||It has been suggested that Bench_shirt be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since November 2013.|
|First played||20th century or earlier, United States|
International Powerlifting Federation (IPF) weight classes:
Women: 47 kg, 52 kg, 57 kg, 63 kg, 72 kg, 84 kg, 84 kg+Men: 59 kg, 66 kg, 74 kg, 83 kg, 93 kg, 105 kg, 120 kg, 120 kg+
|Olympic||Inclusion in process (currently only participates as a Paralympic sport)|
Powerlifting is a strength sport that consists of three attempts at maximal weight on three lifts: squat, bench press, and deadlift. As in the sport of Olympic weightlifting, it involves lifting weights in three attempts. Powerlifting evolved from a sport known as "odd lifts", which followed the same three-attempt format but used a wider variety of events, akin to strongman competition. Eventually odd lifts became standardized to the current three.
In competition, lifts may be performed equipped or un-equipped (typically referred to as 'raw' lifting or 'classic' in the IPF specifically). Equipment in this context refers to a supportive bench shirt or squat/deadlift suit or briefs. In some federations, knee wraps are permitted in the equipped but not un-equipped division; in others, they may be used in both equipped and un-equipped lifting. Weight belts, knee sleeves, wrist wraps and special footwear may also be used, but are not considered when distinguishing equipped from un-equipped lifting.
Competitions take place across the world but mostly in the United States, Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, Iceland, South Africa, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Russia, Taiwan, Japan and Ukraine. Powerlifting has been a Paralympic sport (bench press only) since 1984 and, under the IPF, is also a World Games sport. Local, national and international competitions have also been sanctioned by other federations operating independently of the IPF.
- 1 History
- 2 Supportive equipment
- 3 Classes and categories
- 4 Competition
- 5 Events
- 6 Rules of each event
- 7 Training
- 8 Federations
- 9 Rank and classification
- 10 High School Powerlifting
- 11 Gyms
- 12 Global database
- 13 World champions
- 14 See also
- 15 References
The roots of powerlifting are in traditions of strength training stretching back as far as Greek and Roman times. The modern sport originated in the USA and the UK in the 1950s. Previously, the weightlifting governing bodies in both countries had recognized various ‘odd lifts’ for competition and record purposes. During the 1950s, Olympic weightlifting declined in the United States, while strength sports gained many new followers. In 1958, the AAU's National Weightlifting Committee decided to begin recognizing records for ‘odd lifts’. A national championship was tentatively scheduled for 1959, but it never happened. The first genuine national ‘meet’ was held in September 1964 under the auspices of the York Barbell Company. Ironically, Bob Hoffman, the owner of York Barbell, had been a long-time adversary of the sport. But his company was now making powerlifting equipment to make up for the sales it had lost on Olympic-style equipment.
During the late 1950s, Hoffman’s York Barbell Company, his influence in Olympic lifting and his predominately Olympic-lifting based magazine Strength and Health were beginning to come under ever-increasing pressure from Joe Weider’s organization. As America’s (and Bob Hoffman influence in the world of weightlifting was declining and in order to combat the growing influence of Weider, Hoffman started another magazine [Muscular Development which would be focused more on bodybuilding and the fast-growing interest in ‘odd-lift’ competitions. The magazine’s first Editor was the world-renowned John Grimek.
During the late 1950s and early 1960s various ‘odd lift’ events gradually developed into the specific lifts – the bench press, the squat, and the deadlift and lifted in that order. Bob Hoffman became more and more influential in the development of this new lifting sport and organized ‘The Weightlifting Tournament of America’ in 1964 - effectively the first US National championships. In 1965 the first named USA National Championships were held. During the same period, lifting in Britain also had factions. In the late 1950s, and because the ruling body (BAWLA) were only interested in the development of Olympic lifting, a breakaway organization called the Society of Amateur Weightlifters had been formed to cater for the interests of lifters who were not particularly interested in doing Olympic lifting.
