|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2014)|
|Part of a series on|
Pratikraman (literally Sanskrit "introspection"), is a process during which Jains repent (prayaschit) for their sins during their daily life, and remind themselves not to repeat them. Although frequency of repenting varies, devout Jains often practice Pratikraman at least twice a day.
There are five types of Pratikraman:
Devasi Pratikraman is performed daily in the evening, Raysi Pratikraman is performed in the early morning, Pakhi Pratikraman is done once every fifteen days. Chaumasi Pratikraman is done once in four months on the Purnima (full moon) of the Kartik, Falgun and Aṣaṛh months of the Vira Nirvana Samvat calendrical year for the sins committed during that period.
According to Aagams, "the words of God", it is a compulsion for all to do Pratikraman at least once in a year, i.e. The Samvatsari Pratikraman.
Samvatsari Pratikraman includes all six things a Jain must do: Pratikraman is a combination of six avshyakas (essential rituals).
- Samayik - maintain equanimity
- Chauvisanttho - honor the Tirthankaras
- Vandana - honor all Jain sadhus and sadhvis
- Pratikraman - repent wrongdoing
- Kayotsarga - meditation and prayer
- Pratyakhan - take vows to keep self-control
Jainism considers the soul, in its pure form, to have infinite perception, knowledge, and vigor, and to be non-attached. These attributes are not seen in a worldly soul because it is soiled with karmas. By following religious principles principals and activities, Jains believe they overcome karmas and promote liberation of the soul. There are various rituals, of which Pratikraman is the most important. During pratikraman, Jains repent for non-meritorious activities on a daily basis.
Pratikraman is one of the thirty two (as per Sthanakvasi Sect) or forty five (as per Shwetambar Murtipujak Sect - Deravasi) Aagams. Pratikraman is 32nd Aagam which is called "Aavashyak Sutra" accepted by both the sects. The name suggests that it is Aavashyak, i.e. necessity. It must be performed twice every day, or at least once every day after sunset. If that is not possible, at least on every Pakkhi (24 times in a year). If that is not feasible then pratikraman, the Aavashyak Sutra should be performed on Chaumasi Pakkhi (3 times in a year) and if not then once on Samvatsari is a compulsion for every Jain. God has termed this as Aavashyak Sutra and thus it is deemed that a person who performs any other dharmic activities during Pratikraman time (e.g. doing puja or other swadhyay etc.) should stop such activity as this time is reserved specifically for Pratikraman. No other activity should replace Pratikraman during that time, is what is meant in Aagams.
- "Jainism Simplified Chapter 18 - Pratikraman". Umich.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-05.