Microsoft PowerPoint

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Powerpoint)
Jump to: navigation, search
Microsoft PowerPoint
Microsoft PowerPoint 2013 logo.svg
Microsoft PowerPoint 2013 Default Screen.png
Developer(s) Microsoft
Initial release May 22, 1990; 27 years ago (1990-05-22)
Stable release
1707 (Build 8326.2062) / July 31, 2017; 54 days ago (2017-07-31)[1]
Operating system Microsoft Windows
Available in 102 languages[2]
Type Presentation program
License Trialware
Website office.microsoft.com/PowerPoint
Microsoft PowerPoint for Mac
PowerPoint for Mac 2016
PowerPoint for Mac 2016
Developer(s) Microsoft
Initial release April 20, 1987; 30 years ago (1987-04-20)
Stable release
2016 (15.24.0) / July 12, 2016; 14 months ago (2016-07-12)[3]
Operating system macOS
Type Presentation program
License Proprietary commercial software

Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation program,[4] created by Robert Gaskins and Dennis Austin[4] at a software company named Forethought, Inc.[4] It was released on April 20, 1987,[5] initially for Macintosh computers only.[4] Microsoft acquired PowerPoint for $14 million three months after it appeared.[6] This was Microsoft's first significant acquisition,[7] and Microsoft set up a new business unit for PowerPoint in Silicon Valley where Forethought had been located.[7]

PowerPoint became a component of the Microsoft Office suite, first offered in 1989 for Macintosh[8] and in 1990 for Windows,[9] which bundled several Microsoft apps. Beginning with PowerPoint 4.0 (1994), PowerPoint was integrated into Microsoft Office development, and adopted shared common components and a converged user interface. [10]

PowerPoint's market share was very small at first, prior to introducing a version for Microsoft Windows, but grew rapidly with the growth of Windows and of Office.[11](pp402-404) Since the late 1990s, PowerPoint's worldwide market share of presentation software has been estimated at 95 percent.[12]

PowerPoint was originally designed to provide visuals for group presentations within business organizations, but has come to be very widely used in many other communication situations, both in business and beyond.[13]

The first PowerPoint version (Macintosh 1987) was used to produce overhead transparencies,[14] the second (Macintosh 1988, Windows 1990) could also produce color 35mm slides.[14] The third version (Windows and Macintosh 1992) introduced video output of virtual slideshows to digital projectors, which would over time completely replace physical transparencies and slides.[14] A dozen major versions since then have added many additional features and modes of operation[10] and have made PowerPoint available beyond Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows, adding versions for iOS, Android, and web access.[15]

History[edit]

Creation at Forethought (1984–1987)[edit]

PowerPoint was created by Robert Gaskins and Dennis Austin at a software startup in Silicon Valley named Forethought, Inc.[16] Forethought had been founded in 1983 to create applications for future personal computers that would have graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh.[17]

On July 5, 1984, Forethought hired Robert Gaskins as its vice president of product development, to create a new application that would be especially suited to the new graphical personal computers.[18](p51) Gaskins produced his initial description of PowerPoint about a month later (August 14, 1984) in the form of a 2-page document titled "Presentation Graphics for Overhead Projection."[19] By October of 1984 Gaskins had selected Dennis Austin to be the developer for PowerPoint.[20] Gaskins and Austin worked together on the definition and design of the new product for nearly a year, and produced the first specification document dated August 21, 1985.[21] This first design document showed a product as it would look in Microsoft Windows 1.0,[22] which at that time had not been released.[23]

Development from that spec was begun by Austin in November 1985, for Macintosh first.[18](p104) About six months later, on May 1, 1986, Gaskins and Austin chose a second developer to join the project, Thomas Rudkin.[18](p149) Gaskins prepared two final product specification marketing documents in June of 1986; these described a product for both Macintosh and Windows.[24][25] At about the same time, Austin, Rudkin, and Gaskins produced a second and final major design specification document, this time showing a Macintosh look.[26]

Throughout this development period the product was called "Presenter." Then, just before release, there was a last-minute check with Forethought's lawyers to register the name as a trademark, and "Presenter" was unexpectedly rejected because it had already been used by someone else. Gaskins says that he thought of "PowerPoint", based on the product's goal of "empowering" individual presenters, and sent that name to the lawyers for clearance, while all the documentation was hastily revised.[27]

Funding to complete development of PowerPoint was assured in mid-January, 1987, when a new Apple Computer venture capital fund, called Apple's Strategic Investment Group,[28] selected PowerPoint to be its first investment.[18](pp169–171) A month later, on February 22, 1987, Forethought announced PowerPoint at the Personal Computer Forum in Phoenix; John Sculley, the CEO of Apple, appeared at the announcement and said "We see desktop presentation as potentially a bigger market for Apple than desktop publishing."[29]

PowerPoint 1.0 for Macintosh shipped from manufacturing on April 20, 1987, and the first production run of 10,000 units was sold out.[30]

Acquisition by Microsoft (1987–1992)[edit]

By early 1987, Microsoft was starting to plan a new application to create presentations, an activity led by Jeff Raikes, who was head of marketing for the Applications Division.[31] Microsoft assigned an internal group to write a specification and plan for a new presentation product.[32] They contemplated an acquisition to speed up development, and in early 1987 Microsoft sent a letter of intent to acquire Dave Winer's product called MORE, an outlining program that could print its outlines as bullet charts.[33] During this preparatory activity Raikes discovered that a program specifically to make overhead presentations was already being developed by Forethought, Inc., and that it was nearly completed.[31] Raikes and others visited Forethought on February 6, 1987, for a confidential demonstration.[18](p173)

Raikes later recounted his reaction to seeing PowerPoint and his report about it to Bill Gates, who was initially skeptical:[31]

I thought, "software to do overheads—that's a great idea." I came back to see Bill. I said, "Bill, I think we really ought to do this;" and Bill said, "No, no, no, no, no, that's just a feature of Microsoft Word, just put it into Word." ... And I kept saying, "Bill, no, it's not just a feature of Microsoft Word, it's a whole genre of how people do these presentations." And, to his credit, he listened to me and ultimately allowed me to go forward and ... buy this company in Silicon Valley called Forethought, for the product known as PowerPoint.

When PowerPoint was released by Forethought, its initial press was favorable; the Wall Street Journal reported on early reactions: "'I see about one product a year I get this excited about,' says Amy Wohl, a consultant in Bala Cynwyd, Pa. 'People will buy a Macintosh just to get access to this product.'"[34]

On April 28, 1987, a week after shipment, a group of Microsoft's senior executives spent another day at Forethought to hear about initial PowerPoint sales on Macintosh and plans for Windows.[18](p191) The following day, Microsoft sent a letter to Dave Winer withdrawing its earlier letter of intent to acquire his company,[35] and in mid-May of 1987 Microsoft sent a letter of intent to acquire Forethought.[36] As requested in that letter of intent, Robert Gaskins from Forethought went to Redmond for a one-on-one meeting with Bill Gates in early June, 1987,[18](p197) and by the end of July an agreement was concluded for an acquisition. The New York Times reported:[37]

... July 30— The Microsoft Corporation announced its first significant software acquisition today, paying $14 million [$29.5 million in present-day terms[38]] for Forethought Inc. of Sunnyvale, Calif. Forethought makes a program called PowerPoint that allows users of Apple Macintosh computers to make overhead transparencies or flip charts. ... [T]he acquisition of Forethought is the first significant one for Microsoft, which is based in Redmond, Wash. Forethought would remain in Sunnyvale, giving Microsoft a Silicon Valley presence. The unit will be headed by Robert Gaskins, Forethought's vice president of product development.

Microsoft's president Jon Shirley offered Microsoft's motivation for the acquisition: "'We made this deal primarily because of our belief in desktop presentations as a product category. ... Forethought was first to market with a product in this category.'"[39]

Microsoft set up within its Applications Division an independent "Graphics Business Unit" to develop and to market PowerPoint, the first Microsoft application group distant from the main Redmond location.[39] All the PowerPoint people from Forethought joined Microsoft, and the new location was headed by Robert Gaskins, with Dennis Austin and Thomas Rudkin leading development.[40] PowerPoint 1.0 for Macintosh was modified to indicate the new Microsoft ownership and continued to be sold.[40]

A new PowerPoint 2.0 for Macintosh, adding color 35mm slides, appeared by mid-1988.[40] The same PowerPoint 2.0 product re-developed for Windows was shipped two years later, in mid-1990, at the same time as Windows 3.0.[41] Much of the color technology was the fruit of a joint development partnership with Genigraphics, at that time the dominant presentation services company.[42]

PowerPoint 3.0, which was shipped in 1992 for both Windows and Mac, added live video for projectors and monitors, with the result that PowerPoint was thereafter used for delivering presentations as well as for preparing them. This was at first an alternative to overhead transparencies and 35mm slides, but over time would come to replace them.[43]

Part of Microsoft Office (since 1993)[edit]

PowerPoint had been included in Microsoft Office from the beginning. PowerPoint 2.0 for Macintosh was part of the first Office bundle for Macintosh which was offered in mid-1989.[44] When PowerPoint 2.0 for Windows appeared, a year later, it was part of a similar Office bundle for Windows, which was offered in late 1990.[45] Both of these were bundling promotions, in which the independent applications were packaged together and offered for a lower total price.[44][45]

PowerPoint 3.0 (1992) was again separately specified and developed,[46] and was prominently advertised and sold separately from Office.[47] It was, as before, included in Microsoft Office 3.0, both for Windows and the corresponding version for Macintosh.[48]

A plan to integrate the applications themselves more tightly had been indicated as early as February 1991, toward the end of PowerPoint 3.0 development, in an internal memo by Bill Gates:[49]

Another important question is what portion of our applications sales over time will be a set of applications versus a single product. ... Please assume that we stay ahead in integrating our family together in evaluating our future strategies—the product teams WILL deliver on this. ... I believe that we should position the "OFFICE" as our most important application.