Although at that time there were 42 recognized lifts, the “Strength Set” (Biceps Curl, Bench Press, and Squat) soon became the standard competition lifts, and both organizations held Championships on these lifts (as well as on the Olympic lifts) until 1965. In 1966, the Society of Amateur Weightlifters re-joined BAWLA and, in order to fall into line with the American lifts, the Curl was dropped and replaced with the Deadlift. The first British Championship was held in 1966. During the late 60’s and at the beginning of the 70’s, various friendly international contests were held. At the same time, in early November of each year and to commemorate Bob Hoffman’s birthday, a prestige lifting contest was always held as part of “Bob Hoffman’s Birthday Party.” In 1971, it was decided to make this event the “World Weightlifting Championships.” There was no such thing as ‘teams’ and thus was predominantly a whole bunch of American lifters, plus four from Great Britain and one from the West Indies. All the Referees were American. This event got off the mark in York, Pennsylvania, at 10.05 am on Saturday November 6, 1971.
Weights were in pounds. Lifting order was ‘rising bar’ this was long before the Rounds system . The first lift was the Bench Press. There was no such thing as bench shirts or squat suits, and various interpretations were held regarding the use of and length of knee wraps and weightlifting belts. The IPF rules system did not exist yet, nor had world records been established.
Because of the lack of formalized rules some disputes occurred. There was no 52 kg class, no 100 kg class, and no 125 kg class. At the ‘first’ World Championships, one of the American Super heavyweights, Jim Williams (nicknamed ‘Chimes’) benched 660 lbs on a second attempt (no shirt), and almost locked-out 680 lbs on a third. Some other notable lifts – Larry Pacifico benched the equivalent of 233.6 kg (515 lbs) in the 90 kg class; John Kuc deadlifted 371.9 kg (820 lbs); and Vince Anello attempted 362½ kg (800 lbs) at 90. Hugh Cassidy and Williams both totaled 2,160 lbs, but Cassidy got the win because of a lower bodyweight in the Super heavyweight division.
In 1972 the ‘second’ AAU World Championships were held, this time over two days – 10 and 11 November. This time there were 8 lifters from Great Britain (two of whom, Ron Collins and John Pegler, did stints as Referees), six Canadians, two Puerto Ricans, three Zambians, and one from the West Indies. With 67 lifters in all, the other 47 were Americans. Lifts were still measured in pounds, the bench press was the first lift, and there were still no suits, power belts, or fancy wraps. Britain’s Precious McKenzie won his ‘second’ world title with 550 kg at 56. Mike Shaw ‘lost’ his world title, won the previous year, to American Jack Keammerer. Ron Collins made up for his ’bomb’ on the bench in ’71 and stormed to the 75 kg title. Pacifico just won against another American, Mel Hennessey, at 110 kg, both with enormous benches of 260 kg and 255 kg. At Super (over 110 kg) John Kuc beat Jim Williams with an incredible 2,350 lbs total (raw). Kuc squatting 905 lbs for a record squat and attempting a 397½ (875 lbs) deadlift again, and Williams benching a massive 307½ (675 lbs) - the greatest bench press ever at the time, before just missing with 317½ (700 lbs). Jon Cole, the Super heavyweight winner of the US Senior Championships 1972 and holder of the greatest total at that time with 1,075 kg (2,370 lbs), didn’t show up to take on Kuc.
IPF and after
The International Powerlifting Federation was formed immediately after the contest, and so none of the lifts could be yet registered as official world records. The 1973 Worlds was also held in York, Pennsylvania. This time there were only 47 entrants; 1 from Sweden, 1 from Puerto Rico Peter Fiore – still lifting for Zambia, 2 Canadians, 1 West Indian, 8 from Great Britain, and the rest Americans. The officiating became a bit more ‘international’; Tony Fitton and Terry Jordan from Britain, a Canadian, and a Zambian, assisting with the Refereeing duties. American Bob Crist was the IPF President, and another American, Clarence Johnson, was Vice-President. 1973 was the first time that the lifts were done in the order we now recognize – Squat, Bench Press, Deadlift (although still lifting in pounds). Precious Mackenzie won his ‘third’ World title, easily beating the American teenager, Lamar Gant.
1974 was the first time that teams had to be selected in advance. With 74 entrants this was the largest Worlds so far. The 52 kg class was introduced – and there were 9 lifters entered. In 1975 the World Championships was held outside America for the first time, in Birmingham, England at the Town Hall, hosted by the legendary Vic Mercer. 82 lifters this time. Unusually for a competition the Supers lifted first. This was because the Television company filming the event were only interested in filming the 'big guys'. Bob Hoffman sent over tons of equipment for this contest too – and didn’t take it back, legend says it’s all still being used in the West Midlands.
