotechnology Information Center: Properties, Applications, Research, and Safety Guidelines". American Elements.
- Schroeder P, Krutmann J (April 2010). "What is Needed for a Sunscreen to Provide Complete Protection". Skin Therapy Letter. 15 (4).
- Barolet, Daniel, François Christiaens, and Michael R. Hamblin. "Infrared and skin: Friend or foe." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 155 (2016): 78-85.
- Kavanaugh, E. Edward (September 11, 1998). "Re: Tentative Final Monograph for OTC Sunscreen" (PDF). Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association. Retrieved September 25, 2009.
- Chatelain E, Gabard B (September 2001). "Photostabilization of Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (Avobenzone) and Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate by Bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (Tinosorb S), a new UV broadband filter". Photochem Photobiol. 74 (3): 401–6. doi:10.1562/0031-8655(2001)074<0401:POBMAA>2.0.CO;2. PMID 11594052.
- "Parsol 340 – Octocrylene". DSM. Archived from the original on August 3, 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2015.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- Burke, Karen E. "Does sunscreen become ineffective with age?". The Skin Cancer Foundation. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- Flindt-Hansen, H; Thune, P; Eeg-Larsen, T (1990). "The inhibiting effect of PABA on photocarcinogenesis". Archives of Dermatological Research. 282 (1): 38–41. doi:10.1007/BF00505643. PMID 2317082.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Flindt-Hansen, H; Thune, P; Eeg-Larsen, T (1990). "The effect of short-term application of PABA on photocarcinogenesis". Acta Derm Venereol. 70 (1): 72–75. PMID 1967881.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Osgood, PJ; Moss, SH; Davies, DJ (1982). "The sensitization of near-ultraviolet radiation killing of mammalian cells by the sunscreen agent para-aminobenzoic acid". Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 79 (6): 354–357. doi:10.1111/1523-1747.ep12529409. PMID 6982950.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Mosley, C N; Wang, L; Gilley, S; Wang, S; Yu, H (2007). "Light-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of a Sunscreen Agent, 2-Phenylbenzimidazol in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102 and HaCaT Keratinocytes". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 4 (2): 126–131. doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040006. PMC 3728577. PMID 17617675.
- Hanson, KM; Gratton, E; Bardeen, CJ (2006). "Sunscreen enhancement of UV-induced reactive oxygen species in the skin". Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 41 (8): 1205–12. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2006.06.011. PMID 17015167.
- Hawaii is about to ban your favorite sunscreen to protect its coral reefs
- Lautenschlager, Stephan; Wulf, Hans Christian; Pittelkow, Mark R (2007). "photoprotection". Lancet. 370 (9586): 528–37. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60638-2. PMID 17693182.
- Benech-Kieffer F, Meuling WJ, Leclerc C, Roza L, Leclaire J, Nohynek G (November – December 2003). "Percutaneous absorption of Mexoryl SX in human volunteers: comparison with in vitro data". Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 16 (6): 343–55. doi:10.1159/000072929. PMID 14528058.
- Fourtanier A (October 1996). "Mexoryl SX protects against solar-simulated UVR-induced photocarcinogenesis in mice". Photochem Photobiol. 64 (4): 688–93. doi:10.1111/j.1751-1097.1996.tb03125.x. PMID 8863475.
- "Amending Annex VI to Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on cosmetic products". eur-lex.europa.eu. April 21, 2016. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
- "Regulation No. 1223/2009 on cosmetic products". Official Journal of the European Union. December 22, 2009. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- Australian Government: Therapeutic Goods Administration (November 2012). "Australian Regulatory Guidelines for Sunscreens". Retrieved June 21, 2015.
- "Uvinul Grades" (PDF). Retrieved September 25, 2009.
