|12th President of India|
25 July 2007 – 25 July 2012
|Prime Minister||Manmohan Singh|
|Vice President||Mohammad Hamid Ansari|
|Preceded by||A. P. J. Abdul Kalam|
|Succeeded by||Pranab Mukherjee|
|Governor of Rajasthan|
8 November 2004 – 23 June 2007
|Chief Minister||Vasundhara Raje|
|Preceded by||Madan Lal Khurana|
|Succeeded by||Akhlaqur Rahman Kidwai|
19 December 1934 |
Nadgaon, Bombay Presidency, British India
(now in Maharashtra, India)
|Political party||Indian National Congress|
|United Front (1996–2004)
United Progressive Alliance (2004–present)
|Spouse(s)||Devisingh Ransingh Shekhawat|
|Alma mater||Mooljee Jetha College, Jalgaon
Government Law College, Mumbai
Pratibha Devisingh Patil ( pronunciation (help·info)) (born 19 December 1934) is an Indian politician who served as the 12th President of India from 2007 to 2012. A member of the Indian National Congress, Patil is the only woman to hold the office.  She previously served as the Governor of Rajasthan from 2004 to 2007.
Pratibha Devisingh Patil is the daughter of Narayan Rao Patil. She was born in a Maratha family on 19 December 1934 in the village of Nadgaon, in the Jalgaon district of Maharashtra, India. She was educated initially at RR Vidyalaya, Jalgaon and subsequently was awarded a Master's degree in Political Science and Economics by Mooljee Jetha College, Jalgaon (then under Pune University), and then a Bachelor of Law degree by Government Law College, Mumbai. Patil then began to practice law at the Jalgaon District Court, while also taking interest in social issues such as improving the conditions faced by Indian women.
The BBC has described Patil's political career prior to assuming presidential office as "long and largely low-key". In 1962, at the age of 27, she was elected to the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly for the Jalgaon constituency. Thereafter she won in the Muktainagar (formerly Edlabad) constituency on four consecutive occasions between 1967 and 1985, before becoming a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha between 1985 and 1990. In the 1991 elections for the 10th Lok Sabha, she was elected as a Member of Parliament representing the Amravati constituency. A period of retirement from politics followed later in that decade.
Patil had held various Cabinet portfolios during her period in the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly and she had also held official positions while in both the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha. In addition, she had been for some years the president of the Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Committee and also held office as Director of the National Federation of Urban Co-operative Banks and Credit Societies and as a Member of the Governing Council of the National Co-operative Union of India.
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Patil was announced as the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) candidate on 14 June 2007. She emerged as a compromise candidate after the Left parties would not agree to the nomination of former Home Minister Shivraj Patil or Karan Singh.
Due to the role being largely a figurehead position, the selection of candidate is often arranged by consensus among the various political parties and the candidate runs unopposed. Contrary to the normal pattern of events, Patil faced a challenge in the election. The BBC described the situation as "the latest casualty of the country's increasingly partisan politics and [it] highlights what is widely seen as an acute crisis of leadership". It "degenerated into unseemly mud slinging between the ruling party and the opposition". Her challenger was Bhairon Singh Shekhawat, the incumbent vice-president and a Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) veteran. Shekhawat stood as an independent candidate and was supported by the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), a group led by the BJP, although the Shiv Sena party, which was a part of NDA, supported her because of her Marathi origin.
Patil's term as the President of India saw various controversies. Patil commuted the death sentences of 35 petitioners to life, a record. The presidential office, however, defended this by saying that the President had granted clemency to the petitioners after due consideration and examining the advice of the Home Ministry. Pratibha Patil was dubbed as most merciful President in 30 years since 1981.