The establishment of the IPF in 1973 spurred the establishment of the EPF (European Powerlifting Federation) in 1974. Since it was closely associated with bodybuilding and women had been competing as bodybuilders for years, the new sport was opened to them very quickly. The first U. S. national championships for women were held in 1978 and the IPF added women's competition in 1979. In the USA, the Amateur Sports Act of 1978 required that each Olympic or potential Olympic sport must have its own national governing body by November 1980. As a result, the AAU lost control of virtually every amateur sport. The U.S.P.F. was founded in 1980 as the new national governing body for American powerlifting.
Soon, controversy over drug testing would cause powerlifting to splinter into multiple federations. In 1981, the American Drug Free Powerlifting Association (ADFPA), led by Brother Bennett, became the first federation to break away from the USPF, citing the need to implement effective drug testing in the sport. Meanwhile, the IPF was moving towards adopting drug testing at international meets, and requiring member nations to implement drug testing at national meets as well. In 1982, drug testing was introduced to the IPF men's international championship, although the USPF championships that year did not have drug testing. The IPF's push for drug testing was resisted by some American lifters, and in 1982 Larry Pacifico and Ernie Frantz founded the American Powerlifting Federation (APF), which advertised its categorical opposition to all drug testing. Ultimately, the USPF failed to conform to IPF demands, and was expelled from the international body in 1997, with the ADFPA, now named USA Powerlifting (USAPL), taking its place.
Despite the trend towards more and more federations, each with their own rules and standards of performance, some powerlifters have attempted to bring greater unity to the sport. For example, 100% RAW that promoted unequipped competition merged with another federation, Anti-Drug Athletes United (ADAU) in 2013. The Revolution Powerlifting Syndicate (RPS), founded by Gene Rychlak in 2011, might also be considered a move towards greater unity, as the RPS breaks the tradition of charging lifters membership fees to a specific federation in addition to entry fees for each competition. Also, some meet promoters have sought to bring together top lifters from different federations, outside existing federations' hierarchy of local, regional, national and international meets; a prominent example of this is the Raw Unity Meet (RUM), held annually since 2007.
Developments in equipment and rules
As new equipment was developed, it, too, came to distinguish powerlifting federations from one another. Weight belts and knee wraps (originally simple Ace bandages) predated powerlifting, but in 1983 John Inzer invented the first piece of equipment distinct to powerlifters—the bench shirt. Bench shirts and squat/deadlift suits (operating on the same principle) became ubiquitous in powerlifting, but only some federations adopted the latest and most supportive canvas, denim, and multiply polyester designs, while others (e.g., IPF) maintained more restrictive rules on which supportive equipment could be used. The Monolift, a rack in which the bar catches swing out, eliminating the walkout portion of the squat, was invented by Ray Madden and first used in competition in 1992. This innovation, too, was adopted by some federations and forbidden in others. Other inventions included specialized squat bars and deadlift bars, moving away from the IPF standard of using the same bar for all three lifts.
The rules of powerlifting have also evolved and differentiated. For example, in ADFPA/USAPL competition, the "press" command on the bench press was used, not used, and then used again, following a 2006 IPF motion to reinstate this rule. IPF rules also mandate a "start" command at the beginning of the bench press. Many other federations, for example the Natural Athlete Strength Association (NASA), have never used the "start" command. As a further example of diversifying rules of performance, in 2011 the Southern Powerlifting Federation (SPF) eliminated the "squat" command at the beginning of the squat.
In powerlifting, supportive equipment refers to supportive shirts, briefs, suits, and sometimes knee wraps made of materials that store elastic potential energy and thereby assist the three lifts contested in the sport: squat, bench press and deadlift. The use of supportive equipment distinguishes 'equipped' and 'un-equipped' or 'raw' divisions in the sport, and 'equipped' and 'unequipped' records in the competition lifts. The wide differences between equipped and unequipped records in the squat and bench suggest that supportive equipment confers a substantial advantage to lifters in these disciplines. This is less evident in the case of the deadlift, where the lack of an eccentric component to the lift minimizes how much elastic energy can be stored in a supportive suit. Supportive equipment should not be confused with the equipment on which the lifts are performed, such as a bench press bench or the barbell and discs; nor with personal accessories such as a weightlifting belt that may allow greater weight to be lifted, but by mechanisms other than storing elastic energy.
