Pratt & Whitney PW1000G

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PW1000G
ILA Berlin 2012 PD 140.JPG
Type Geared turbofan
National origin United States
Manufacturer Pratt & Whitney
First run 2008
Major applications Airbus A320neo
Bombardier CSeries
Embraer E-Jets E2
Irkut MC-21
Mitsubishi Regional Jet
Unit cost $12 million[1]

The Pratt & Whitney PW1000G is a high-bypass geared turbofan engine family, currently selected as the exclusive engine for the Bombardier CSeries, Mitsubishi Regional Jet (MRJ), and Embraer's second generation E-Jets, and as an option on the Irkut MC-21 and Airbus A320neo. The project was previously known as the Geared Turbofan (GTF), and originally the Advanced Technology Fan Integrator (ATFI). The engine is expected to deliver reductions in fuel use and ground noise when used in next-generation aircraft. The first engines are planned to begin commercial use before the end of 2015.[2]

Development[edit]

Pratt & Whitney first attempted to build a geared turbofan starting around 1998, with the PW8000.[3] This essentially was an upgrade of the existing PW6000 that replaced the fan section with a gearing system and new single-stage fan.[4] After several years of development the PW8000 essentially disappeared.[5] Soon afterwards the ATFI project appeared, using a PW308 core but with a new gearbox and a single-stage fan. It had its first run on March 16, 2001.

This led to the Geared Turbofan (GTF) program, which was based around a newly designed core jointly developed with MTU Aero Engines of Germany. The German company provides the high-speed low-pressure turbine and various stages of the high-pressure compressor.

In addition to the geared turbofan, the initial designs included a variable-area fan nozzle (VAFN), which allows improvements in propulsive efficiency across a range of the flight envelope.[6] However, the VAFN has since been dropped from production designs due to high system weight.

In July 2008, the GTF was renamed PW1000G, the first in a new line of "PurePower" engines.[7] Pratt & Whitney claims the PW1000G is 10% to 15% more fuel efficient than current engines used on regional jets and single-aisle jets, as well as being up to 75% quieter.[8][2] At the start of its production in 2016, each GTF was costing PW $10m to build, less than for what they are sold, but should become less than $2m per engine.[9]

Design[edit]

By putting a 3:1 gearbox between the fan and the low pressure spool, each spins at its optimal speed : 4,000-5,000 RPM for the fan and 12,000-15,000 RPM for the spool, the high pressure spool spinning at more than 20,000 RPM. The 30,000 hp gearbox is designed as a lifetime item with no scheduled maintenance other than changing oil.[10]

Operational history[edit]

The engine was tested on the Pratt & Whitney Boeing 747SP,[8] and the second phase of flight testing for the PW1000G was conducted on an Airbus A340-600. The tested aircraft, with the engine in the number two pylon position, flew for the first time in Toulouse on October 14, 2008.[11] The PW1100G was first tested on the 747SP in 2013.[12]

Testing of the PW1524G model began in October 2010.[13] The PW1500G engine successfully achieved Transport Canada type certification on February 20, 2013.[14]

The PW1100G engine successfully achieved FAA type certification on December 19, 2014.[15]

The first flight test on one of its intended production airframes, the Bombardier CS100, was on September 16, 2013.[16] The first flight of the Airbus A320neo followed on September 25, 2014.[17]

The fourth variant of the engine, the PW1900G, first flew on November 3, 2015 from Mirabel in Canada fitted to the Boeing 747SP test aircraft.[18]

The first delivery to a commercial operator occurred on January 20, 2016.[19] The first A320neo was delivered to Lufthansa instead of Qatar Airways due to rotor bow, or thermal bowing, due to asymmetrical cooling after shut-down on the previous flight. Differences in temperature across the shaft section supporting the rotor lead to different thermal deformation of the shaft material, causing the rotor axis to bend; this results in an offset between the center of gravity of the bowed rotor and the bearing axis, causing a slight imbalance and potentially reducing the tight clearance between the rotor blade tips and the compressor wall. All production standard engines now feature a damper on the third and fourth shaft bearings to help stiffen the shaft and data from engines in service and under accelerated testing is expected to gradually reduce engine start times. According to P&W President Bob Leduc, "by the time we get to June (2016), it will be down to 200 seconds for start time and by the time we get to December (2016) we will be down to 150 seconds for start time".[20]

