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|Native to||Pakistan, India|
|Region||Pothohar region, Azad Kashmir and Poonch (Jammu and Kashmir)|
|2.5 million including Dhundi-Kairali, Chibhali, & Punchhi, but perhaps not 1.04 million Mirpuri (2007)|
Punjabi–Lahnda dialects. Pothohari is center-north, in light green.
Pothwari (پوٹھواری), Pothohari (پوٹھوہاری), or Pahari-Potowari is an Indo-Aryan dialect of Pakistan that is transitional between Hindko and Standard Punjabi. It is spoken by inhabitants of the Pothohar Plateau in northern Punjab and in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan and Poonch of Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Speakers of Pothwari have a local linguistic, but not ethnic, identity that is separate from that of Punjabi and there has been a nascent, if not yet coherent, language movement. There have been efforts at cultivation as a literary language, although a local standard has not been established yet.
It has been historically classified as a Punjabi dialect. Grierson in his early 20th-century Linguistic Survey of India assigned it to a so-called "Northern cluster" of Lahnda, but this classification, as well as the validity of the Lahnda grouping in this case, have been called into question.
- Pahari-Potwari at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Pahari Potwari". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Shackle 1979, pp. 200–201.
- Shackle 1983, p. 182; Shackle 1979, p. 198.
- Masica 1991, p. 440.
- Shackle 1983, p. 183.
- Shackle 1979, p. 201: Pothohari "is often so close to Panjabi that any attempt to maintain the Lahndi scheme ought probably to reckon it as 'Lahndi merging into Panjabi'."
- Masica, Colin P. (1991). The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23420-7.
- Shackle, Christopher (1979). "Problems of classification in Pakistan Panjab". Transactions of the Philological Society. 77 (1): 191–210. doi:10.1111/j.1467-968X.1979.tb00857.x. ISSN 0079-1636.
- Shackle, Christopher (1983). "Language, Dialect and Local Identity in Northern Pakistan". In Wolfgang-Peter Zingel, Stephanie Zingel-Avé Lallemant (eds.). Pakistan in its fourth decade: current political, social and economic situation and prospects for the 1980s. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Orient-Instituts. 23. Hamburg: Deutsches Orient-Institut. pp. 175–87.
|Pothwari test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|