The move from bundling separate products to integrated development began with PowerPoint 4.0, developed in 1993–1994 under new management from Redmond.[50] The PowerPoint group in Silicon Valley was reorganized from the independent "Graphics Business Unit" (GBU) to become the "Graphics Product Unit" (GPU) for Office, and PowerPoint 4.0 changed to adopt a converged user interface and other components shared with the other apps in Office.[46]

When it was released, the computer press reported on the change approvingly: "PowerPoint 4.0 has been re-engineered from the ground up to resemble and work with the latest applications in Office: Word 6.0, Excel 5.0, and Access 2.0. The integration is so good, you'll have to look twice to make sure you're running PowerPoint and not Word or Excel."[51] Office integration was further underscored in the following version, PowerPoint 95, which was given the version number PowerPoint 7.0 (skipping 5.0 and 6.0) so that all the components of Office would share the same major version number.[52]

Although PowerPoint by this point had become part of the integrated Microsoft Office product, its development remained in Silicon Valley. Succeeding versions of PowerPoint introduced important changes, particularly version 12.0 (2007) which had a very different shared Office "ribbon" user interface, and a new shared Office XML-based file format.[53] This marked the 20th anniversary of PowerPoint, and Microsoft held an event to commemorate that anniversary at its Silicon Valley Campus for the PowerPoint team there. Special guests were Robert Gaskins, Dennis Austin, and Thomas Rudkin, and the featured speaker was Jeff Raikes, all from PowerPoint 1.0 days, 20 years before.[54]

Since then major development of PowerPoint as part of Office has continued. New development techniques[55] (shared across Office) for PowerPoint 2016 have made it possible to ship versions of PowerPoint 2016 for Windows, Mac, iOS, Android, and web access nearly simultaneously,[56] and to release new features on a nearly-monthly schedule.[57] PowerPoint development is still located in Silicon Valley as of 2017.[58]

In 2010, Jeff Raikes, who had most recently been President of the Business Division of Microsoft (including responsibility for Office),[59] observed: "of course, today we know that PowerPoint is often times the number two—or in some cases even the number one—most-used tool" among the applications in Office.[31]

Sales and market share[edit]

PowerPoint's initial sales were about 40,000 copies sold in 1987 (nine months), about 85,000 copies in 1988, and about 100,000 copies in 1989, all for Macintosh.[60] PowerPoint's market share in its first three years was a tiny part of the total presentation market, which was very heavily dominated by MS-DOS applications on PCs.[61] The market leaders on MS-DOS in 1988-1989[62] were Harvard Graphics (introduced by Software Publishing in 1986[63]) in first place, and Lotus Freelance Plus (also introduced in 1986[64]) as a strong second.[65] They were competing with more than a dozen other MS-DOS presentation products,[66] and Microsoft did not develop a PowerPoint version for MS-DOS.[67] After three years, PowerPoint sales were disappointing. Jeff Raikes, who had bought PowerPoint for Microsoft, later recalled: "By 1990, it looked like it wasn't a very smart idea [for Microsoft to have acquired PowerPoint], because not very many people were using PowerPoint."[31]

This began to change when the first version for Windows, PowerPoint 2.0, brought sales up to about 200,000 copies in 1990 and to about 375,000 copies in 1991, with Windows units outselling Macintosh.[60](p403) PowerPoint sold about 1 million copies in 1992, of which about 80 percent were for Windows and about 20 percent for Macintosh,[60](p403) and in 1992 PowerPoint's market share of worldwide presentation graphics software sales was reported as 63 percent.[60](p404) By the last six months of 1992, PowerPoint revenue was running at a rate of over $100 million annually ($211 million in present-day terms[38]).[60](p405)[68]

Sales of PowerPoint 3.0 doubled to about 2 million copies in 1993, of which about 90 percent were for Windows and about 10 percent for Macintosh,[60](p403) and in 1993 PowerPoint's market share of worldwide presentation graphics software sales was reported as 78 percent.[60](p404) In both years, about half of total revenue came from sales outside the U.S.[60](p404)

By 1997 PowerPoint sales had doubled again, to more than 4 million copies annually, representing 85 percent of the world market.[69] Also in 1997, an internal publication from the PowerPoint group said that by then over 20 million copies of PowerPoint were in use, and that total revenues from PowerPoint over its first ten years (1987 to 1996) had already exceeded $1 billion.[70]

Since the late 1990s, PowerPoint's market share of total world presentation software has been estimated at 95 percent by both industry and academic sources.[71]

Operation[edit]

The earliest version of PowerPoint (1987 for Macintosh) could be used to print black and white pages to be photocopied onto sheets of transparent film for projection from overhead projectors, and to print speaker's notes and audience handouts; the next version (1988 for Macintosh, 1990 for Windows) was extended to also produce color 35mm slides by communicating a file over a modem to a Genigraphics imaging center with slides returned by overnight delivery for projection from slide projectors. PowerPoint was used for planning and preparing a presentation, but not for delivering it (apart from previewing it on a computer screen, or distributing printed paper copies).[72]The operation of PowerPoint changed substantially in its third version (1992 for Windows and Macintosh), when PowerPoint was extended to also deliver a presentation by producing direct video output to digital projectors or large monitors.[72] In 1992 video projection of presentations was rare and expensive, and practically unknown from a laptop computer. Robert Gaskins, one of the creators of PowerPoint, says he publicly demonstrated that use for the first time at a large Microsoft meeting held in Paris on February 25, 1992, by using an unreleased development build of PowerPoint 3.0 running on an early pre-production sample of a powerful new color laptop and feeding a professional auditorium video projector.[73](pp373–375)

By about 2003, ten years later, digital projection had become the dominant mode of use, replacing transparencies and 35mm slides and their projectors.[73](pp410–414)[74] As a result, the meaning of "PowerPoint presentation" narrowed to mean specifically digital projection:[75]

... in the business lexicon, "PowerPoint presentation" had come to refer to a presentation made using a PowerPoint slideshow projected from a computer. Although the PowerPoint software had been used to generate transparencies for over a decade, this usage was not typically encompassed by common understanding of the term.

In contemporary operation, PowerPoint is used to create a file (called a "presentation" or "deck"[76]) containing a sequence of pages (called "slides" in the app) which usually have a consistent style (from template masters), and which may contain information imported from other apps or created in PowerPoint, including text, bullet lists, tables, charts, drawn shapes, images, audio clips, video clips, animations of elements, and animated transitions between slides, plus attached notes for each slide.[77]

After such a file is created, typical operation is to present it as a slide show using a portable computer, where the presentation file is stored on the computer or available from a network, and the computer's screen shows a "presenter view" with current slide, next slide, speaker's notes for the current slide, and other information.[78] Video is sent from the computer to one or more external digital projectors or monitors, showing only the current slide to the audience, with sequencing controlled by the speaker at the computer. A smartphone remote control built in to PowerPoint for iOS (optionally controlled from Apple Watch)[79] and for Android[80] allows the presenter to control the show from elsewhere in the room.

In addition to a computer slide show projected to a live audience by a speaker, PowerPoint can be used to deliver a presentation in a number of other ways:

  • Displayed on the screen of the presentation computer or tablet (for a very small group)[81]
  • Printed for distribution as paper documents (in several formats)[82]
  • Distributed as files for private viewing, even on computers without PowerPoint[83]
  • Packaged for distribution on CD or a network, including linked and embedded data[84]
  • Transmited as a live broadcast presentation over the web[85]
  • Embeded in a web page or blog[86]
  • Shared on social networks such as Facebook or Twitter[87]
  • Set up as a self-running unattended display[88]
  • Recorded as video/audio (H.264/AAC), to be distributed as for any other video[89]

Some of these ways of using PowerPoint have been studied by JoAnne Yates and Wanda Orlikowski of the MIT Sloan School of Management:[75]

The standard form of such presentations involves a single person standing before a group of people, talking and using the PowerPoint slideshow to project visual aids onto a screen. ... In practice, however, presentations are not always delivered in this mode. In our studies, we often found that the presenter sat at a table with a small group of people and walked them through a "deck", composed of paper copies of the slides. In some cases, decks were simply distributed to individuals, without even a walk-through or discussion. ... Other variations in form included sending the PowerPoint file electronically to another site and talking through the slides over an audio or video channel (e.g., telephone or video conference) as both parties viewed the slides. ... Another common variation was placing a PowerPoint file on a web site for people to view at different times.

They found that some of these ways of using PowerPoint could influence the content of presentations, for example when "the slides themselves have to carry more of the substance of the presentation, and thus need considerably more content than they would have if they were intended for projection by a speaker who would orally provide additional details and nuance about content and context."[75]

Cultural impact[edit]

A PowerPoint presentation in progress

Jerry Pournelle in 1989 praised PowerPoint for the Macintosh, stating that "if you're in the business of putting on briefings and otherwise making presentations, you might want to seriously contemplate getting a Mac II just so you can use this program; it's that good. Highly recommended".[90] Supporters say that[91][92][93] the ease of use of presentation software can save a lot of time for people who otherwise would have used other types of visual aid—hand-drawn or mechanically typeset slides, blackboards or whiteboards, or overhead projections. Ease of use also encourages those who otherwise would not have used visual aids, or would not have given a presentation at all, to make presentations. As PowerPoint's style, animation, and multimedia abilities have become more sophisticated, and as the application has generally made it easier to produce presentations (even to the point of having an "AutoContent Wizard" that was discontinued in PowerPoint 2007, suggesting a structure for a presentation), the difference in needs and desires of presenters and audiences has become more noticeable.[citation needed] Experienced PowerPoint designers point out that the "AutoContent Wizard" caused a glitch which contributed greatly to on-screen freezing of slides. Many designers opt to use the "blank slide layout" in lieu of the other layout choices for this reason. Nevertheless, in normal business use, most presentations created using PowerPoint are based on its default layout and font choices.[94]

The benefit of PowerPoint is continually debated, though most people believe that the benefit may be to present structural presentations to business workers, such as Raytheon Elcan does.[95] Its use in classroom lectures has influenced investigations of PowerPoint's effects on student performance in comparison to lectures based on overhead projectors, traditional lectures, and online lectures. There are no compelling results to prove or disprove that PowerPoint is more effective for learner retention than traditional presentation methods.[96] Statistician and designer Edward Tufte suggests that as PowerPoint on its own has limited ability to present complex tables and graphics, a better approach is to provide the audience with printed data and a written report for them to read at the start of the meeting, before leading them through the report with a talk. He noted that after the Columbia disaster, a report on the accident recommended that PowerPoint should never be used as the sole method for presenting scientific material.

Military excess in the United States[edit]

A "PowerPoint Ranger" is a military member who relies heavily on presentation software to the point of excess. Some junior officers spend the majority of their time preparing PowerPoint slides.[97] Because of its usefulness for presenting mission briefings, it has become part of the culture of the military,[98][99] but is regarded as a poor decision-making tool.[100] As a result, some generals, such as Brigadier-General Herbert McMaster, have banned the use of PowerPoint in their operations.[97] In September 2010, Colonel Lawrence Sellin was fired from his post at the ISAF for publishing a piece critical of the over-dependence of military staffs on the presentation method and bloated bureaucracy.[101]

Artistic medium[edit]

Musician David Byrne has been using PowerPoint as a medium for art for years, producing a book and DVD and showing at galleries his PowerPoint-based artwork.[102] Byrne has written: "I have been working with PowerPoint, the ubiquitous presentation software, as an art medium for a number of years. It started off as a joke (this software is a symbol of corporate salesmanship, or lack thereof) but then the work took on a life of its own as I realized I could create pieces that were moving, despite the limitations of the 'medium.'"[103]

In 2005 Byrne toured with a theater piece styled as a PowerPoint presentation. When he presented it in Berkeley, on March 8, 2005, the University of California news service reported: "Byrne also defended its [PowerPoint's] appeal as more than just a business tool—as a medium for art and theater. His talk was titled 'I ♥ PowerPoint' ... . Berkeley alumnus Bob Gaskins and Dennis Austin ... were in the audience ... . Eventually, Byrne said, PowerPoint could be the foundation for 'presentational theater,' with roots in Brechtian drama and Asian puppet theater."[104] After that performance, Byrne described it in his own online journal: "Did the PowerPoint talk in Berkeley for an audience of IT legends and academics. I was terrified. The guys that originally turned PowerPoint into a program were there, what were THEY gonna think? ... [Gaskins] did tell me afterwards that he liked the PowerPoint as theater idea, which was a relief."[105]

The expressions "PowerPoint Art" or "pptArt" are used to define a contemporary Italian artistic movement which believes that the corporate world can be a unique and exceptional source of inspiration for the artist.[106][107] They say: "The pptArt name refers to PowerPoint, the symbolic and abstract language developed by the corporate world which has become a universal and highly symbolic communication system beyond cultures and borders."[108]