Applications[edit]

Specifications[edit]

Data from PW1100G Type Certificate[31]

General characteristics

  • Type: Geared Turbofan
  • Length: 133.898 in (3,401 mm) fan spinner face to aft flange
  • Diameter: 87.566 in (2,224 mm) fan case
  • Dry weight: 6300 lb (2857.6 kg)

Components

  • Compressor: Axial flow,1-stage geared fan, 2-3 stage LP, 8 stage HP
  • Combustors: Annular combustion chamber
  • Turbine: Axial flow, 2-stage HP, 3-stage LP

Performance

PW1100G Max thrust ratings
models Take-Off Continuous
PW1133G/GA-JM, PW1130G-JM 33110 lbf (147.28 kN) 32780 lbf (145.81 kN)
PW1127G/GA/G1-JM 27075 lbf (120.43 kN) 26345 lbf (117.18 kN)
PW1124G/G1-JM, PW1122G-JM 24240 lbf (107.82 kN) 24035 lbf (106.91 kN)
The PW1000 Family[32]
Model Fan Diameter Bypass ratio Static Thrust Fuel cons. Noise (St.4) CO2 (t/ac/yr) NO (margin to CAEP 6) Stages Application Service entry
PW1124G 81 in (210 cm) 12.5:1 24,000 lbf (110 kN) -15% -20 dB -3,600 -55% 1GF-3LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT A319neo
PW1127G 81 in (210 cm) 12.5:1 27,000 lbf (120 kN) -15% -20 dB -3,600 -55% 1GF-3LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT A320neo January 2016
PW1133G 81 in (210 cm) 12.5:1 33,000 lbf (150 kN) -15% -20 dB -3,600 -55% 1GF-3LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT A321neo
PW1135G[33] 81 in (210 cm) 12.5:1 35,000 lbf (160 kN) -15% -20 dB -3,600 -55% 1GF-3LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT A321neo
PW1215G 56 in (140 cm) 9:1 15,000 lbf (67 kN) -12% -15 dB -2,700 -50% 1GF-2LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT MRJ70 2017
PW1217G 56 in (140 cm) 9:1 17,000 lbf (76 kN) -12% -15 dB -2,700 -50% 1GF-2LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT MRJ90 2017
PW1428G 81 in (210 cm) 12:1 28,000 lbf (120 kN) -15% -20 dB -3,600 -55% 1GF-3LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT Irkut MC-21-200 2017
PW1431G 81 in (210 cm) 12:1 31,000 lbf (140 kN) -15% -20 dB -3,600 -55% 1GF-3LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT Irkut MC-21-300 2017
PW1519G[34] 73 in (190 cm) 12:1 19,000 lbf (85 kN) -14% -20 dB -3,000 -55% 1GF-3LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT CSeries CS100
PW1521G[34] 73 in (190 cm) 12:1 21,000 lbf (93 kN) -14% -20 dB -3,000 -55% 1GF-3LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT CSeries CS100/300
PW1524G[34] 73 in (190 cm) 12:1 23,300 lbf (104 kN) -14% -20 dB -3,000 -55% 1GF-3LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT CSeries CS100/300 July 2016
PW1525G[34] 73 in (190 cm) 12:1 23,300 lbf (104 kN) -14% -20 dB -3,000 -55% 1GF-3LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT CSeries CS100/300
PW1715G 56 in (140 cm) 9:1 15,000 lbf (67 kN) -12% -15 dB -2,700 -50% 1GF-2LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT E-Jets E2 175 2018
PW1919G 73 in (190 cm) 12:1 19,000 lbf (85 kN) -15% -20 dB -3,000 -55% 1GF-3LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT E-Jets E2 190/195 2018
PW1921G 73 in (190 cm) 12:1 21,000 lbf (93 kN) -15% -20 dB -3,000 -55% 1GF-3LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT E-Jets E2 190/195 2018
PW1922G 73 in (190 cm) 12:1 22,000 lbf (98 kN) -15% -20 dB -3,000 -55% 1GF-3LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT E-Jets E2 190/195 2018
PW1923G 73 in (190 cm) 12:1 23,000 lbf (100 kN) -15% -20 dB -3,000 -55% 1GF-3LPC-8HPC-2HPT-3LPT E-Jets E2 190/195 2018