Principles of operation
Supportive equipment is used to increase the weight lifted in powerlifting exercises. A snug garment is worn over a joint or joints (such as the shoulders or hips). This garment deforms during the downward portion of a bench press or squat, or the descent to the bar in the deadlift, storing elastic potential energy. On the upward portion of each lift, the elastic potential energy is transferred to the barbell as kinetic energy, aiding in the completion of the lift. Some claim that supportive equipment prevents injuries by compressing and stabilizing the joints over which it worn. For example, the bench shirt is claimed to support and protect the shoulders. Critics point out that the greater weights used with supportive equipment and the equipment's tendency to change the pattern of the movement may compromise safety, as in the case of the bar moving towards the head during the upward portion of the shirted bench press.
Material and construction
Different materials are used in the construction of supportive equipment. Squat suits may be made of varying types of polyester, or of canvas. The latter fabric is less elastic, and therefore considered to provide greater 'stopping power' at the bottom of the movement but less assistance with the ascent. Bench shirts may be made of polyester or denim, where the denim again provides a less-elastic alternative to the polyester. Knee wraps are made of varying combinations of cotton and elastic. Supportive equipment can be constructed in different ways to suit lifters' preferences. A squat or deadlift suit may be constructed for a wide or a narrow stance; and a bench shirt may be constructed with 'straight' sleeves (perpendicular to the trunk of the lifter) or sleeves that are angled towards the abdomen. The back of the bench shirt may be closed or open, and the back panel may or may not be of the same material as the front of the shirt. Similarly, 'hybrid' squat suits can include panels made from canvas and polyester, in an effort to combine the strengths of each material. When two or more panels overlay one another in a piece of supportive equipment, that equipment is described as 'multi-ply', in contrast to 'single-ply' equipment made of one layer of material throughout.
Unequipped or "raw" (often styled as RAW) powerlifting has been codified in response to the proliferation and advancement of bench shirts and squat/deadlift suits. The 100% RAW federation was founded in 1999; within a decade, many established federations came to recognize "raw" divisions in addition to their traditional (open) divisions permitting single-ply or multi-ply equipment. The United Powerlifting Association (UPA) established a standard for raw powerlifting in 2008 and USAPL held the first Raw Nationals in the same year. Eventually, IPF recognized raw lifting with the sanction of a "Classic 'Unequipped' World Cup" in 2012, and published its own set of standards for raw lifting. By this time, the popularity of raw lifting has surged to the point where raw lifters came to predominate over equipped lifters in local meets. Note that the IPF's use of the word 'classic' to describe raw powerlifting is differentiated from most other powerlifting federations' use of the word to differentiate between 'classic raw' and 'modern raw': classic raw is still unequipped but allows the use of knee wraps while modern raw allows knee sleeves at most. The IPF does not allow knee wraps in its unequipped competitions and would thus be considered 'modern raw' but the IPF does not recognize the word 'raw.'
The use of knee sleeves in unequipped powerlifting has brought about much debate as to whether certain neoprene knee sleeves can actually assist a lifter during the squat. Some lifters purposely wear knee sleeves which are excessively tight and have been known to use plastic bags and have others to assist them get their knee sleeves on. This led to the IPF mandating that lifters put on their knee sleeves unassisted. 
Classes and categories
Men: 52 kg, 56 kg, 60 kg, 67.5 kg, 75 kg, 82.5 kg, 90 kg, 100 kg, 110 kg, 125 kg, 125 kg +
Women: 44 kg, 48 kg, 52 kg, 56 kg, 60 kg, 67.5 kg, 75 kg, 82.5 kg, 90 kg, 90 kg +
However, in 2011, the IPF introduced the following new weight classes:
IPF Weight Classes:
Men: up to 53 kg (Sub-Junior/Junior), 59 kg, 66 kg, 74 kg, 83 kg, 93 kg, 105 kg, 120 kg, 120 kg+
Women: up to 43 kg (Sub-Junior/Junior), 47 kg, 52 kg, 57 kg, 63 kg, 72 kg, 84 kg, 84 kg +
This depends on the federation generally but averages are as follows:
15-18 (Sub-Jr), 19-23 (Jr), open (any age), masters (40+)
The IPF uses the following age categories: sub-junior (18 and under), junior (19-23), open (24-39), masters 1 (40-49), master 2 (50-59), masters 3 (60-69), and masters 4 (70+). Age category is dependent on the year of the participant's birth. For example, if the participant turns 18 years old in January, he or she is still considered a sub-junior until the end of that calendar year. Other federations typically break the masters categories down to 5-year increments, for example, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, etc. Some federations also include a sub-master class from 35-39.