The wide use of PowerPoint had, by 2010, given rise to " ... a subculture of PowerPoint enthusiasts [that] is teaching the old application new tricks, and may even be turning a dry presentation format into a full-fledged artistic medium,"[109] by using PowerPoint animation to create "games, artworks, anime, and movies."[110]

PowerPoint Viewer[edit]

PowerPoint Viewer is the name for a series of small free application programs to be used on computers without PowerPoint installed, to view, project, or print (but not create or edit) presentations.[111]

The first version was introduced with PowerPoint 3.0 in 1992, to enable electronic presentations to be projected using conference-room computers and to be freely distributed; on Windows, it took advantage of the new feature of embedding TrueType fonts within PowerPoint presentation files to make such distribution easier.[112] The same kind of viewer app was shipped with PowerPoint 3.0 for Macintosh, also in 1992.[113]

Beginning with PowerPoint 2003, a feature called "Package for CD" automatically managed all linked video and audio files plus needed fonts when exporting a presentation to a disk or flash drive or network location,[114] and also included a copy of a revised PowerPoint Viewer application so that the result could be presented on other PCs without installing anything.[115]

The latest version that runs on Windows "was created in conjunction with PowerPoint 2010, but it can also be used to view newer presentations created in PowerPoint 2013 and PowerPoint 2016. ... All transitions, videos and effects appear and behave the same when viewed using PowerPoint Viewer as they do when viewed in PowerPoint 2010." It supports presentations created using PowerPoint 97 and later.[111] The latest version that runs on Macintosh is PowerPoint 98 Viewer for the Classic Mac OS and Classic Environment, for Macs supporting System 7.5 to Mac OS X Tiger (10.4).[116] It can open presentations only from PowerPoint 3.0, 4.0, and 8.0 (PowerPoint 98), although presentations created on Mac can be opened in PowerPoint Viewer on Windows.[117] As of 2017, the latest versions of PowerPoint Viewer for Windows (2010)[118] and for Macintosh (1998)[119] remain available for download.

Since PowerPoint 2013, the recommended replacement for PowerPoint Viewer has been to use any computer with a browser and network access to display any accessible PowerPoint presentation by using the free web app PowerPoint Online.[120]

Versions[edit]

Legend: Old version Older version, still supported Current stable version Latest preview version Future release
PowerPoint release history
Date Name Version System Comments
April 1987[121] PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 1.0 Macintosh Shipped by Forethought, Inc.
October 1987[122] PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 1.01 Macintosh Relabeled and shipped by Microsoft
May 1988[123] PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 2.0 Macintosh
December 1988[124] PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 2.01 Macintosh Added Genigraphics software and services
May 1990[125] PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 2.0 Windows Announced with Windows 3.0, numbered to match contemporary Macintosh version
May 1992[126] PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 3.0 Windows Announced with Windows 3.1
September 1992[127] PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 3.0 Macintosh
February 1994[128] PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 4.0 Windows
October 1994[129] PowerPoint Old version, no longer supported: 4.0 Macintosh Native for Power Mac
July 1995[130] PowerPoint 95 Old version, no longer supported: 7.0 Windows Versions 5.0 and 6.0 were skipped on Windows, so all apps in Office 95 were 7.0[131]
January 1997[132] PowerPoint 97 Old version, no longer supported: 8.0 Windows
March 1998[133] PowerPoint 98 Old version, no longer supported: 8.0 Macintosh Versions 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 were skipped on Macintosh, to match Windows[134]
June 1999[135] PowerPoint 2000 Old version, no longer supported: 9.0 Windows
August 2000[136] PowerPoint 2001 Old version, no longer supported: 9.0 Macintosh
May 2001[137] PowerPoint XP Old version, no longer supported: 10.0 Windows
November 2001[138] PowerPoint v. X Old version, no longer supported: 10.0 Macintosh For Mac OS X[which?]
October 2003[139][140] PowerPoint 2003 Old version, no longer supported: 11.0 Windows
June 2004[141] PowerPoint 2004 Old version, no longer supported: 11.0 Macintosh
May 2005[142] PowerPoint Mobile Old version, no longer supported: 11.0 Windows Mobile 5
January 2007[143] PowerPoint 2007 Older version, yet still supported: 12.0 Windows
September 2007[144] PowerPoint Mobile Old version, no longer supported: 12.0 Windows Mobile 6
January 2008[145] PowerPoint 2008 Old version, no longer supported: 12.0 Macintosh
June 2010[146] PowerPoint 2010 Older version, yet still supported: 14.0 Windows Version 13.0 was skipped for triskaidekaphobia concerns[147]
June 2010[148] PowerPoint 2010 Web App Old version, no longer supported: 14.0 Web
June 2010[149] PowerPoint Mobile 2010 Old version, no longer supported: 14.0 Windows Phone 7
November 2010[150] PowerPoint 2011 Older version, yet still supported: 14.0 Macintosh Version 13.0 was skipped for triskaidekaphobia concerns[147]
April 2012[151] PowerPoint Mobile 2010 Old version, no longer supported: 14.0 Nokia Symbian
October 2012[152] PowerPoint Web App 2013 Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 Web
November 2012[153] PowerPoint Mobile 2013 Old version, no longer supported: 15.0 Windows Phone 8
November 2012[154] PowerPoint RT 2013 Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 Windows RT
January 2013[155] PowerPoint 2013 Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 Windows
June 2013[156] PowerPoint Mobile 2013 for iPhone Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 iPhone
July 2013[157] PowerPoint Mobile 2013 for Android Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 Android
February 2014[158] PowerPoint 2013 Online Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 Web
March 2014[159] PowerPoint 2013 for iPad Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 iPad
November 2014[160] PowerPoint Mobile 2013 for iOS Older version, yet still supported: 15.0 iOS
June 2015[161] PowerPoint Mobile 2016 for Android Current stable version: 16.0 Android
July 2015[162] PowerPoint 2016 for Macintosh Current stable version: 15.0 Macintosh There had been no PowerPoint 2013 for Mac.[163]
July 2015[164] PowerPoint Mobile 2016 Current stable version: 16.0 Windows 10 Mobile
July 2015[165] PowerPoint Mobile 2016 for iOS Current stable version: 16.0 iOS
September 2015[166] PowerPoint 2016 for Windows Current stable version: 16.0 Windows
June 2017[167] PowerPoint 2016 for Windows Store Latest preview version of a future release: 16.0 Windows 10 S
Date Name Version System Comments
Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 running on Windows 7
Icon for PowerPoint for Mac 2008
Microsoft PowerPoint for Mac 2011
PowerPoint 1.0
For Macintosh: April 1987[121]
Innovations included: multiple slides in a single file, organizing slides with a slide sorter view and a title view (precursor of outline view), speakers' notes pages attached to each slide, printing of audience handouts with multiple slides per page, text with outlining styles and full word-processor formatting, graphic shapes with attached text for drawing diagrams and tables.[168] It also shipped with a hardbound book as its manual.[169]
"It produced overhead transparencies on a black-and-white Macintosh for laser printing. Presenters could now directly control their own overheads and would no longer have to work through the person with the typewriter. PowerPoint handled the task of making the overheads all look alike; one change reformats them all. Typographic fonts were better than an Orator typeball, and charts and diagrams could be imported from MacDraw, MacPaint, and Excel, thanks to the new Mac clipboard."[170]
System requirements: (Mac) Original Macintosh or better, System 1.0 or higher, 512K RAM.[171]
PowerPoint 2.0
For Macintosh: May 1988;[123] for Windows: May 1990[125]
Part of Microsoft Office for Mac and Microsoft Office for Windows. Innovations included: color, more word processing features, find and replace, spell checking, color schemes for presentations, guide to color selection, ability to change color scheme retrospectively, shaded coloring for fills.[168]
"It added color 35mm slides, transmitting the resulting file over a modem to Genigraphics for imaging on Genigraphics' film recorders and photo processing in Genigraphics' labs overnight. Genigraphics was the leading professional service bureau, having developed its own Digital Equipment Corp. PDP-11-based computer systems for its artists. After a short time, though, Genigraphics itself switched to PowerPoint."[170]
System requirements: (Mac) Original Macintosh or better, System 4.1 or higher, 1 MB RAM. (Windows) 286 PC or higher, Windows 3.0, 1 MB RAM.[171]
PowerPoint 3.0
For Windows, May 1992;[126] for Mac: September 1992[127]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 3.0 and Microsoft Office for Mac 3.0. Innovations included: the first application designed exclusively for the new Windows 3.1 platform, full support for TrueType fonts (new in Windows 3.1), presentation templates, editing in outline view, new drawing, including freeform tool, autoshapes, flip, rotate, scale, align, and transforming imported pictures into their drawing primitives to make them editable, transitions between slides in slide show, progressive builds, incorporating sound and video.[168] Animations included "flying bullets" where bullet points "flew" into the slide one by one, and some degree of Pen Computing support was included.[169]
"It added video-out to feed the new video projectors, with effects that could replace a bank of synchronized slide projectors. This version added fades, dissolves, and other transitions, as well as animation of text and pictures, and could incorporate video clips with synchronized audio."[170]
System requirements: (Windows) 286 PC or higher, Windows 3.1, 2 MB RAM. (Mac) Macintosh Plus or better, System 7 or higher, 4 MB RAM.[171]
PowerPoint 4.0
For Windows: February 1994;[128] for Mac: October 1994[129]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 4.0 and Microsoft Office for Mac 4.2. Innovations included: autolayouts, Word tables, rehearsal mode, hidden slides, and the "AutoContent Wizard."[169]
Introduced a standard "Microsoft Office" look and feel (shared with Word and Excel), with status bar, toolbars, tooltips. Full OLE 2.0 with in-place activation.[168]
System requirements: (Windows) 386 PC or higher, Windows 3.1, 8 MB RAM. (Mac) 68020 Mac or better, System 7 or higher, 8 MB RAM.[171]
PowerPoint 7.0
For Windows: July 1995[130]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 95. Innovations included: new animation effects, real curves and textures, black and white view, autocorrect, insert symbol, meeting support features such as "Meeting Minder."[169]
"A complete rewrite of the product from the ground up in C++, full object model with internal VBA programmability."[168]
System requirements: (Windows) 386 DX PC or higher, Windows 95, 6 MB RAM.[171]
PowerPoint 8.0
For Windows: January 1997;[132] for Mac: March 1998[133]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 97 and Microsoft Office 98 Macintosh Edition. Innovations included: "Office Assistant," file compression, save to HTML, "Pack and Go," "AutoClipArt," transparent GIFs.[169]
System requirements: (Windows) 486 PC or higher, 8 MB RAM. (Mac) PowerPC Mac or better, 16 MB RAM.[171]
PowerPoint 9.0
For Windows: June 1999;[135] for Mac: August 2000[136]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 2000 and Microsoft Office for Mac 2001. Innovations included: three-pane "browser" view (selectable list of slide miniatures or titles, large single slide, notes), autofit text, real tables, presentation conferencing, save to web, picture bullets, animated GIFs, aliased fonts.[169]
System requirements: (Windows) Pentium 75MHz+, Windows 95 or higher, 20 MB RAM. (Mac) PowerPC Mac 120MHz+ or better, MacOS 8.5 or higher, minimum 48 MB RAM.[171]
PowerPoint 10.0
For Windows: May 2001;[137] for Mac: November 2001[138]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows XP and Microsoft Office for Mac v.X. Innovations included: install from web, most clipart on web, use of Exchange and SharePoint for storage and collaboration.[137]
System requirements: (Windows) Pentium III, Windows 98 or higher, 40 MB RAM.[171] (Mac) OS X (will not run under OS 9).[138]
PowerPoint 11.0
For Windows: October 2003;[139] for Mac: June 2004;[141] for Mobile: May 2005[142]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 2003 and Microsoft Office for Mac 2004. Innovations included: tools visible to presenter during slide show (notes, thumbnails, time clock, re-order and edit slides), "Package for CD" to write presentation and viewer app to CD.[141] "Microsoft Producer for PowerPoint 2003" was a free plug-in from Microsoft, using a video camera, "that creates Web page presentations, with talking head narration, coordinated and timed to your existing PowerPoint presentation" for delivery over the web.[172] The Genigraphics software to send a presentation for imaging as 35mm slides was removed from this version.[173]
System requirements: (Windows) Pentium 233Mhz+, Windows XP or later, 128 MB RAM.[174] (Mac) Power Mac G3 or better, OS X 10.2.8 or later, 256 MB RAM.[141]
PowerPoint 12.0
For Windows: January 2007;[143] for Mobile: September 2007;[144] for Mac: January 2008[145]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 2007 and Microsoft Office for Mac 2008. Innovations included: new user interface ("Office Fluent") employing a changeable "ribbon" of tools across the top to replace menus and toolbars, SmartArt graphics, many graphical improvements in text and drawing, improved "Presenter View" (from 2003), widescreen slide formats. The "AutoContent Wizard" was removed from this version.[175]
A major change in PowerPoint 2007 was from a binary file format, used from 1997 to 2003, to a new XML file format which evolved over further versions.
System requirements: (Windows) 500 MHz processor or higher, Windows XP with SP2 or later, 256 MB RAM.[176] (Mac) 500 MHz processor or higher, MacOS X 10.4.9 or later, 512 MB RAM.[177]
PowerPoint 14.0[147]
For Windows: June 2010;[146] for Web: June 2010;[148] for Mobile: June 2010;[149] for Mac: November 2010,[150] for Symbian: April 2012[151]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 2010 and Microsoft Office for Mac 2011. Innovations included: Single document interface (SDI), sections within presentations, reading view, redesign of "Backstage" functions (under File menu), save as video, insert video from web, embed video and audio, enhanced editing for video and for pictures, broadcast slideshow.[178]
System requirements: (Windows) 500 MHz processor or higher, Windows XP with SP3 or later, 256 MB RAM, 512 MB RAM recommended for video.[179] (Mac) Intel processor, Mac OS X 10.5.8 or later, 1 GB RAM.[180]
PowerPoint 15.0
For Web: October 2012;[152] for Mobile: November 2012;[153] for Windows RT: November 2012;[154] for Windows: January 2013;[155] for iPhone: June 2013;[156] for Android: July 2013;[157] for Web: February 2014;[158] for iPad: March 2014;[159] for iOS: November 2014;[160] for Mac: July 2015[162]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 2013 and Microsoft Office for Mac 2016. Innovations included: Change default slide shape to 16:9 aspect ratio, online collaboration by multiple authors, user interface redesigned for multi-touch screens, improved audio, video, animations, and transitions, further changes to Presenter View. Clipart collections (and insertion tool) were removed, but available online.[181][182]
System requirements: (Windows) 1 GHz processor or faster, x86- or x64-bit processor with SSE2 instruction set, Windows 7 or later, 1 GB RAM (32-bit), 2 GB RAM (64-bit).[183] (Mac) Intel processor, Mac OS X 10.10 or later, 4 GB RAM.[184]
PowerPoint 16.0
For Android: June 2015;[161] for Mobile: July 2015;[164] for iOS: July 2015;[165] for Windows: September 2015;[166] and Windows Store: June 2017[167]
Part of Microsoft Office for Windows 2016. Innovations included: "Tell me" to search for program controls, "PowerPoint Designer" pane, Morph transition, real-time collaboration, "Zoom" to slides or sections in slideshow,[185] and "Presentation Translator" for real-time translation of a presenter's spoken words to on-screen captions in any of 60+ languages, with the system analyzing the text of the PowerPoint presentation as context to increase the accuracy and relevance of the translations.[186][187]
System requirements: (Windows) 1 GHz processor or faster, x86- or x64-bit processor with SSE2 instruction set, Windows 7 with SP 1 or later, 2 GB RAM.[188]

