Pranayama

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Man practicing Prāṇāyām

Prāṇāyāma (Sanskrit: प्राणायाम prāṇāyāma) is a Sanskrit word meaning "extension of the prāṇa or breath" or "extension of the life force". The word is composed of two Sanskrit words: prana, life force, or vital energy, (noted particularly as the breath), and ayāma, to extend or draw out. (Not "restrain, or control" as is often translated from yam instead of ayāma). It is a yogic discipline with origins in ancient India.

Etymology[edit]

Prāṇāyāma (Devanagari: प्राणायाम prāṇāyāma) is a Sanskrit compound.

V. S. Apte provides fourteen different meanings for the word prāṇa (Devanagari: प्राण, prāṇa) including these:[1]

  • Breath, respiration
  • The breath of life, vital air, principle of life (usually plural in this sense, there being five such vital airs generally assumed, but three, six, seven, nine, and even ten are also spoken of)[2]
  • Energy, vigor
  • The spirit or soul

Of these meanings, the concept of "vital air" is used by Bhattacharyya to describe the concept as used in Sanskrit texts dealing with prāṇāyāma.[3] Thomas McEvilley translates prāṇa as "spirit-energy".[4] Its most subtle material form is the breath, but is also to be found in blood, and its most concentrated form is semen in men and vaginal fluid in women.[5]

Monier-Williams defines the compound prāṇāyāma as "(m., also pl.) N. of the three 'breath-exercises' performed during Saṃdhyā (See pūrak, rechak (English: retch or throw out), kumbhak".[6] This technical definition refers to a particular system of breath control with three processes as explained by Bhattacharyya: pūrak (to take the breath inside), kumbhak (to retain it), and rechak (to discharge it).[7] There are also other processes of prāṇāyāma in addition to this three-step model.[7]

Macdonell gives the etymology as prāṇa + āyāma and defines it as "m. suspension of breath (sts. pl.)".[8]

Apte's definition of āyāmaḥ derives it from ā + yām and provides several variant meanings for it when used in compounds. The first three meanings have to do with "length", "expansion, extension", and "stretching, extending", but in the specific case of use in the compound prāṇāyāma he defines āyāmaḥ as meaning "restrain, control, stopping".[9]

An alternative etymology for the compound is cited by Ramamurti Mishra, who says that:

Expansion of individual energy into cosmic energy is called prāṇāyāma (prāṇa, energy + ayām, expansion).

[10]

Hatha and rāja yoga varieties[edit]

Some scholars distinguish between hatha and rāja yoga varieties of prāṇāyāma, with the former variety usually prescribed for the beginner. According to Iqbal Kishen Taimni, hatha yogic prāṇāyāma involves manipulation of pranic currents through breath regulation for bringing about the control of chitt-vritti and changes in consciousness, whereas rāja yoga prāṇāyāma involves the control of chitt-vritti by consciousness directly through the will of the mind.[11] Students qualified to practice prāṇāyāma are therefore always initiated first in the techniques of hatha prāṇāyāma.[12]

Bhagavad Gītā[edit]

Prāṇāyāma is mentioned in verse 4.29 of the Bhagavad Gītā.[13]

According to Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is, prāṇāyāma is translated to "trance induced by stopping all breathing", also being made from the two separate Sanskrit words, prāṇa and āyām.[14]

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali[edit]

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali[15]
Pada (Chapter) English meaning Sutras
Samadhi Pada On being absorbed in spirit
51
Sadhana Pada On being immersed in spirit
55
Vibhuti Pada On supernatural abilities and gifts
56
Kaivalya Pada On absolute freedom
34

Pranayama is the fourth 'limb' of the eight limbs of Ashtanga Yoga mentioned in verse 2.29 in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.[16][17] Patanjali, a Hindu Rishi, discusses his specific approach to pranayama in verses 2.49 through 2.51, and devotes verses 2.52 and 2.53 to explaining the benefits of the practice.[18] Patanjali does not fully elucidate the nature of prana, and the theory and practice of pranayama seem to have undergone significant development after him.[19] He presents pranayama as essentially an exercise that is preliminary to concentration, as do the earlier Buddhist texts.[19]