A competition takes place as follows:
Each competitor is allowed three to four attempts on each lift depending on their standing and the organization they are lifting in (usually smallest w-class to heaviest). The lifter’s best valid attempt on each lift counts toward his competition total. If two or more lifters achieve the same total, the lighter lifter ranks above the heavier lifter.Problem
Competitors are judged against other lifters of the same gender, weight class, and age. This helps to ensure that the accomplishments of lifters like Lamar Gant, who has deadlifted 5 times his bodyweight, are recognized alongside those of Benedikt Magnusson, the current All-time deadlift world record holder.
In a Competition, there are three events: bench press, squat, and deadlift. Some variations of this are found at some meets such "push-pull only" meets where lifters only compete in the bench press and deadlift, with the bench press coming first and the deadlift after. Single lift meets are often held, sometimes alongside a normal 3-lift event. This is most common in the bench press.
At a meet the events will follow in order: squat, then bench press, and the deadlift will be the final lift of the meet. If the federation also has an event for strict curls this will normally occur before the squat event.
Rules of each event
The lift starts with the lifter standing erect and the bar loaded with weights resting on the lifter's shoulders. At the referee's command the lift begins. The lifter creates a break in the hips, bends his knees and drops into a squatting position with the hip crease (the top surface of the leg at the hip crease) below the top of the knee. The lifter then returns to an erect position. At the referee's command the bar is returned to the rack and the lift is completed.
- After removing the bar from the racks while facing the front of the platform, the lifter may move forward or backward to establish the lifting position. The top of the bar not more than 3 cm below the top of the anterior deltoids. The bar shall be held horizontally across the shoulders with the hands and/or fingers gripping the bar, and the feet flat upon the platform with the knees locked.
- The lifter shall wait in this position for the head referee’s signal. The signal will be given as soon as the lifter is set and demonstrates control with the bar properly positioned. The head referee’s signal shall consist of a downward movement of the arm and audible command “Squat”.
- Upon receiving the head referee’s signal, the lifter must bend the knees and lower the body until the top surface of the legs at the hip joint is lower than the top of knees.
- The lifter must recover at will, without double bouncing, to an upright position with the knees locked. The bar may stop, but there must be no downward motion during recovery. As soon as the lifter demonstrates a controlled final position, the head referee will give the signal indicating completion of the lift and to replace the bar.
- The signal to replace the bar will consist of a backward motion of the arm and the audible command "Rack”. The lifter must then make a reasonable attempt to return the bar to the racks.
- The lifter shall face the front of the platform, towards the head referee.
- The lifter shall not hold the collars or discs at any time during the performance of the lift. However, the edge of the hands gripping the bar may be in contact with the inner surface of the collar.
- Not more than five and not less than two loaders/spotters shall be on the platform at any time.
- The lifter may enlist the help of spotters in removing the bar from the racks; however, once the bar has cleared the racks, the spotters shall not physically assist the lifter with regards to actually getting into the proper set position. The spotters may assist the lifter to maintain control should the lifter stumble or demonstrate any evident instability.
- The lifter will be allowed only one commencement signal per attempt.
- The lifter may be given an additional attempt at the same weight at the head referee’s discretion if failure in an attempt was due to any error by one or more of the spotters.
Causes for disqualification of a squat
- Failure to observe the head referee’s signals at the commencement or completion of a lift.
- Double bouncing or more than one recovery attempt at the bottom of the lift.
- Failure to assume an upright position with knees locked at the commencement and completion of the lift.
- Movement of the feet laterally, backward or forward that would constitute a step or stumble.
- Failure to bend the knees and lower the body until the surface of the legs at the hip joint is lower than the tops of the knees.
- Any resetting of the feet after the squat signal.