File formats[edit]

PowerPoint Presentation
Filename extensions .pptx, .ppt[189]
Internet media type application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint[190]
Uniform Type Identifier (UTI) com.microsoft.powerpoint.ppt[191]
Developed by Microsoft
Type of format Presentation

Binary (1987–2007)[edit]

Early versions of PowerPoint, from 1987 through 1995 (versions 1.0 through 7.0), evolved through a sequence of binary file formats, different in each version, as functionality was added.[192] That resulted in a stable binary format (called a .ppt file, like all earlier binary formats) that was shared as the default in PowerPoint 97 through PowerPoint 2003 for Windows, and in PowerPoint 98 through PowerPoint 2004 for Mac (that is, in PowerPoint versions 8.0 through 11.0).[193][194] The specification document is actively maintained and can be freely downloaded,[193] because, although no longer the default, that binary format can be read and written by some later versions of PowerPoint, including the current PowerPoint 2016.[189] After the stable binary format was adopted, versions of PowerPoint continued to be able to read and write differing file formats from earlier versions.[192] But beginning with PowerPoint 2007 and PowerPoint 2008 for Mac (PowerPoint version 12.0), this was the only binary format available for saving; PowerPoint 2007 (version 12.0) no longer supported saving to binary file formats used earlier than PowerPoint 97 (version 8.0), ten years before.[195]

Binary filename extensions[189]

  • .ppt, PowerPoint 97–2003 binary presentation
  • .pps, PowerPoint 97–2003 binary slide show
  • .pot, PowerPoint 97–2003 binary template

Binary media types[190]

  • .ppt, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
  • .pps, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
  • .pot, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint

Office Open XML (since 2007)[edit]

The big change in PowerPoint 2007 and PowerPoint 2008 for Mac (PowerPoint version 12.0) was that the stable binary file format of 97–2003 was replaced as the default by a new zipped XML-based Office Open XML format (.pptx files).[196] Microsoft's explanation of the benefits of the change included: smaller file sizes, up to 75% smaller than comparable binary documents; security, through being able to identify and exclude executable macros and personal data; less chance to be corrupted than binary formats; and easier interoperability for exchanging data among Microsoft and other business applications, all while maintaining backward compatibility.[197]

XML filename extensions[189]

  • .pptx, PowerPoint 2007 XML presentation
  • .pptm, PowerPoint 2007 XML macro-enabled presentation
  • .ppsx, PowerPoint 2007 XML slide show
  • .ppsm, PowerPoint 2007 XML macro-enabled slide show
  • .ppam, PowerPoint 2007 XML add-in
  • .potx, PowerPoint 2007 XML template
  • .potm, PowerPoint 2007 XML macro-enabled template

XML media types[190]

  • .pptx, application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation
  • .pptm, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.presentation.macroEnabled.12
  • .ppsx, application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.slideshow
  • .ppsm, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.slideshow.macroEnabled.12
  • .ppam, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.addin.macroEnabled.12
  • .potx, application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.template
  • .potm, application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.template.macroEnabled.12

The specification for the new format was published as an open standard, ECMA-376,[198] through Ecma International Technical Committee 45 (TC45).[199] The Ecma 376 stardard was approved in December 2006, and was submitted for standardization through ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 34 WG4 in early 2007. The standardization process was contentious.[200] It was approved as ISO/IEC 29500 in early 2008.[201] Copies of the ISO/IEC standard specification are freely available, in two parts.[202][203] These define two related standards known as "Transitional" and "Strict." The two standards were progressively adopted by PowerPoint: PowerPoint version 12.0 (2007, 2008 for Mac) could read and write Transitional format, but could neither read nor write Strict format. PowerPoint version 14.0 (2010, 2011 for Mac) could read and write Transitional, and also read but not write Strict. PowerPoint version 15.0 and later (beginning 2013, 2016 for Mac) can read and write both Transitional and Strict formats. The reason for the two variants was explained by Microsoft:[204]

... the participants in the ISO/IEC standardization process recognized two objectives with competing requirements. The first objective was for the Open XML standard to provide an XML-based file format that could fully support conversion of the billions of existing Office documents without any loss of features, content, text, layout, or other information, including embedded data. The second was to specify a file format that did not rely on Microsoft-specific data types. They created two variants of Open XML—Transitional, which supports previously-defined Microsoft-specific data types, and Strict, which does not rely on them. Prior versions of Office [that is, 2007] have supported reading and writing Transitional Open XML, and Office 2010 can read Strict Open XML documents. With the addition of write support for Strict Open XML, Office 2013 provides full support for both variants of Open XML.

The PowerPoint .pptx file format (called "PresentationML" for Presentation Markup Language) contains separate structures for all the complex parts of a PowerPoint presentation.[205][206] The specification documents run to over six thousand pages.[207] Because of the widespread use of PowerPoint, the standardized file formats are considered important for the long-term access to digital documents in library collections and archives, according to the U.S. Library of Congress.[208]

PowerPoint 2013 and PowerPoint 2016 provide options to set default saving to ISO/IEC 29500 Strict format, but the initial default setting remains Transitional, for compatibility with legacy features incorporating binary data in existing documents.[209] PowerPoint 2013 or PowerPoint 2016 will both open and save files in the former binary format (.ppt), for compatibility with older versions of the program (but not versions older than PowerPoint 97).[210][211] In saving to older formats, these versions of PowerPoint will check to assure that no features have been introduced into the presentation which are incompatible with the older formats.[196]

PowerPoint 2013 and 2016 will also save a presentation in many other file formats, including PDF format, MPEG-4 or WMV video, as a sequence of single-picture files (using image formats including GIF, JPEG, PNG, TIFF, and some older formats), and as a single presentation file in which all slides are replaced with pictures. PowerPoint will both open and save files in OpenDocument Presentation format (ODP) for compatibility.[189]

See also[edit]

