|Bioavailability||30 to 40%|
|Protein binding||Approximately 60%|
|Biological half-life||Approximately 48 minutes|
|Molecular mass||3951.41 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Pramlintide (Symlin) is a relatively new injectable drug for diabetes (both type 1 and 2), developed by Amylin Pharmaceuticals (now a wholly owned subsidiary of AstraZeneca). Pramlintide is sold as an acetate salt.
Pramlintide is an analogue of amylin, a small peptide hormone that is released into the bloodstream by the β-cells of the pancreas along with insulin, after a meal. Like insulin, amylin is completely absent in individuals with Type I diabetes.
By augmenting endogenous amylin, pramlintide aids in the cellular absorption and regulation of blood glucose by slowing gastric emptying, promoting satiety via hypothalamic receptors (different receptors than for GLP-1), and inhibiting inappropriate secretion of glucagon, a catabolic hormone that opposes the effects of insulin and amylin. Pramlintide also has effects in raising the acute first-phase insulin response threshold following a meal.
Pramlintide has been approved by the FDA, for use by Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetics who use insulin. Pramlintide allows patients to use less insulin, lowers average blood sugar levels, and substantially reduces what otherwise would be a large unhealthy rise in blood sugar that occurs in diabetics right after eating. Apart from insulin analogs, pramlintide is the only drug approved by the FDA to lower blood sugar in type 1 diabetics since insulin in the early 1920s.
Design and structure
Since native human amylin is highly amyloidogenic and potentially toxic, the strategy for designing pramlintide was to substitute residues from rat amylin, which is not amyloidogenic (but would presumably retain clinical activity). Proline residues are known to be structure-breaking residues, so these were directly grafted into the human sequence.
Amino acid sequences:
Rat amylin: KCNTATCATQRLANFLVRSSNNLGPVLPPTNVGSNTY-(NH2)
Pramlintide as protein is (positively charged).
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