- Contact with the bar by the spotters between the referee’s signals.
- Contact of elbows or upper arms with the legs.
- Failure to make a reasonable attempt to return the bar to the racks.
- Any intentional dropping or dumping of the bar.
With her or his back resting on the bench, the lifter takes the loaded bar at arm's length. The lifter lowers the bar to the chest. When the bar becomes motionless on the chest, the referee gives a press command. Then the referee will call 'Rack' and the lift is completed as the weight is returned to the rack.
- The front of the bench must be placed on the platform facing the head referee.
- The lifter must lie backward with shoulders and buttocks in contact with the flat bench surface. The lifter’s shoes or toes must be in solid contact with the platform or surface. The position of the head is optional.
- To achieve firm footing, a lifter of any height may use discs or blocks to build up the surface of the platform. Whichever method is chosen, the shoes must be in a solid contact with the surface. If blocks are used, they shall not exceed 45 cm x 45 cm.
- Not more than five and not less than two loaders/spotters shall be in attendance. The lifter may enlist the help of one or more of the designated spotters or enlist a personal spotter in removing the bar from the racks. Only designated spotters may remain on the platform during the lift. The lift off must be to arms length and not down to the chest. A designated spotter, having provided a centre lift off, must immediately clear the area in front of the head referee and move to either side of the bar. If the personal spotter does not immediately leave the platform area and/or in any way distracts or impedes the head referees’ responsibilities, the referees may determine that the lift is unacceptable, and be declared “no lift” by the referees and given three red lights.
- The spacing of the hands shall not exceed 81 cm, measured between the forefingers. The bar shall have circumferential machine markings or tape indicating this maximum grip allowance. If the lifter should use an offset or unequal grip on the bar, whereby one hand is placed outside the marking or tape, it is the lifters responsibility to explain this to the head referee, and allow inspection of the intended grip prior to making an attempt. If this is not done until the lifter is on the platform for an official attempt, any necessary explanation and/or measurements will be done on the lifter’s time for that attempt. The reverse or underhand grip is forbidden, as is a thumbless grip.
- After receiving the bar at arms length, the lifter shall lower the bar to the chest and await the head referees’ signal.
- The signal shall be an audible command “Press” and given as soon as the bar is motionless on the chest. As long as the bar is not so low that it touches the lifter’s belt, it is acceptable.
- The lifter will be allowed only one commencement signal per attempt.
- After the signal to commence the lift has been given, the bar is pressed upward. The bar shall not be allowed to sink into the chest or move downwards prior to the lifter’s attempt to press upward. The lifter will press the bar to straight arm’s length and hold motionless until the audible command “Rack” is given. Bar may move horizontally and may stop during the ascent, but may not move downward towards the chest.
Causes for disqualification of a bench press
- Failure to observe the referee’s signals at the commencement or completion of the lift.
- Any change in the elected position that results in the buttocks breaking contact with the bench or lateral movement of the hands (between the referee’s signals). Any excessive movement or change of contact of the feet during the lift proper.
- Bouncing the bar off the chest.
- Allowing the bar to sink into the chest after receiving the referee’s signal.
- Pronounced uneven extension of the arms during or at the completion of the lift.
- Any downward motion of the bar during the course of being pressed out.
- Contact with the bar by the spotters between the referee’s signals.
- Any contact of the lifter’s shoes with the bench or its supports.
- Deliberate contact between the bar and the bar rest uprights during the lift to assist the completion of the press.
- It is the responsibility of the lifter to inform any personally enlisted spotters to leave the platform as soon as the bar is secured at arms length. Such spotters shall not return to the platform upon completion or failure of the attempt. It is especially important for a spotter providing a centre lift off to leave the platform quickly so as not to impair the head referee’s view. Failure of any personal spotters to leave the platform may cause disqualification of the lift.
In the deadlift the athlete grasps the loaded bar which is resting on the platform floor. The lifter pulls the weights off the floor and assumes an erect position. The knees must be locked and the shoulders back, with the weight held in the lifter's grip. At the referee's command the bar will be returned to the floor under the control of the lifter.
- The bar must be laid horizontally in front of the lifter’s feet, gripped with an optional grip in both hands, and lifted until the lifter is standing erect. The bar may stop but there must be no downward motion of the bar.
- The lifter shall face the front of the platform.