Similar apps
Related topics

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Office 365 client update branch releases". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved August 1, 2017. 
  2. ^ Microsoft Corp. (2017). "Language Accessory Pack for Office". Archived from the original on August 28, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2017. 
  3. ^ "Description of the security update for Office 2016 for Mac: July 12, 2016". Support. Microsoft. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Microsoft PowerPoint". Encyclopaedia Britannica. November 25, 2013. Archived from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. Microsoft PowerPoint, virtual presentation software developed by Robert Gaskins and Dennis Austin for the American computer software company Forethought, Inc. The program, initially named Presenter, was released for the Apple Macintosh in 1987. 
  5. ^ Mace, Scott (March 2, 1987). "Presentation Package Lets Users Control Look". InfoWorld. 9 (9). p. 5. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. The $395 program will be shipped to dealers on April 20, Forethought said. 
  6. ^ "Microsoft PowerPoint". Encyclopaedia Britannica. November 25, 2013. Archived from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. ... in 1987 ... [i]n July of that year, the Microsoft Corporation, in its first significant software acquisition, purchased the rights to PowerPoint for $14 million. 
  7. ^ a b "Microsoft Buys Software Unit". Company News. New York Times. CXXXV (46,717). July 31, 1987. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 20, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. ... the acquisition of Forethought is the first significant one for Microsoft, which is based in Redmond, Wash. Forethought would remain in Sunnyvale, giving Microsoft a Silicon Valley presence. 
  8. ^ Flynn, Laurie (June 19, 1989). "The Microsoft Office Bundles 4 Programs". InfoWorld. 11 (25). p. 37. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. 
  9. ^ Johnston, Stuart J. (October 1, 1990). "Office for Windows Bundles Popular Microsoft Applications". InfoWorld. 12 (40). p. 16. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Austin, Dennis (2001). "PowerPoint Version Timeline (to PowerPoint 7.0, 1995)" (PDF). GBU Wizards of Menlo Park. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017. 
  11. ^ Gaskins, Robert (2012). Sweating Bullets: Notes about Inventing PowerPoint. Vinland Books. ISBN 978-0-9851424-0-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017. 
  12. ^ Thielsch, Meinald T.; Perabo, Isabel (May 2012). "Use and Evaluation of Presentation Software" (PDF). Technical Communication. Society for Technical Communication. 59 (2): 112–123. ISSN 0049-3155. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 22, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. For many years, Microsoft has led the market with its program PowerPoint. Zongker and Salesin (2003) estimated a market share of 95% in 2003, and a Forrester study (Montalbano, 2009) widely confirmed this number, stating that only 8% of enterprise customers use alternative products. 
  13. ^ "Microsoft PowerPoint". Encyclopaedia Britannica. November 25, 2013. Archived from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. PowerPoint was developed for business use but has wide applications elsewhere such as for schools and community organizations. 
  14. ^ a b c Gaskins, Robert (December 2007). "PowerPoint at 20: Back to Basics". Viewpoint. Communications of the ACM. Association for Computing Machinery. 50 (12): 17. ISSN 0001-0782. doi:10.1145/1323688.1323710. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 27, 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2015. 
  15. ^ Crowley, Terry (August 21, 2017). "Taking Office Cross-Platform from Inside the Windows Company". Hackernoon. Archived from the original on August 26, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2017. 
  16. ^ Gomes, Lee (June 20, 2007). "PowerPoint Turns 20, As Its Creators Ponder A Dark Side to Success"Paid subscription required. Portals. Wall Street Journal. CCXLIX (143) (US ed.). p. B1. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on August 22, 2017. Retrieved August 22, 2017. PowerPoint's two creators ... Robert Gaskins was the visionary entrepreneur ... with major programming done by Dennis Austin, an old chum ... . 
  17. ^ "Forethought". Crunchbase. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2017. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Gaskins, Robert (2012). Sweating Bullets: Notes about Inventing PowerPoint. Vinland Books. ISBN 978-0-9851424-0-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017. 
  19. ^ Gaskins, Robert (August 14, 1984). "Presentation Graphics for Overhead Projection" (PDF). PowerPoint History Documents. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 22, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2017. 
  20. ^ Austin, Dennis (2009). "Beginnings of PowerPoint: A Personal Technical Story" (PDF). Computer History Museum, Archive. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 22, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2017. In October ...I joined Forethought ... . 
  21. ^ Austin, Dennis; Gaskins, Robert (August 21, 1985). "Presenter [PowerPoint] Design" (PDF). PowerPoint History Documents. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 22, 2015. Retrieved April 22, 2015. 
  22. ^ Foster, Edward (July 1, 1985). "Microsoft Ships Windows: Once Written Off Because of Delays, Windows Now Seen as a Contender Against Topview". News, Software. InfoWorld. 7 (26). p. 17. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.  'We're quite happy to have people know our plan is to leverage our Mac experience with Microsoft Windows,' says Robert Gaskins, vice president of development. 
  23. ^ Trower, Tandy (November 20, 2010). "The Secret Origin of Windows". Technologizer. Archived from the original on January 23, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2017. Windows 1.0 shipped on November 20th, 1985 
  24. ^ Gaskins, Robert (June 27, 1986). "Presenter [PowerPoint] Product Marketing Analysis" (PDF). PowerPoint History Documents. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. 
  25. ^ Gaskins, Robert (July 15, 1986). "Presenter [PowerPoint] New Product Summary and Review" (PDF). PowerPoint History Documents. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. 
  26. ^ Austin, Dennis; Rudkin, Thomas; Gaskins, Robert (May 22, 1986). "Presenter [PowerPoint] Specification" (PDF). PowerPoint History Documents. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. 
  27. ^ Gaskins, Robert (August 13, 2012). "PowerPoint at 25: Conversation with Robert Gaskins" (Interview). Interview with Geetesh Bajaj. Archived from the original on April 23, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2017. 
  28. ^ Ranney, Elizabeth (May 5, 1986). "Apple Proceeding With Strategic Investment Plans". "Just Heard" column. InfoWorld. 8 (18). p. 3. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. [Strategic Investment Group head Dan] Eilers stressed ... 'we are going to make minority investments in companies that add value to Apple computers and thereby increase the sales of Apple computers over time.'  
  29. ^ Mace, Scott (March 2, 1987). "Presentation Package Lets Users Control Look". InfoWorld. 9 (9). p. 5. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. 
  30. ^ Gaskins, Robert (May 25, 1987). "Forethought Restart Completed (A Brief History)" (PDF). PowerPoint History Documents. p. 9. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. We completed PowerPoint so as to ship it on schedule on April 20. By early May, we had shipped about $1,000,000 worth of PowerPoint and exhausted the first printing of 10,000 copies. 
  31. ^ a b c d e Microsoft Corporation (April 8, 2010). "The History of Microsoft—The Jeff Raikes Story, Part Two". Channel9 videos, Microsoft Developer Network. 05:42 to 07:18. Archived from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017. Jeff Raikes talks ... about having an idea in 1987 for a presentation product before discovering Forethought, which had a product called PowerPoint.  A transcript of the relevant section is also available.
  32. ^ May, Trish (January 17, 2010). "The Road to the Cure". New York Times (New York ed.). p. BU7. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 26, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. I wrote and presented a proposal to Bill Gates for a new piece of software for the personal computer, specifically to help people create presentations ... . 
  33. ^ Swaine, Michael (September 1, 1991). "Calling Apple's Bluff". Dr. Dobb's Journal. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. I [Dave Winer] had a meeting with Bill Gates in, I guess it was February of '87 ... We worked out a letter of intent. 
  34. ^ Carroll, Paul B. (March 6, 1987). "New Software Simplifies Show and Tell"Paid subscription required. Technology. Wall Street Journal. p. 33. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on August 21, 2017. Retrieved August 21, 2017. 
  35. ^ Winer, Dave (April 10, 2010). "Microsoft rejection letter, 1987". Scripting News. Archived from the original on April 16, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2017. 
  36. ^ Shirley, Jon (May 13, 1987). "[Microsoft] Letter of Intent [to acquire Forethought]" (PDF). PowerPoint History Documents. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 17, 2014. Retrieved August 21, 2017. 
  37. ^ "Microsoft Buys Software Unit". Company News. New York Times. CXXXV (46,717). July 31, 1987. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 20, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2017. 
  38. ^ a b Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  39. ^ a b Parker, Rachel (August 3, 1987). "Microsoft Acquires Forethought, Publisher of PowerPoint Package". News. InfoWorld. 9 (31). p. 8. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on June 23, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2017. The Forethought group will become Microsoft's Graphics Business Unit, forming a permanent Microsoft development and marketing facility in Sunnyvale, California. With a site in California, Microsoft hopes to recruit programmers who might not want to relocate to Washington, [Microsoft president Jon] Shirley said. 
  40. ^ a b c Gaskins, Robert (August 8, 1988). "Results of Microsoft's Graphics Business Unit after Our First Year" (PDF). PowerPoint History Documents (Microsoft Memo). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2015. Retrieved August 23, 2017. 
  41. ^ Borzo, Jeanette (May 18, 1992). "PowerPoint users pleased by changes". InfoWorld. 14 (20). IDG. p. 15. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  42. ^ Gaskins, Robert (August 8, 1988). "Results of Microsoft's Graphics Business Unit after Our First Year" (PDF). PowerPoint History Documents (Microsoft Memo). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2015. Retrieved August 23, 2017. We have learned a tremendous number of technical insights through working with the Genigraphics engineering group ... . 
  43. ^ Gaskins, Robert (December 2007). "PowerPoint at 20: Back to Basics". Viewpoint. Communications of the ACM. Association for Computing Machinery. 50 (12): 15–17. ISSN 0001-0782. doi:10.1145/1323688.1323710. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 27, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017.  The first three versions are described in the sidebar, "Presentation Formats and PowerPoint," p. 17.
  44. ^ a b Flynn, Laurie (June 19, 1989). "The Microsoft Office Bundles 4 Programs". InfoWorld. 11 (25). p. 37. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. A special promotion announced last week by Microsoft Corp. enables Macintosh customers to buy four of the company's business applications at a 35 percent discount. The special edition, called The Microsoft Office, includes Word 4.0, Excel 2.2, PowerPoint 2.01, and Mail 1.37. The package sells for $849; if purchased separately, the programs would cost $1,310, the company said. The promotion is available until the end of the year. 
  45. ^ a b Johnston, Stuart J. (October 1, 1990). "Office for Windows Bundles Popular Microsoft Applications". InfoWorld. 12 (40). p. 16. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. Microsoft last week announced the release of The Microsoft Office for Windows, which bundles three of the company's popular Windows applications—Word, Excel, and PowerPoint—for significantly less than they would cost separately. The product brings to the Windows environment basically the equivalent of The Microsoft Office for Macintosh, which was announced a year ago. 
  46. ^ a b Austin, Dennis (2001). "PowerPoint Version Timeline (to PowerPoint 7.0, 1995)" (PDF). GBU Wizards of Menlo Park. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017. 
  47. ^ Microsoft Corporation (March 1993). "New PowerPoint 3.0. Because powerful tools make powerful presentations". MacWorld (advertisement). 10 (3). pp. BA1–BA2 (inside front cover spread). ISSN 0741-8647. Archived from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017. 
  48. ^ "Microsoft Office now has Mail, PowerPoint". Pipeline. InfoWorld. 14 (35). August 31, 1992. p. 15. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved August 23, 2017. 
  49. ^ Gates, Bill (February 19, 1991). "Market Share of Applications in the United States" (PDF). Slated Antitrust (scanned court evidence files) (Microsoft Memo). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2017. 