Many yoga teachers advise that pranayama should be part of an overall practice that includes the other limbs of Patanjali's Raja Yoga teachings, especially Yama, Niyama, and Asana.[20]

Forms[edit]

Prāṇāyāma techniques and forms include:[21][22]

  • Anuloma prāṇāyāma- A form of alternate nostril breath (distinct from nadi shodhana).
  • Viloma prāṇāyāma - "the air is inhaled with pauses and exhaled as one breath or vice-versa, usually with added kumbhaka".[23]
  • Pratiloma prāṇāyāma - The inverse of anuloma: the inhale is drawn through one nostril (alternating sides each time) and the exhale is released through both nostrils.
  • Ujjayi prāṇāyāma - also known as "victorious or conquering breath" is breathing with the glottis slightly engaged, producing a soft sound. Considered to be the only prāṇāyāma one can safely practice while walking or engaged in other activities (e.g. during āsana practice. Some older versions require digital prāṇāyāma (the fingers controlling the nostrils). The slightly closed airway creates a valsalva maneuver and typically results in a parasympathetic response (lowered heart rate, lowered blood pressure, increased digestive activity, stimulation of the vagus nerve, etc...)
  • Bhastrika prāṇāyāma - "Bellows breath" - Fast and forceful inhales and exhales driven by diaphragmatic breathing. Technically not a prāṇāyāma, rather a 'kriya' (cleansing technique) to clear the nadis, nostrils and sinuses for prāṇāyāma.
  • Kapalabhati prāṇāyāma - "Skull shining breath" Similar to Bhastrika, but with a passive inhale and a forceful exhale, powered mainly by the diaphragm abdominals and obliques.
  • Kumbhaka prāṇāyāma - "Breath retention" antara (holding in) and bahya (holding out).
  • Agni-prasana - "Breath of Fire" apparently another name for kapalabhati. [24]
  • Udgeeth prāṇāyāma - "Chanting prāṇāyāma" - often done with the chanting of the Om mantra.
  • Shitali prāṇāyāma - "Cooling breath" - Inhalation is drawn over the curled and extended tongue.
  • Shitkari prāṇāyāma - Similar to shitali but the tongue is held between the teeth.
  • Surya bhedana prāṇāyāma & Chandra bhedana prāṇāyāma - Channeling breath in one side and out the other without alternating, meant to energize ida or pingala nadi. The right nostril is associated with the Sun (Surya) and pingala and left nostril with the moon or ida.
  • Sama vṛtti prāṇāyāma - "Even breathing" the inhale and exhale are of equal size and duration. The opposite of:
  • Visama vṛtti - "Uneven breathing" where specific ratios (e.g. 1:4:2) are maintained between inhale, retention, and exhale.
  • Agnisar prāṇāyāma - focuses on the navel region and Stomach.
  • Bhramari prāṇāyāma - "Bee breath" - The yogin makes a humming sound while breathing.

Medical[edit]

Several researchers have reported that pranayama techniques are beneficial in treating a range of stress-related disorders.[25][unreliable medical source?] improving autonomic functions,[26] A Cochrane systematic review on the symptomatic relief of asthma by breathing exercises did not find substantial evidence for improvement.[27]) and reducing signs of oxidative stress.[28][29] Teachers say that the practice develops a steady mind, strong will-power, and sound judgement,[20] and that sustained practice extends life and enhances perception.[30]

Safety[edit]

According to at least one study, pranayama was the most hazardous of yoga practices with four injuries in a study of 76 practitioners. There have been reports of adverse effects including haematoma and pneumothorax.[31]