- On completion of the lift, the knees shall be locked in a straight position and the lifter shall be standing erect.
- The head referee’s signal shall consist of a downward movement of the arm and the audible command “Down”. The signal will not be given until the bar is held motionless and the lifter is in an apparent finished position.
- Any raising of the bar or any deliberate attempt to do so will count as an attempt.
Causes for disqualification of a deadlift
- Any downward motion of the bar before it reaches the final position.
- Failure to stand erect.
- Failure to lock the knees straight at the completion of the lift.
- Supporting the bar on the thighs during the performance of the lift. 'Supporting’ is defined as a body position adopted by the lifter that could not be maintained without the counterbalance of the weight being lifted.
- Movement of the feet laterally, backward or forward that would constitute a step or stumble.
- Lowering the bar before receiving the head referee’s signal.
- Allowing the bar to return to the platform without maintaining control with both hands.
Powerlifters practice weight training to improve performance in the three competitive lifts—the squat, bench press and deadlift. Weight training routines used in powerlifting are extremely varied. For example, some methods call for the use of many variations on the contest lifts, while others call for a more limited selection of exercises and an emphasis on mastering the contest lifts through repetition. While many powerlifting routines invoke principles of sports science, such as specific adaptation to imposed demand (SAID principle), there is some controversy around the scientific foundations of particular training methods, as exemplified by the debate over the merits of "speed work," or training to attain maximum acceleration of submaximal weights.
In addition to weight training, powerlifters may pursue other forms of training to improve their performance. For example, aerobic exercise may be used to improve endurance during drawn-out competitions and support recovery from weight training sessions.
Prominent international federations include:
- Global Powerlifting Committee (GPC)
- Global Powerlifting Federation (GPF)
- International Powerlifting Federation (IPF)
- World Drug-Free Powerlifting Federation (WDFPF)
- World Powerlifting Congress (WPC)
- World Powerlifting Federation (WPF)
- World Natural Powerlifting Federation (WNPF)
- International Powerlifting League IPL
Of these federations, the oldest and most prominent is the IPF. It comprises federations from over 100 countries located on six continents. The IPF is the federation responsible for coordinating participation in the World Games, an international event affiliated with the International Olympic Committee.The IPF has many affiliates, one of these being USAPL. Specifically, the USAPL regulates all ages of lifters from the high school level to ages 40+ within the United States. The next-oldest federation is the WPC, formed as the international companion to the APF after its split from the USPF.
Different federations have different rules and different interpretations of the rules, leading to a myriad of variations. Differences arise on the equipment eligible, clothing, drug testing and aspects of allowable technique. The 100% Raw Federation allows no supportive gear to be worn by the lifter while the IPF, AAU, NASA, USAPL and the ADFPF only allow a single-ply tight polyester squat suit, deadlift suit and bench shirt, wraps for knees and wrists, and a belt in the equipped divisions. Other federations, such as the APF, APA, IPA, SPF, WPC, AWPC and WPO, allow opened or closed back bench shirts, multi-ply gear, and a wide array of gear materials such as canvas, denim, polyester etc.
The IPF has suspended entire member nations' federations, including the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Iran, India and Uzbekistan, for repeated violations of the IPF's anti-doping policies. However Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan did not serve their full suspension.
Rank and classification
There are several classifications in powerlifting determining rank. These typically include Elite, Master, Class I,II,III,IV. The Elite standard is considered to be within the top 1% of competing powerlifters. Several standards exist, including the United States Powerlifting Association classifications, the IPF/USAPL (single-ply) classifications, the APF (multi-ply) classifications, and the Anti-Drug Athletes United (ADAU, raw) classifications. Countries in the former Soviet Union use a somewhat different nomenclature for the top classes, distinguishing among Masters of Sport, International Class; Masters of Sport; and Candidates for Master of Sport.
The Master classification should not be confused with the Master age division, which refers to athletes who are at least 40 years old.
High School Powerlifting
Powerlifting is not a very popular sport in most states. Powerlifting is more popular in the south and in the upper midwest, with Texas, Wisconsin, Mississippi, and Louisiana having the most successful programs.