  50. ^ S&P Global Market Intelligence (2017). "Executive Profile: Vijay R. Vashee". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on August 22, 2017. Retrieved August 22, 2017. From 1982 ... Mr. Vashee served in various senior marketing, product management and executive positions at Microsoft. ... and as the General Manager for Power Point from 1992 to 1997 ... played a key role in the integration of PowerPoint into the Microsoft Office suite. 
  51. ^ Fridlund, Alan (June 6, 1994). "PowerPoint 4.0 makes it into the big time". Reviews. InfoWorld. 16 (23). pp. 95–98. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. 
  52. ^ Lassesen, Ken (October 17, 1995). "Using Microsoft OLE Automation Servers to Develop Solutions" (PDF). Archive of Articles from MSDN Technology Group. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. Note that version 7.0 of a product is the same as a '95' designation, for example, Microsoft Excel 95 is the same as Microsoft Excel version 7.0. 
  53. ^ Microsoft (May 2006). "Developer Overview of the User Interface for the 2007 Microsoft Office System". Microsoft Developer Network. Archived from the original on July 7, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017. 
  54. ^ Gaskins, Robert (August 17, 2007). "Microsoft's 20-year PPT party". Robert Gaskins Home Page. Archived from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017. 
  55. ^ Crowley, Terry (July 17, 2017). "Taking Office Agile". Hackernoon. Archived from the original on August 26, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2017. 
  56. ^ Crowley, Terry (August 21, 2017). "Taking Office Cross-Platform from Inside the Windows Company". Hackernoon. Archived from the original on August 26, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2017. 
  57. ^ Microsoft (2017). "What's New in PowerPoint 2016 for Windows". Microsoft Support. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2017. 
  58. ^ "Microsoft Careers: Senior Software Engineer (Job #1064262)". Microsoft Silicon Valley. August 17, 2017. Archived from the original on August 21, 2017. Retrieved August 21, 2017. Come join the PowerPoint team ... in the heart of the Silicon Valley in Mountain View, CA. The PowerPoint team has the responsibility for the design, implementation, and testing ... . 
  59. ^ Microsoft Corp. (January 10, 2008). "Microsoft Announces Retirement and Transition Plan for Jeff Raikes, President of the Microsoft Business Division". Microsoft News Center. Archived from the original on June 13, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. MBD has grown to include ... the Microsoft Office system ... . 
  60. ^ a b c d e f g h Gaskins, Robert (2012). Sweating Bullets: Notes about Inventing PowerPoint. Vinland Books. ISBN 978-0-9851424-0-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.  Rounded unit sales figures are from the revenue tables (p. 403) adjusted to calendar years (p. 170) with the transfer pricing indicated (p. 182).
  61. ^ Reimer, Jeremy (December 14, 2005). "Total share: 30 years of personal computer market share figures". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on June 17, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. ... the IBM PC platform ... an 84% share in 1990. The Macintosh stabilized at about 6% market share ... . 
  62. ^ "Egghead Software Sales: ... Graphics/DOS". InfoWorld. 11 (1). January 2, 1989. p. 32. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 9, 2017. Graphics/DOS ... 1 Harvard Graphics (Software Publishing), 2 Freelance + (Lotus) ... . 
  63. ^ Watt, Peggy (January 27, 1986). "Software Publishing adds graphic package to Harvard line". Computerworld. XX (4). IDG Communications. p. 10. ISSN 0010-4841. Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 9, 2017. ... graphics presentation program, Harvard Presentation Graphics, introduced last week. ... will be available in March ... . 
  64. ^ Schemenaur, PJ (October 27, 1986). "Lotus to Unveil Revision of Freelance". InfoWorld. 8 (43). p. 3. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 9, 2017. ... Freelance Plus, the first new release of Freelance since Lotus acquired the graphics package from Graphics Communications Inc. in June. 
  65. ^ Howard, Bill; Kunkel, Gerard (September 27, 1988). "More Than Meets the Eye: Designing Great Graphics". PC Magazine. 7 (16). Ziff Davis. p. 95. ISSN 0888-8507. Archived from the original on September 8, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2017. Harvard Graphics gained the top spot this year, and now outsells Freelance Plus by a three-to-two margin. 
  66. ^ "Designing Great Graphics: Desktop Solutions". PC Magazine. 7 (16). Ziff Davis. September 27, 1988. pp. 109–179. ISSN 0888-8507. Archived from the original on September 8, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2017. 18 ... software packages reviewed ... . 
  67. ^ Parker, Rachel (August 3, 1987). "Microsoft Acquires Forethought, Publisher of PowerPoint Package". News. InfoWorld. 9 (31). p. 8. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on June 23, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. [Microsoft president Jon] Shirley ... said that Microsoft has no firm plans currently to develop an MS-DOS version of PowerPoint. 
  68. ^ Gates, Bill (August 16, 1993). "Free market economics—not intervention—drives innovation". Letters to the Editor. InfoWorld. 15 (33). p. 44. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 26, 2017. Data from the Software Publishers Association and other sources show that in 1992, while overall sales of application products grew only 12 percent, sales of Windows-based applications grew by nearly 100 percent. At least a dozen companies besides Microsoft have sold more than 1 million units of Windows applications. 
  69. ^ Ziff Davis Market Intelligence (September 1998). "The 800-Pound Gorilla of the Presentation Market". Mobile Computing and Communications [later, Mobile Office]. Petersen Publishing. 9 (9): 95. ISSN 1047-1952. Archived from the original on October 1, 2015. ... in 1997, without question the market leader was Microsoft Corp.'s PowerPoint, which sold more than 4 million copies and controls 85 percent of the market. 
  70. ^ Belleville, Catherine; Peterson, Lucy; Somogyi, Aniko (April 1997). "PowerPoint: The First Ten Years" (PDF). PowerPoint History Documents. pp. 2,8. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 27, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. 
  71. ^ Thielsch, Meinald T.; Perabo, Isabel (May 2012). "Use and Evaluation of Presentation Software" (PDF). Technical Communication. Society for Technical Communication. 59 (2): 112–123. ISSN 0049-3155. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 22, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017. For many years, Microsoft has led the market with its program PowerPoint. Zongker and Salesin (2003) estimated a market share of 95% in 2003, and a Forrester study (Montalbano, 2009) widely confirmed this number, stating that only 8% of enterprise customers use alternative products. ... we confirm the prior estimates ... .  Embedded citations: (1) Zongker, Douglas E.; Salesin, David H. (2003). "On Creating Animated Presentations" (PDF). SCA '03 Symposium on Computer Animation 2003. Eurographics/SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation, San Diego, CA, July 26–27, 2003. Aire-la-Ville, Switzerland: Eurographics Association. pp. 298–308. ISBN 978-1-58113-659-3. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 22, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2017.  (2) Montalbano, Elizabeth (June 4, 2009). "Forrester: Microsoft Office in No Danger From Competitors". PC World. ISSN 0737-8939. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2017. 
  72. ^ a b Gaskins, Robert (December 2007). "PowerPoint at 20: Back to Basics". Viewpoint. Communications of the ACM. Association for Computing Machinery. 50 (12): 15–17. ISSN 0001-0782. doi:10.1145/1323688.1323710. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 27, 2015. Retrieved August 12, 2017.  The first three versions are described in the sidebar, "Presentation Formats and PowerPoint," p. 17.
  73. ^ a b Gaskins, Robert (2012). Sweating Bullets: Notes about Inventing PowerPoint. Vinland Books. ISBN 978-0-9851424-0-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017. 
  74. ^ "The End of the Carousel Slide Projector?". Edward Tufte Forum. July 14, 2003. Archived from the original on November 3, 2011. Retrieved August 20, 2017. Eastman Kodak Company has confirmed plans to discontinue the manufacture and sales of slide projection products and accessories in June of 2004. 
  75. ^ a b c Yates, JoAnne; Orlikowski, Wanda (2007). "Chapter 4: The PowerPoint Presentation and Its Corollaries: How Genres Shape Communicative Action in Organizations" (PDF). In Zachry, Mark; Thralls, Charlotte. Communicative Practices in Workplaces and the Professions: Cultural Perspectives on the Regulation of Discourse and Organizations. Amityville, N.Y.: Baywood Publishing Co. pp. 67–91. ISBN 978-0-89503-372-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 5, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2017. 
  76. ^ Lyndersay, Sean (June 8, 2010). "What is the non-branded term for a PowerPoint that you use at your company?". Quora. Archived from the original on April 20, 2015. Retrieved August 14, 2017. We (the PowerPoint team) most often use the term deck. When we have to write formal[ly] or semi-formally (e.g. on a blog post), we use the term presentation (which I believe is what all of our online documentation uses) ... we never, even informally, use the phrase 'a PowerPoint' to refer to a presentation (or deck :). 
  77. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Basic tasks for creating a PowerPoint presentation". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on July 9, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  78. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Start the presentation and see your notes in Presenter view". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  79. ^ "Microsoft PowerPoint, Version 2.4". Apple iTunes Store. August 14, 2017. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. Start the slide show with your Apple Watch and easily navigate to the next and previous slides. 
  80. ^ "Microsoft PowerPoint". Google Play Store. August 14, 2017. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  81. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Choose the right view for the task in PowerPoint". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.  (This mode of operation was available since version 1.0.)
  82. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Print your handouts, notes, or slides". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.  (This mode of operation was available since version 1.0.)
  83. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2017). "View a presentation without PowerPoint". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  84. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Package a presentation for CD". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  85. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Present online using the Office Presentation Service". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. This feature was known as the 'presentation broadcast service' in previous versions of PowerPoint. 
  86. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Embed a presentation in a web page or blog". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  87. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Post a presentation to Facebook, Twitter, or other social network". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  88. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Create a self-running presentation". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  89. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Turn your presentation into a video". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. 
  90. ^ Pournelle, Jerry (January 1989). "To the Stars". BYTE. p. 109 – via Archive.org. 
  91. ^ Kaminski, Steven (January 16, 2003). "PowerPoint Presentations: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly". SHKaminski.com. Self-published. 
  92. ^ Jones, Allan M. (November 1, 2003). "The use and abuse of PowerPoint in Teaching and Learning in the Life Sciences: A Personal Overview". Bioscience Education. 2 (1): 1–13. doi:10.3108/beej.2003.02000004. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  93. ^ Jackson, Steven F. (May 1997). "The Use of PowerPoint in Teaching Comparative Politics". Technology Source. University of North Carolina. 
  94. ^ Themann, Tim (April 2, 2014). "Visual Logorrhea – On the Prevalence of Slideuments". Die Computermaler. Retrieved August 23, 2014. 
  95. ^ Tufte, Edward (September 2003). "PowerPoint Is Evil – Power Corrupts. PowerPoint Corrupts Absolutely.". Wired. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on April 15, 2014. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  96. ^ Savoy, April (May 30, 2009). "Information retention from PowerPoint; and traditional lectures". Computers & Education. 52 (4): 858–867. Retrieved July 17, 2017. 
  97. ^ a b Evans, Michael (April 28, 2010). "Afghanistan: the battle for hearts and bullet points". The Times. Times Newspapers Limited. 
  98. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (April 26, 2010). "We Have Met the Enemy and He Is PowerPoint". The New York Times Online. The New York Times Company. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  99. ^ Burke, Crispin (July 24, 2009). "The TX Hammes PowerPoint Challenge (Essay Contest)". Small Wars Journal. Small Wars Foundation. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  100. ^ Hammes, T.X. (July 1, 2009). "Essay: Dumb-dumb bullets". Armed Forces Journal. Sightline Media Group. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  101. ^ "The PowerPoint rant that got a colonel fired". Army Times. Gannett Government Media. September 5, 2010. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2010. 