Exercises which incorporate the Valsalva maneuver, a moderately forceful attempt to exhale against a closed airway, in rare cases have been medically associated in emergency room practice with subcutaneous emphysema, development of pockets of air in the body outside the lungs, for example under the skin or in the abdomen.[32]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Apte, p. 679.
  2. ^ For the vital airs as generally assumed to be five, with other numbers given, see: Macdonell, p. 185.
  3. ^ Bhattacharyya, p. 311.
  4. ^ McEvilley, Thomas. "The Spinal Serpent", in: Harper and Brown, p. 94.
  5. ^ Richard King, Indian philosophy: an introduction to Hindu and Buddhist thought. Edinburgh University Press, 1999, p. 70.
  6. ^ Monier-Williams, p. 706, left column.
  7. ^ a b Bhattacharyya, p. 429.
  8. ^ Macdonell, p.185, main entry prāṇāghāta
  9. ^ See main article आयामः (āyāmaḥ) in: Apte, p. 224. Passages cited by Apte for this usage are Bhagavatgita 4.29 and Manusmriti 2.83.
  10. ^ Mishra, p. 216.
  11. ^ Taimni, Iqbal Kishen p. 258.
  12. ^ Iyengar, Bellur Krishnamachar Sundararaja Light on Yoga. (1995) p. 244 ISBN 0-8052-1031-8
  13. ^ Gambhirananda, pp. 217–218.
  14. ^ Bhagavad-gita As It Is Chapter 4 Verse 29. Vedabase.net. Retrieved on 2011-02-25.
  15. ^ Stiles 2001, p. x.
  16. ^ Taimni, p. 205.
  17. ^ Flood (1996), p. 97.
  18. ^ Taimni, pp. 258–268.
  19. ^ a b G. C. Pande, Foundations of Indian Culture: Spiritual Vision and Symbolic Forms in Ancient India. Second edition published by Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1990, p. 97.
  20. ^ a b Bellur Krishnamachar Sundararaja Iyengar (2011). Light on prāṇāyāma : the yogic art of breathing. New York: Crossroad. OCLC 809217248. 
  21. ^ "Pranayama Basics and Pranayama Types". Yoga Health Center. 
  22. ^ Czipin, Jana A (2012). Practice Manual Pranayama. OCLC 863972234. 
  23. ^ Bellur Krishnamachar Sundararaja Iyengar. "20:Viloma prāṇāyāma". Light on pranayama. OCLC 68941560. 
  24. ^ YAI-Breath of Fire (Agni-Prasana), http://www.yogaalliance.com.au/yoga-breath-of-fire.html
  25. ^ Brown RP, Gerbarg PL (2005). "Sudarshan Kriya Yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression. Part II—clinical applications and guidelines". J Altern Complement Med 11 (4): 711–7. doi:10.1089/acm.2005.11.711. PMID 16131297. 
  26. ^ Pal GK, Velkumary S, Madanmohan (2004). "Effect of short-term practice of breathing exercises on autonomic functions in normal human volunteers" (PDF). Indian J. Med. Res. 120 (2): 115–21. PMID 15347862. 
  27. ^ Freitas DA, Holloway EA, Bruno SS, Chaves GS, Fregonezi GA, Mendonça KP (1 October 2013). "Breathing exercises for adults with asthma". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 10 (CD001277.pub3). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001277.pub3. PMID 24085551. 
  28. ^ Bhattacharya S, Pandey US, Verma NS (2002). "Improvement in oxidative status with yogic breathing in young healthy males". Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 46 (3): 349–54. PMID 12613400. 
  29. ^ Jerath R, Edry JW, Barnes VA, Jerath V (2006). "Physiology of long pranayamic breathing: neural respiratory elements may provide a mechanism that explains how slow deep breathing shifts the autonomic nervous system". Med. Hypotheses 67 (3): 566–71. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2006.02.042. PMID 16624497. 
  30. ^ Satyananda Saraswat (2002). Āsana, prānāyāma, mudra, bandha. Munger, India: Yoga Publications Trust. OCLC 865270462. 
  31. ^ Cramer H, Krucoff C, Dobos G (2013). "Adverse events associated with yoga: a systematic review of published case reports and case series". PLoS ONE (Systematic review) 8 (10): e75515. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075515. PMC 3797727. PMID 24146758. The yoga practice that was most often associated with reported adverse events was Pranayama 
  32. ^ Kashyap, A. S.; Anand, K. P.; Kashyap, S. (March 2007). "Complications of yoga". Emergency Medical Journal 24 (3): 231. doi:10.1136/emj.2006.036459. PMC 2660045. PMID 17351243. These symptoms followed a yoga exercise called "pranayam", which had involved a vigorous Valsalva manoeuvre