Powerlifting gyms range from commercial fitness centers to private clubs. Some gyms gain fame due to their association with a training methodology (e.g., Westside Barbell), federation (e.g., Lexen Xtreme and the Xtreme Power Coalition [XPC]), or publication (e.g., SuperTraining Gym and Power magazine). Other gyms are notable for their association with champion powerlifters, for example Quads Gym and Ed Coan. Other notable powerlifters operate their own gyms, such as Scot Mendelson's F.I.T., Dan Green's Boss Barbell and Žydrūnas Savickas.
The global meet results are available in searchable web database. 
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- Paralympic powerlifting
- Olympic weightlifting
- Powerlifting USA
- Strongman (strength athlete)
- U.S. intercollegiate powerlifting champions
- Weight training
- World Powerlifting Congress
- "The Choice for Drug-free Strength Sport : USAPL Raw/Unequipped Standards". USA Powerlifting. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "AAU World Powerlifting Championships 1971 (results)". en.allpowerlifting.com. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- "AAU World Powerlifting Championships 1972 (results)". en.allpowerlifting.com. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- Terry Todd (1984-10-22). "Unlike all too many powerlifters, nine-time world champ". Sports Illustrated Vault. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "The Choice for Drug-free Strength Sport". USA Powerlifting. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "ADAU Merges With 100% Raw". Powerlifting Watch. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "Message from Gene Rychlak 08.20.11". YouTube. 2011-08-20. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "Raw Unity Powerlifting Championships - RAW Unity FAQ". Rawunitymeet.com. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "Everything You Wanted to Know About Bench Shirts". Musclemagfitness.com. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "USA Powerlifting Online Newsletter". Usapowerlifting.com. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "Origins Of The Monolift". Powerlifting Watch. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "New To Powerlifting - Lets Get Started". Deepsquatter.com. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "USA Powerlifting Online Newsletter". Usapowerlifting.com. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "Some NASA Members Give Their Take On Lifting In The USAPL". Powerlifting Watch. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "Southern Powerlifting Federation". Southernpowerlifting.com. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- Maile, LJ. "Use of Equipment in Powerlifting". Powerlines.
- Levin, Josh. "One Giant Lift for Mankind". Slate.
- Perrine, Stephen. "Misfits of Muscle". Men's Health.
- Garland, Tony. "The Evolution of the Squat Suit Over the Past Twenty Years". EliteFTS.
- Blatnik, JA; Skinner JW; McBride JM (December 2012). "Effect of supportive equipment on force, velocity, and power in the squat". J Strength Cond Res 26 (12): 3204–8. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182736641. PMID 22996018.
- McCullough, Tom. "The Power Squat". Strength Online.
- Williams, Ryan. "Effects of the Bench Shirt on Selected Bench Press Mechanics". 22 International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports (2004).
- McKown, Mark (2007). Complete Body Development with Dumbbells. Meyer & Meyer Sport. p. 37.
- "100% Raw Powerlifting Federation". Powerlifting Watch. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "UPA Finalizes Definition of Raw". Powerlifting Watch. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "2008 Raw Nationals - USA Powerlifting". Usaplnationals.com. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "Powerlifting Knee Sleeves". PowerliftingToWin.
- "Southern Powerlifting Federation". southernpowerlifting.com.
- IPF PDF (523 KB) (PDF), p. 2. Retrieved August 12th, 2007.
- "More on the Wilks Formula". isu.edu. Retrieved 2009-07-04.
- "Training Specificity for Powerlifters". Marylandpowerlifting.com. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "The Seven Principles and You". powerliftingwatch.com.
- "You are being redirected...". jtsstrength.com.
- "Do Powerlifters Need Cardio?". elitefts.com.
- "Who We Are". USAPL. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "Suspension of the Russian and Ukrainian Federation" (PDF). IPF.com. Retrieved 2009-07-04.
- "Powerlifting Classification Standards". Lift.net. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
- "Powerlifting Equipped and Unequipped Elite Classification Charts". criticalbench.com.
- "Powerlifting High". Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- "Westside Barbell - the official Louie Simmons site". westside-barbell.com.
- "LexenXtreme". lexenxtreme.com.
- "XPC Powerlifting". xpcpowerlifting.com.
- "About". SuperTraining.TV.
- "Power Magazine". thepowermagazine.com.
- "Ed Coan". criticalbench.com.
- "Powerlifting and bench press meet results". allpowerlifting.com.