  102. ^ Vienne, Veronique (August 17, 2003). "David Byrne's Alternate PowerPoint Universe". Art/Architecture. New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. Retrieved September 15, 2017. With his newest project, David Byrne has tried not only to see it [PowerPoint] anew, but also to use it in the least likely of all applications: a medium for creative expression. 
  103. ^ Byrne, David (2003). "Envisioning Emotional Epistemological Information". David Byrne Archive. Archived from the original on September 16, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2017. 
  104. ^ Powell, Bonnie Azab (March 8, 2005). "David Byrne really does ♥ PowerPoint, Berkeley presentation shows". UC Berkeley News Center. Archived from the original on March 11, 2005. Retrieved September 15, 2017. 
  105. ^ Byrne, David (2005). "Journal: 3.8.05: San Francisco". David Byrne Journal. Archived from the original on September 16, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2017. 
  106. ^ Nastro, Santa (November 21, 2016). "Arte e aziende. Nasce il Manifesto della Corporate Art: lo firmano Ugo Nespolo, Alexander Ponomarev e Fernando De Filippi". Artribune. Rome. ISSN 2280-8817. Archived from the original on September 16, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2017. [Trans.] The corporate world can be an art object. 
  107. ^ pptArt (2014). "pptArt Manifesto". pptArt.net. Archived from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2017. 
  108. ^ pptArt (2014). "Our Services for Corporate Clients". pptArt.net. Archived from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2017. 
  109. ^ Greenberg, Andy (May 11, 2010). "The Underground Art Of PowerPoint". Forbes. ISSN 0015-6914. Archived from the original on June 30, 2017. Retrieved September 15, 2017. 
  110. ^ Toh, Shawn (2014). "PowerPoint Heaven: The Power to Animate". PowerPoint Heaven. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved September 15, 2017. Our goal is to show users that PowerPoint is not simply a presentation tool, but is also capable on leveraging into other areas such as creating games, artworks and animations. 
  111. ^ a b Microsoft Corporation (2017). "View a presentation without PowerPoint". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on September 1, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2017. If you do not have PowerPoint installed on your computer, you can still open and view PowerPoint presentations by using PowerPoint Viewer, PowerPoint Mobile, or PowerPoint Online. 
  112. ^ Fridlund, Alan (August 24, 1992). "PowerPoint 3.0 catches up with the best". Reviews. InfoWorld. 14 (34). pp. 61–63. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved September 1, 2017. Version 3.0 now includes a PowerPoint Viewer that runs on any Windows 3.1 machine and can be distributed freely with your presentation files. ... A major advance ... is the use of embedded TrueType fonts ... ensuring that the appearance of your presentation is completely repeatable on any machine equipped with the viewer. 
  113. ^ "Microsoft PowerPoint 3.0 for Macintosh". eBay. April 22, 2017. Archived from the original on September 2, 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2017. Includes ... 1 PowerPoint Viewer disk. 
  114. ^ Microsoft Corporation (September 12, 2011). "Description of how to use the Package for CD feature in PowerPoint 2003 and in PowerPoint 2007". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on September 1, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2017. 
  115. ^ Kao, Wayne (April 1, 2004). "New PowerPoint Viewer". Wayne's Microsoft Blog. Archived from the original on June 8, 2015. Retrieved September 3, 2017. ... 2003 ... a brand new PowerPoint Viewer. The previous viewer had been written for the PowerPoint 97 release ... can be run without any installation or setup, which means it can be run directly off your USB keychain or even off write-protected media like a CD orDVD. 
  116. ^ Microsoft Corporation (1998). "PowerPoint 98 Viewer". Microsoft Mac Office. Archived from the original on December 17, 2000. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  117. ^ "PowerPoint FAQ: Versions". A Bit Better Corporation. May 10, 2013. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2017.  A diagram shows "which versions of PowerPoint can open/save which other versions" up to version 9.0 for Windows ("PowerPoint 2000").
  118. ^ Microsoft Corporation (October 25, 2011). "PowerPoint Viewer". Microsoft Download Center. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  119. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2017). "Dowload Mac PowerPoint 98 Viewer". Microsoft Download Center. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2017. 
  120. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2013). "Discontinued or changed features in PowerPoint 2013: PowerPoint Viewer". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on May 21, 2015. Retrieved September 1, 2017. Use PowerPoint Online to view a presentation. It's free! 
  121. ^ a b Mace, Scott (March 2, 1987). "Presentation Package Lets Users Control Look". InfoWorld. 9 (9). IDG. p. 5. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  122. ^ Flynn, Laurie (September 14, 1987). "Apple Sets Its Sights on Desktop Presentations". InfoWorld. 9 (37). IDG. p. 35. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.  Report of Seybold conference in late September 1987 where Microsoft introduced relabeled PowerPoint. Macworld magazine carried its first Microsoft advertisement for PowerPoint in its November 1987 issue, with the initial subhead "Introducing Microsoft PowerPoint." Microsoft Corporation (November 1987). "Everything you need to make a great presentation, just add water.". MacWorld (advertisement). Vol. 4 no. 11. IDG. pp. 40–41. ISSN 0741-8647. Archived from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  123. ^ a b Flynn, Laurie (May 2, 1988). "Updated PowerPoint Supports Mac II Colors". InfoWorld. 10 (18). IDG. p. 27. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  124. ^ Flynn, Laurie (December 12, 1988). "Driver Sends PowerPoint Files Out for Conversion". InfoWorld. 10 (50). IDG. p. 33. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  125. ^ a b Coale, Kristi (May 28, 1990). "PowerPoint to Challenge PC Presentation Market". InfoWorld. 12 (22). IDG. p. 13. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  126. ^ a b Borzo, Jeanette (May 18, 1992). "PowerPoint users pleased by changes". InfoWorld. 14 (20). IDG. p. 15. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  127. ^ a b Damore, Kelley (October 12, 1992). "PowerPoint 3.0 for the Mac mirrors version for Windows". InfoWorld. 14 (41). IDG. p. 151. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  128. ^ a b "Microsoft Corp. will start shipping PowerPoint 4.0". InfoWorld. 16 (7). IDG. February 14, 1994. p. 19. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  129. ^ a b Halper, Mark (August 1, 1994). "Native Microsoft suite coming for Power Mac". Computerworld. 28 (31). IDG. p. 15. ISSN 0010-4841. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. ... the forthcoming version of PowerPoint 4.0, which is part of Office 4.2. ... Microsoft said it is packaging separate ... versions for 68000-based Macintoshes and for newer PowerPC-based Power Macintoshes, all in one shrink-wrapped box. 
  130. ^ a b Grace, Rich (July 24, 1995). "PowerPoint gains multimedia strength". InfoWorld. 17 (30). IDG. p. 98. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  131. ^ Lassesen, Ken (October 17, 1995). "Using Microsoft OLE Automation Servers to Develop Solutions" (PDF). Archive of Articles from MSDN Technology Group. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. Note that version 7.0 of a product is the same as a '95' designation ... . 
  132. ^ a b Vadlamudi, Pardhu (January 20, 1997). "Office 97 now open for business". InfoWorld. 19 (3). IDG. p. 6. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  133. ^ a b Senna, Jeff (March 2, 1998). "Office 98 boasts cross-platform parity". InfoWorld. 20 (9). IDG. p. 113. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  134. ^ "PowerPoint FAQ: Unsolved Mysteries". A Bit Better Corporation. May 10, 2013. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  135. ^ a b Railsback, Kevin (April 12, 1999). "Office 2000: making life easier for IT and end-users alike". InfoWorld. 21 (15). IDG. p. 10. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  136. ^ a b Steinberg, Gene (September 14, 2000). "Microsoft Office 2001: MacOS review". CNET Review. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  137. ^ a b c Yager, Tom (March 19, 2001). "Office spruced with surprising subtlety". InfoWorld. 23 (12). IDG. p. 53. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  138. ^ a b c Dalrymple, Jim (October 24, 2001). "Microsoft sets date for Office v. X release". Macworld. IDG. ISSN 0741-8647. Archived from the original on July 18, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. Microsoft's Macintosh Business Unit (MacBU) today announced that Office v. X would be available to the public on November 19. ... Office v. X runs natively on OS X -- it will not run under OS 9. 
  139. ^ a b Cosgrove-Mather, Bootie (October 22, 2003). "Microsoft Revamps Office Software". CBSNews.com. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2017. ... Bill Gates introduces Microsoft Office 2003 in New York Tuesday, Oct. 21, 2003. 
  140. ^ "Microsft Issues Critical Office Patch [for Office 2003]". InfoWorld. 25 (44). IDG. November 10, 2003. p. 18. ISSN 0199-6649. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. ... less than a month after the software officially launched. 
  141. ^ a b c d Dreier, Troy (July 2004). "Office 2004 for Mac: An Essential Upgrade". PC Magazine. 23 (12). Ziff Davis. p. 53. ISSN 0888-8507. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  142. ^ a b "Windows Mobile 5.0 Comes to PDAs and Smartphones". Maximum PC. August 2005. p. 16. ISSN 1522-4279. Archived from the original on July 6, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. PowerPoint Mobile—a new addition to the suite—doubles as a powerful sleep-aid. 
  143. ^ a b "Microsoft Office 2007: Worth the Wait". PC Magazine. 26 (1/2). Ziff Davis. January 2007. p. 48. ISSN 0888-8507. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  144. ^ a b "Windows Mobile 6: Make Your Smartphone Smarter". PC Magazine. 26 (12). Ziff Davis. June 5, 2007. p. 44. ISSN 0888-8507. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.  PowerPoint was updated in November 2007: Microsoft (November 28, 2007). "Microsoft Office Mobile 6.1: Upgrade for Microsoft Office 2007 file formats". Microsoft Download Center. Archived from the original on July 18, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  145. ^ a b Tessler, Franklin N. (January 18, 2008). "Microsoft PowerPoint 2008 At a Glance". Macworld. IDG. ISSN 0741-8647. Archived from the original on July 6, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  146. ^ a b Microsoft Corporation (June 15, 2010). "Microsoft Office 2010 Now Available for Consumers Worldwide". Microsoft News Center. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  147. ^ a b c Microsoft Corporation (February 25, 2010). "There is no Office 13, but why?". Channel9 videos, Microsoft Developer Network. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  148. ^ a b Mendelson, Edward (June 14, 2010). "Microsoft Office Web Apps". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. ISSN 0888-8507. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  149. ^ a b Lendino, Jamie (June 4, 2010). "Microsoft Office Mobile 2010 (Windows Phone)". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. ISSN 0888-8507. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  150. ^ a b Microsoft Corporation (October 26, 2010). "Mac Meets PC with New Office Release". Microsoft News Center. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  151. ^ a b Foley, Mary Jo (April 10, 2012). "Full Microsoft Office Mobile now available on select Nokia Symbian phones". ZDnet.com. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  152. ^ a b Foley, Mary Jo (October 10, 2012). "Microsoft's new Office Web Apps to roll out to Office 365 users in late October". ZDnet.com. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  153. ^ a b Mackie, Kurt (October 31, 2012). "Windows Phone 8 to Include 'New Office' Version for Mobile". Redmond Channel Partner Magazine. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  154. ^ a b Foley, Mary Jo (September 14, 2012). "Microsoft to deliver final version of Office 2013 RT starting in early November". ZDnet.com. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  155. ^ a b Graziano, Dan (January 28, 2013). "Microsoft Office 2013 set for January 29th debut". BGR.com. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  156. ^ a b O'Donald, Andy (June 14, 2013). "Office Mobile for iPhone". Microsoft Office Blogs. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  157. ^ a b Office 365 Team (July 31, 2013). "Office Mobile for Android phones". Microsoft Office Blogs. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  158. ^ a b Paul, Ian (February 20, 2014). "Meet Office Online, Microsoft's slightly tweaked Office Web Apps replacement". PCWorld. IDG. Archived from the original on June 22, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  159. ^ a b Case, John (March 27, 2014). "Announcing the Office you love, now on the iPad". Microsoft Office Blogs. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  160. ^ a b Mackie, Kurt (November 6, 2014). "Office iPad and iPhone Users Can Now Create and Edit Docs for Free". Redmond Magazine. Archived from the original on July 18, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  161. ^ a b Thurrott, Paul (June 24, 2015). "Office Apps for Android Handsets Exit Preview". Thurrott.com. Archived from the original on July 9, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  162. ^ a b Koenigsbauer, Kirk (July 9, 2015). "Office 2016 for Mac is here!". Microsoft Office Blogs. Archived from the original on October 12, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. Office 2016 for Mac is now available in 139 countries and 16 languages. 
