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Pradyota dynasty is an ancient Indian dynasty, which ruled over Avanti in the present-day Madhya Pradesh state, though most of the Puranas (except a manuscript of the Brahmanda Purana, preserved in the University of Dhaka) say that this dynasty succeeded the Barhadratha dynasty in Magadha.
According to Mahabharat, Brihadrath, the first ruler of Magadha, was succeeded by his son Jarasandh. After ruling for many generations, the last king of Brihadrath dynasty, Nipunjay, was killed by his minister Sunik (Pulik) and put his son Pradyot over the throne, thus establishing Pradyota dynasty. According to the Vayu Purana, Pradyotas of Avanti annexed Magadha and ruled there for 138 years from 799–684 BCE. Palaka, the son of the Avanti king Pradyota, conquered Kaushambi, making the kingdom powerful.
According to both Buddhist texts and Jain texts, one of the Pradyota traditions was that the king's son kills his father to become the successor. During this time, it is reported that crimes were commonplace in Magadha. Tired of the dynastic feuds and the crimes, the people of Magadha rose up in civil revolt and elected Haryanka to become the king in 684 BCE. This led to the emergence of the Haryanka dynasty in Magadha.
However, the Pradyota dynasty continued to rule in Avanti until it was conquered by Shishunaga, who defeated the last Pradyota king, Nandivardhana, and also destroyed the Haryanka dynasty of Magadha in 413 BCE.
- Pradyota Mahasena
- Ajaka or Aryaka
- Varttivarddhana or Nandivardhana
- Jain, Kailash Chand (1991), Lord Mahāvīra and His Times, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8
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