See also[edit]

Related development
Comparable engines
Related lists

References[edit]

  1. ^ "JetBlue Picks Pratt Over CFM for Engines Valued at $1.03 Billion". Bloomberg. December 15, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Coy, Peter. "The Little Gear That Could Reshape the Jet Engine". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2015-10-21. 
  3. ^ "Pratt & Whitney's surprise leap. (starts design of PW8000 engine)(Turf Wars in the 10t Engine Market)(Cover Story)". highbeam.com. 
  4. ^ "SAE International -- mobility engineering". sae.org. 
  5. ^ "The Dougloid Papers". cornponepapers.blogspot.com. 
  6. ^ "P&W readies for CSeries "third knob" engine testing". Retrieved 2011-02-27. 
  7. ^ "P&W launches geared turbofan plane engine". The Gazette. 2008-07-14. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  8. ^ a b Garvey, William. Pratt Gears Up for PW1000G Aviation Week. Accessed: 9 January 2011.
  9. ^ "Pontifications: GTF faces steep learning curve on costs". Leeham News. June 13, 2016. 
  10. ^ "Bjorn’s Corner: Engine architectures". Leeham News. 4 March 2016. 
  11. ^ Airbus-owned A340 flies P&W geared turbofan engine
  12. ^ "IN FOCUS: Pratt completes first flight of PW1100G engine". Flightglobal.com. 
  13. ^ "Pratt & Whitney geared PW1524G testing underway". Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  14. ^ News - Media Centre. Bombardier. Retrieved on 2013-12-09.
  15. ^ FAA Certifies PurePower® Engine for A320neo Aircraft
  16. ^ "Bombardier’s CSeries Aircraft Completes Historic First Flight". Retrieved 2015-08-02. 
  17. ^ "A320neo Completes First Flight". Retrieved 2015-05-20. 
  18. ^ "Pratt & Whitney goes fourth with PW1900G flight". Flight International: 12. 10 November 2015. 
  19. ^ "Airbus Delivers A320neo to Lufthansa". Retrieved 2016-01-22. 
  20. ^ "New P&W President Has ‘Nothing To Hide' On GTF Starter Issue". Aviation Week. 16 February 2016. 
  21. ^ Jon Ostrower (30 Nov 2010). "Airbus set to launch A320 NEO". flight international. 
  22. ^ "Airbus offers new fuel saving engine options for A320 Family" (Press release). Airbus. 1 December 2010. 
  23. ^ Mary Kirby (13 Apr 2010). "P&W seals deal to begin design on GTF for Russia's MS-21". flight international. 
  24. ^ "PurePower PW1000G Engine". utc.com. 
  25. ^ "PurePower PW1700G & PW1900G Engines" (PDF). Pratt & Whitney. 
  26. ^ Ernest S. Arvai (February 6, 2013). "Embraer Launches E-Jet RE: Assessing the Impact". airinsight.com. 
  27. ^ "Pratt & Whitney Launches Geared Turbofan Engine with Mitsubishi Regional Jet" (Press release). Pratt & Whitney. 9 Oct 2007. 
  28. ^ Stephen Trimble (9 Oct 2007). "Pratt & Whitney Geared Turbofan engine selected to power Mitsubishi Regional Jet". Flight international. 
  29. ^ "Russia will start the production of Sukhoi SuperJet NG in 2019-2020". ruaviation.com. 2 August 2013. 
  30. ^ "Fokker 120 specifications". Rekkof Aircraft. 
  31. ^ "Type Certificate data sheet for PW1100G-JM Series Engines" (PDF). EASA. 23 November 2015. 
  32. ^ "PW1000G". MTU. 
  33. ^ "Pratt & Whitney Unveils Higher Thrust PurePower Engine" (Press release). Pratt & Whitney. 20 May 2014. 
  34. ^ a b c d "PurePower PW1500G Engine" (PDF). Pratt & Whitney. 
  • Gunston, Bill (2006). World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines, 5th Edition. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire, England, UK: Sutton Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-7509-4479-X. 

External links[edit]