  163. ^ Bell, Killian (July 18, 2012). "Microsoft Won't Bring Office 2013 To Mac ...". Cult of Mac. Archived from the original on July 20, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. Microsoft confirmed to us that there is no Office for Mac 2013 release planned. 
  164. ^ a b Thurrott, Paul (July 16, 2015). "Office Mobile Apps for Windows 10 are Now Generally Available". Thurrott.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. Microsoft noted that it has added 'Mobile' to the app names on PCs and big tablets to help distinguish them from the desktop-based Office application suite ... . On phones and small tablets—i.e. on Windows 10 Mobile—these apps will simply retain their normal names (Word, Excel and PowerPoint), with no Mobile added. 
  165. ^ a b Gupta, Nakul (July 27, 2015). "News: Microsoft updates Office apps for iPhone and iPad". TechView. Archived from the original on July 18, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  166. ^ a b Koenigsbauer, Kirk (September 22, 2015). "The new Office is here". Microsoft Office Blogs. Archived from the original on September 22, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. Today is the worldwide release of Office 2016 for Windows. 
  167. ^ a b Thurrott, Paul (June 15, 2017). "Microsoft Brings Preview Versions of Office 2016 to the Windows Store". Thurrott.com. Archived from the original on July 18, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. The full suite of Office apps in preview are currently available to download today with Office 365 in the Windows Store for Windows 10 S. ... just four apps today—Outlook, Word, Excel, and PowerPoint 2016—in preview ... . 
  168. ^ a b c d e Austin, Dennis (2001). "PowerPoint Version Timeline (to PowerPoint 7.0, 1995)" (PDF). GBU Wizards of Menlo Park. Archived from the original on August 6, 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2017. 
  169. ^ a b c d e f Belleville, Cathleen (August 24, 2000). "PowerPoint Historical Review". A Bit Better Corporation. Archived from the original on August 4, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. Additional archives: 2016-03-24.
  170. ^ a b c Gaskins, Robert (December 2007). "PowerPoint at 20: Back to Basics" (PDF). Viewpoint. Communications of the ACM. Association for Computing Machinery. 50 (12): 15–17. ISSN 0001-0782. doi:10.1145/1323688.1323710. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 27, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017.  These versions are described in the sidebar, "Presentation Formats and PowerPoint," p. 17.
  171. ^ a b c d e f g h "PowerPoint Tips & Tricks: PowerPoint System Requirements". A Bit Better Corporation. April 24, 2013. Archived from the original on April 24, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2017.  System requirements are in a table at the very end of this document.
  172. ^ Muratore, Stephen (March 1, 2004). "Microsoft Producer for PowerPoint 2003 Review". Videomaker Magazine. York Publishing. ISSN 0889-4973. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  173. ^ Microsoft (August 13, 2007). "Differences between Office XP and Office 2003". Microsoft TechNet. Archived from the original on July 30, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  174. ^ Microsoft (March 29, 2017). "List of system requirements for Microsoft Office 2003". Microsoft Support. Archived from the original on July 30, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  175. ^ Swinford, Echo (January 1, 2009). "PPT 2007". Echo's Voice. Archived from the original on August 13, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  176. ^ Microsoft (April 28, 2009). "Getting started with the 2007 Office system". Microsoft TechNet. Archived from the original on July 30, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  177. ^ "Microsoft Office 2008 for Mac, Specifications". CNET. January 15, 2008. Archived from the original on May 29, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  178. ^ Swinford, Echo (March 26, 2011). "PPT 2010 new stuff". Echo's Voice. Archived from the original on August 13, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  179. ^ Microsoft (February 15, 2013). "System requirements for Office 2010: Microsoft PowerPoint 2010". Microsoft TechNet. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  180. ^ Microsoft (June 16, 2017). "Microsoft Office for Mac 2011 system requirements". Microsoft Support. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  181. ^ Microsoft. "What's New in PowerPoint 2013". Microsoft Support. Archived from the original on December 9, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  182. ^ Swinford, Echo (November 5, 2012). "Big list o' new features in powerpoint 2013". Echo's Voice. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  183. ^ Microsoft (December 16, 2016). "System requirements for Office 2013". Microsoft TechNet. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  184. ^ Microsoft. "System requirements for Office". Microsoft Office. Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  185. ^ Microsoft. "What's New in PowerPoint 2016 for Windows". Microsoft Support. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017.  This webpage contains dated feature updates listed separately for each nearly-monthly update since the original release.
  186. ^ Foley, Mary Jo (July 12, 2017). "Microsoft delivers 'AI-powered' Presentation Translator add-in for PowerPoint". ZDnet.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  187. ^ Microsoft. "Presentation Translator: an Office add-in for PowerPoint". Microsoft Garage. Archived from the original on August 1, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  188. ^ Microsoft. "System requirements for Office". Microsoft Office. Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  189. ^ a b c d e Microsoft Corporation (2016). "File formats that are supported in PowerPoint". Microsoft Support. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2017. 
  190. ^ a b c Microsoft Corporation (February 22, 2014). "MimeMapping.cs". Microsoft Reference Source. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2017. This module maps document extensions to Content Mime Type. 
  191. ^ "System-Declared Uniform Type Identifiers". developer.apple.com. Apple. November 17, 2009. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. 
  192. ^ a b "PowerPoint FAQ: Versions". A Bit Better Corporation. May 10, 2013. Archived from the original on May 10, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2017.  A diagram shows "which versions of PowerPoint can open/save which other versions" up to version 9.0 for Windows ("PowerPoint 2000").
  193. ^ a b Microsoft Corporation (June 20, 2017). "[MS-PPT]: PowerPoint (.ppt) Binary File Format (Protocol Revision 4.1)". Microsoft Developer Network. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2017. 
  194. ^ Library of Congress, National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (March 2, 2017). "Specifications for Digital Formats: Microsoft Office Binary (doc, xls, ppt) File Formats". Digital Preservation, Library of Congress. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017. 
  195. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2015). "Use PowerPoint 2007 to open or save a presentation in another file format". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2015. ... PowerPoint 2007 does not support saving to PowerPoint 95 and earlier file formats. 
  196. ^ a b Microsoft Corporation (2015). "Open XML Formats and file name extensions". Microsoft Office Support. Archived from the original on April 30, 2017. Retrieved August 11, 2017. Starting with the 2007 Microsoft Office system, Microsoft Office uses the XML-based file formats, such as .docx, .xlsx, and .pptx. These formats and file name extensions apply to ... Microsoft PowerPoint. 
  197. ^ Rice, Frank (May 2006). "Introducing the Office (2007) Open XML File Formats". Microsoft Developer Network. Archived from the original on December 28, 2016. Retrieved August 12, 2017. 
  198. ^ Ecma Technical Committee 45 (2016). "Standard ECMA-376: Office Open XML File Formats". Ecma International. Archived from the original on July 14, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017. 
  199. ^ Ecma Technical Committee 45 (2012). Ngo, Tom, ed. "Office Open XML Overview" (PDF). Ecma International. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved August 12, 2017. OpenXML was designed from the start to be capable of faithfully representing the pre-existing corpus of word-processing documents, presentations, and spreadsheets that are encoded in binary formats defined by Microsoft Corporation. ... The original binary formats for these files were based on direct serialization of in-memory data structures ... . Technical Committee 45 (TC45) ... includes representatives from Apple, Barclays Capital, BP, The British Library, Essilor, Intel, Microsoft, NextPage, Novell, Statoil, Toshiba, and the United States Library of Congress. 
  200. ^ Magee, Liam; Thom, James A. (2014). "What's in a Word™? When one electronic document format standard is not enough [pre-print]" (PDF). Information Technology & People. Emerald Group Publishing. 27 (4): 482–511. ISSN 0959-3845. doi:10.1108/ITP-09-2012-0096. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017. The case of the standardisation of two ISO electronic document formats, the OpenDocument Format (ODF) and Office Open XML (OOXML) ... In this case, the attempt to design a de jure standard in fact produced even greater entrenchment of the existing de facto standard it was designed to replace. 
  201. ^ Library of Congress, National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (February 21, 2017). "OOXML Format Family—ISO/IEC 29500 and ECMA 376". Digital Preservation, Library of Congress (Format Description ID:fdd000395). Archived from the original on August 11, 2017. Retrieved August 11, 2017. 
  202. ^ ISO/IEC JTC 1 (2016). "ISO/IEC 29500-1:2016, Fundamentals and Markup Language Reference". International Organization for Standardization. Archived from the original on 2017-08-11. Retrieved August 9, 2017. 
  203. ^ ISO/IEC JTC 1 (2016). "ISO/IEC 29500-4:2016, Transitional Migration Features". International Organization for Standardization. Archived from the original on 2017-08-11. Retrieved August 9, 2017. 
  204. ^ Knowlton, Gray (August 13, 2012). "New file format options in the new Office". Microsoft Office Blogs. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 11, 2017. 
  205. ^ Microsoft Corporation (July 27, 2012). "Structure of a PresentationML document (Open XML SDK)". Microsoft Developer Network, Office Dev Center. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2017. 
  206. ^ Office Open XML Consortium (2012). "Presentation ML (pptx)". Office Open XML. Archived from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2017. 
  207. ^ Library of Congress, National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (January 1, 2017). "PPTX Transitional (Office Open XML), ISO 29500:2008–2016, ECMA-376, Editions 1-5". Digital Preservation, Library of Congress (Format Description ID: fdd000399). Archived from the original on August 11, 2017. Retrieved August 11, 2017. The standards documents that specify this format run to over six thousand pages. 
  208. ^ Library of Congress, National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (2008). "Setting Standards (Office Open XML and PDF/A)". Digital Preservation, Library of Congress. Archived from the original on February 20, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017. Library staff have participated in a technical committee working toward the standardization of the Office Open XML specifications, which ... will make it easier for libraries and archives to preserve a large body of digital material by ensuring that the content is generated in formats for which the specifications are published and will be maintained under the auspices of a standards organization. Specifically, this standard is based on the formats used by the latest version of Microsoft Office and supports all features in the various versions of Microsoft Office since 1997. 
  209. ^ Meng, Max (May 20, 2013). "What is the default file format for saving in MS Office 2013?". Microsoft Technet Forums. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2017. 
  210. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2016). "File formats that are supported in PowerPoint". Microsoft Support. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2017. 
  211. ^ Zamzar (April 17, 2012). "Open Old Powerpoint Presentations in Office 2007 and Office 2010". Zamzar Blog. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]