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Krishna and pradyumna.jpg
Krishna and Pradyumna battle the demon Nikumbha who assumes the form of bird
ChildrenAniruddha Edit this on Wikidata
Parent(s)Krishna Edit this on Wikidata
Rukmini Edit this on Wikidata
Sibling(s)Samba Edit this on Wikidata

Pradyumna (Sanskrit: प्रद्युम्न) is the name of a character in the Srimad Bhagavatam. He was the son of Lord Krishna and Radha, later given him to Rukmini as per her demand. Pradyumna is considered as one of the four vyuha avatars of Vishnu. According to some accounts, Pradyumna was an incarnation of Kamadeva, the god of love. Pradyumna is also a name of the Hindu god Vishnu, being referred to as Vishnu Ankar Gupta. He is one in 24 Keshava Namas (names), praised in all pujas. It is also the only name in Sanskrit with all the 3 letters joint (referred as जोडाक्षर)

The Harivamsa describes intricate relationships between Krishna Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha that would later form a Vaishnava concept of primary quadrupled expansion, or avatar.

Birth, Childhood and Youth[edit]

Pradyumna Kills Sambara.

Pradyumna was son of Lord Krishna and 61st grandson of Adinarayan. His mother was Rukmini, whom Lord Krishna got from her father Bhimkashen Narayan and brother Bhimkaraya Rukmi. Pradyumna was born in Dvaraka. He was the incarnate of God Kamdev. In the sat Yuga, Kamdev was burnt by Shiva when he became a barrier to Shiva's meditation. Shiva blessed Kamdev's distraught wife, Rati and promised her that in his next birth Kamdev will be a part of Krishna and Rati will be the daughter of Bhimkaraya Rukmi and that she will marry him. When he was a baby he was abducted by the demon Sambara. He was then cast into the sea and swallowed by a fish, but that fish was caught and carried to the house of Sambara. The fish was opened and the child was found inside. He was given to a woman in Sambara's house to raise. Narada informed her about the true identity of the child. When Pradyumna grew up, he battled the demon Sambara and killed him using the Vaishnavastra. Soon after Pradyumna became a constant companion of his father Krishna and was well liked by the people of Dvaraka. Pradyumna was a mighty Maharathi warrior. He possessed the extremely rare Vaishnavastra which is the most powerful weapon in the universe. Also he was one of the very few people to know the secret of the Chakra Vyuha.According to Mahabharata Pradyumna trained Abhimanyu and Upapandavas in warfare.But Pradyumna did not participate in the Kurukshetra War as he went on a pilgrimage with his uncle Balarama and other yadavas.

Balarama is embraced yudhisthira with Akrura and pradhyumna and went to Pilgrimage.

But he was an active participant In ashwameda yagna which was later conducted by Yudishtira. He along with Arjuna and Krishna fought against the demon Nikumbha. Nikumbha hung Arjuna In the sky and he began to vomit blood. When Nikumbha's head was cut off by Krishna, Arjuna began to fall down from the sky. Pradyumna held Arjuna and hence his life was saved.In accordance to Lord Shiva's boon to Rati, he married her incarnation, Princess Mayavati, the Princess of Vidarbha and daughter of his maternal uncle, Bhimkaraya Rukmi. It is said that Mayavati found his valor, handsomeness and charm beyond words and insisted on marrying him at her swayamvara. With her, he fathered, Krishna's grandson and favourite, also considered a vyuha avatar of Vishnu, Prince Aniruddha. Pradyumna was later killed in an intoxicated brawl at Dvaraka that resulted in the death of most Yadava warriors.


Knowing that their destruction was near, the Yadavas retired to Prabhasa where they were allotted temporary residences. When their time had come Vrishnis started revelling and drinking. Satyaki who was inebriated laughed at and insulted Kritavarma for killing the Pandava army in midst of their sleep. Pradyumna applauded Satyaki for this which highly incensed Kritavarma. He then taunted Satyaki by saying that he had slain the armless Bhurshiravas who had given up all hostile intentions. Satyaki then narrated the incident when Kritavarma tried to kill Satrajit. Satyabhama upon hearing this became angry and started crying. She then approached Krishna and sat on his lap greatly increasing his anger towards Kritavarma. Satyaki then rising up in anger said that he would give death to Kritavarma for slaying the warriors of the Pandava army while they were asleep. Having said this he rushed towards Kritavarma and severed his head with a sword. He then started killing the warriors who were on Kritavarma's side. Krishna then ran to stop Satyaki. The Bhojas and the Andhakas incensed at Satyaki surrounded him. Krishna knowing the character of the hour stood there unmoved and let them do whatever they could do. The Bhojas and Andhakas started striking Satyaki with the pots in which they had been eating. Pradyumna upon seeing this became highly enraged and rushed forward for rescuing Satyaki who was engaged with the Bhojas and the Andhakas. However the numbers of the Bhojas and Andhakas overwhelmed the two warriors and they were slain in front of Krishna.


Aniruddha was the son of Pradyumna who married to Usha (daughter of Bana Daitya and granddaughter of Mahabali). He is said to have been very much like his grandfather Krishna, to the extent that he may be a jana avatar, avatar of Vishnu. Aniruddha had a son named Vajra (or Vajranabh) . Vajra was known as an invincible warrior and would remain among the few survivors of the Yadus' battle. King Vajra then had 16 idols of Krishna and other gods carved from a rare, imperishable stone called Braja and built temples to house these idols in and around Mathura so as to feel the presence of Lord Krishna.


The Jain version of the story of Pradyumna is mentioned in the Pradyumna-charitra (poem in 18 canons) of Rajchandra, written in 1618 AD.[1]




  • Krishnamachariar, M. (1989) [1937], History of Classical Sanskrit Literature, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0284-5