- Kapes, Beth (July 2005). "Docs rally for better sun protection — Advances still unavailable in United States". Dermatology Times. 26 (7): 100. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
- "Sunscreen Innovation Act". United States Congress. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
- Sifferlin, Alexandra (July 16, 2014). "We're One Step Closer to Better Sunscreen". Time. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- "How and why we use sunscreen". Cosmetic, Toiletry & Perfumery Association. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
- Schalka S, dos Reis VM, Cucé LC (August 2009). "The influence of the amount of sunscreen applied and its sun protection factor (SPF): evaluation of two sunscreens including the same ingredients at different concentrations". Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 25 (4): 175–80. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0781.2009.00408.x. PMID 19614894.
- "Press Announcements - Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on new FDA actions to keep consumers safe from the harmful effects of sun exposure, and ensure the long-term safety and benefits of sunscreens". www.fda.gov. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
- Department of Health and Human Services: Food and Drug Administration (August 25, 1978). "Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use" (PDF). Federal Register. 43 (166): 38206–38269. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- Department of Health and Human Services: Food and Drug Administration (June 17, 2011). "Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Final Rules and Proposed Rules" (PDF). Federal Register. 76 (117): 35620–35665. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- Department of Health and Human Services: Food and Drug Administration (May 11, 2012). "Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Delay of Compliance Dates" (PDF). Federal Register. 77 (92): 27591–27593. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
- "Is Sunscreen Safe?". Eluxe. June 8, 2014. Archived from the original on April 4, 2015.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- Sánchez-Quiles D.; Tovar-Sánchez A. (2014). "Sunscreens as a source of hydrogen peroxide production in coastal waters". Environ Sci Technol. 48 (16): 9037–9042. Bibcode:2014EnST...48.9037S. doi:10.1021/es5020696. hdl:10261/103567. PMID 25069004.
- Hughes, Terry. "There's insufficient evidence your sunscreen harms coral reefs".
- Bogle, Ariel. "No, your sunscreen isn't killing the world's coral reefs". Mashable. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
- Beitsch, Rebecca. "Some Sunscreens May Kill Corals. Should They Be Banned?".
- Hughes, Terry. "There's insufficient evidence your sunscreen harms coral reefs". The Conversation. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
- "New study measures UV-filter chemicals in seawater and corals from Hawaii: First study to look at UV-filter concentrations in coral tissue in US". ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
- US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "What is coral bleaching?". oceanservice.noaa.gov. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
- Nadim, Shaath (2005). "Sunscreen Evolution". In Shaath, Nadim (ed.). Sunscreens : regulations and commercial development (3 ed.). Boca Raton, Fl.: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0824757946.
- Craddock, P.T. (1998). 2000 Years of Zinc and Brass. British Museum. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-86159-124-4.
- Berta Tilmantaite (March 20, 2014). "In Pictures: Nomads of the sea". Al Jazeera. Retrieved December 22, 2014.
- Rigel, Darrell S. (2004). Photoaging. Hoboken: Informa Healthcare. pp. 73–74. ISBN 9780824752095.
- Wang, Steven Q; Hu, Judy Y. "Challenges in Making an Effective Sunscreen". The Skin Cancer Foundation. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- MacEachern, W.N.; Jillson, O.F. (January 1964). "A Practical Sunscreen — "Red Vet Pet"". Arch Dermatol. 89 (1): 147–150. doi:10.1001/archderm.1964.01590250153027. PMID 14070829. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- Shaath, Nadim A., editor (2005). Sunscreens: Regulations and Commercial Development, Third Edition. Taylor & Francis Group.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- "Sunscreen: A History". The New York Times. June 23, 2010. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- "Gletscher Crème". 2010-04-22. Piz Buin. Archived from the original on May 12, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- Lim, Henry W.; et al., eds. (2007). Photodermatology. CRC Press. p. 6. ISBN 9781420019964. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- Deng, Yang; Ediriwickrema, Asiri; Yang, Fan; Lewis, Julia; Girardi, Michael; Saltzman, W. Mark (2015). "A sunblock based on bioadhesive nanoparticles". Nature Materials. 14 (12): 1278–1285. Bibcode:2015NatMa..14.1278D. doi:10.1038/nmat4422. PMC 4654636. PMID 26413985.