Along with her husband, she set up Vidya Bharati Shikshan Prasarak Mandal, an educational institute which runs a chain of schools and colleges in Amravati, Jalgaon and Mumbai. She also set up Shram Sadhana Trust, which runs hostels for working women in New Delhi, Mumbai and Pune; and an engineering college in Bambhori village in district Jalgaon named SSBT'S COET publicly named as Bambhori Engineering College. She also founded a cooperative sugar factory known as Sant Muktabai Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana at Muktainagar and an eponymous cooperative bank, Pratibha Mahila Sahakari Bank, that ceased trading in February 2003.
Patil has held various official offices during her career. These are:
|1967–72||Deputy Minister, Public Health, Prohibition, Tourism, Housing & Parliamentary Affairs, Government of Maharashtra|
|1972–74||Cabinet Minister, Social Welfare, Government of Maharashtra|
|1974–75||Cabinet Minister, Public Health & Social Welfare, Government of Maharashtra|
|1975–76||Cabinet Minister, Prohibition, Rehabilitation and Cultural Affairs, Government of Maharashtra|
|1977–78||Cabinet Minister, Education, Government of Maharashtra|
|1979–1980||Leader of the Opposition, Maharashtra Legislative Assembly|
|1982–85||Cabinet Minister, Urban Development and Housing, Government of Maharashtra|
|1983–85||Cabinet Minister, Civil Supplies and Social Welfare, Government of Maharashtra|
|1986–1988||Deputy Chairman, Rajya Sabha|
|1986–88||Chairman, Committee of Privileges, Rajya Sabha; Member, Business Advisory Committee, Rajya Sabha|
|1991–1996||Chairman, House Committee, Lok Sabha|
|8 November 2004 – 23 June 2007||Governor of Rajasthan|
|25 July 2007 – 25 July 2012||President of India|
- Reals, Tucker (21 July 2007). "India's First Woman President Elected". CBS News. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "Ex Governor of Rajasthan". Rajathan Legislative Assembly Secretariate. Archived from the original on 2013-08-04. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "Profile: President of India". NIC / President's Secretariat. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "Profile: Pratibha Patil". BBC. 21 July 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Ritu Singh (2007). President Pratibha Patil: India's First Woman President. Rajpal & Sons. p. 52. ISBN 978-81-7028-705-6.
- "Former Governors of Rajasthan". Rajasthan Legislative Assembly Secretariat. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "Prez polls: Sonia announces Pratibha Patil's name". NDTV. 14 June 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- Pradhan, Bibhudatta (19 July 2007). "Patil Poised to Become India's First Female President". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- Biswas, Soutik (13 July 2007). "India's muckraking presidential poll". BBC. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- "Indian MPs vote for new president". BBC. 19 July 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- Menon, Meena (26 June 2007). "Shiv Sena backs Pratibha Patil". The Hindu. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "First female president for India". BBC. 21 July 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- President Pratibha Patil's brush with controversy – India News – IBN Live. Ibnlive.in.com (12 April 2012). Retrieved on 14 April 2013.
- "President defends mercy spree to death row convicts". The Times of India. 26 June 2012.
- "President Pratibha Patil goes on mercy overdrive". The Times of India. 22 June 2012.
- "Pratibha Patil most merciful President in 30 years".
- "'Angel of mercy' Pratibha Patil commutes 30 death row sentences".
- "Pratibha Patil commuted death sentence of 35 people".
- "Who Has She Pardoned?".
- "President Patil’s foreign trips cost Rs 205 crore". The Indian Express. 26 March 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
- "Pratibha Patil took up to 11 relatives on 18 trips in a year".
- Kshirsagar, Alka (25 June 2012). "Pratibha Patil gets retirement home in Pune". Business Line (The Hindu). Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Pratibha Patil's Resume. The Times of India. 19 July 2007.
- "Report on Trend and Progress of Banking in India, 2005–06: Appendix Table IV.3: Urban Co-operative Banks Under Liquidation" (PDF). Reserve Bank of India. p. 328 (5). Retrieved 5 July 2012.
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|Member for Amravati
Madan Lal Khurana
|Governor of Rajasthan
Akhlaqur Rahman Kidwai
|President of India