Praya dubia

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Praya dubia
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Hydrozoa
Order: Siphonophorae
Family: Prayidae
Genus: Praya
Species:
P. dubia
Binomial name
Praya dubia
(Quoy & Gaimard, 1827)
Synonyms
  • Diphyes dubia Quoy & Gaimard, 1833
  • Nectocarmen antonioi Alvariño, 1983
  • Praia dubia Blainville, 1830
  • Prayoides intermedia Leloup, 1934
Sketch of the giant siphonophore.

Praya dubia or giant siphonophore is an invertebrate, a siphonophore that lives in the deep sea at 700 m (2,300 ft) to 1,000 m (3,300 ft) below sea level. It has been found off the coasts of a rapidly-growing list of nations around the world — 19 countries so far, from Iceland in the North Atlantic to Chile in the South Pacific[1] — thanks to advancements in deep-sea submersible technology.

Praya dubia is a member of the Hydrozoa class with a body length of up to 50 m (160 ft), the second-longest sea organism after the bootlace worm. Its length also rivals the blue whale, the sea’s largest mammal, although Praya dubia is as thin as a broomstick.[2][3]

The giant siphonophore is not a single, multi-cellular organism, but a huge colony of tiny biological components called zooids, each having evolved with a specific function. These zooids cannot survive on their own,[4] relying on symbiosis in order for a complete Praya dubia specimen to survive.

Description[edit]

Praya dubia zooids arrange themselves in a long stalk that is whitish and transparent, known as a physonect colony.[5] The larger end features a transparent, dome-like float known as a pneumatophore,[6] filled with gas that provides buoyancy, allowing the organism to remain at its preferred ocean depth. Next to it are the nectophore,[7] powerful medusae which pulsate in rhythmic coordination to propel Praya dubia through ocean waters in any direction.[8] Together, the array is known as the nectosome.

Beneath the nectosome is the siphosome which extends to the far end of Praya dubia, containing several types of specialized zooids in repeating patterns.[9] Some have a long tentacle used for catching and immobilizing food and distributing their digested nutrients to the rest of the colony. Other zooids known as palpons or dactylozooids appear to contain an excretory system that may also assist in defense, though little is known about their precise function in Praya dubia.[10] Transparent bracts (also called hydrophyllia), are leaf-shaped organs generally thought to be another type of zooid which covers and forces other zooids to contract in times of danger.

These animals burst,[11] when raised to the surface because their hydrostatic skeleton is held together by water pressure above 46 MPa (460 bar). Because of this, Praya dubia remains dredged up in fishing nets resemble a blob of gelatin, preventing their identification as a unique creature until the 19th century. In 1987, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute observed living Praya dubia during a systematic study of a water column, the animal’s natural habitat, in Monterey Bay.[12][13][14]

Behavior[edit]

Praya dubia is an active swimmer that attracts its prey with bright blue bioluminescent light.[15] When it finds itself in a region abundant with food, it holds its position and deploys a curtain of tentacles covered with nematocysts which produce a powerful, toxic sting that can paralyze or kill prey that happen to bump into it.[16] Praya dubia’s diet includes gelatinous sea life, small crustaceans, and possibly small fish and fish larvae.[17] It has no known predators.

A Praya dubia specimen, filmed in its native habitat, was featured in Episode 2 of the David Attenborough television series Blue Planet II, produced for the BBC.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "http://iobis.org/explore/#/taxon/497295". iobis.org. Retrieved 2018-01-30. External link in |title= (help)
  2. ^ "Beauty and the deep". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  3. ^ "Giant siphonophore, Deep Sea, Invertebrates, Praya sp at the Monterey Bay Aquarium". www.montereybayaquarium.org. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  4. ^ The Deep; the University of Chicago Press, London (2007)
  5. ^ "Siphosome - Biology-Online Dictionary". www.biology-online.org. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  6. ^ "Pneumatophore - Biology-Online Dictionary". www.biology-online.org. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  7. ^ "Nectophore - Biology-Online Dictionary". www.biology-online.org. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  8. ^ "Medusa - Biology-Online Dictionary". www.biology-online.org. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  9. ^ "Siphosome - Biology-Online Dictionary". www.biology-online.org. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  10. ^ "Dactylozooids". The Free Dictionary.
  11. ^ "Giant siphonophore". Archived from the original on 1999-11-28.
  12. ^ Praya dubia, at the Animal Diversity Web Archived 2008-04-09 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ "Prayid siphonophores". www.lifesci.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
  14. ^ "The Deep Next Door | Ecology Center". ecologycenter.org. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
  15. ^ "The Bioluminescence Web Page". biolum.eemb.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
  16. ^ "Siphonophores". www.siphonophores.org. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
  17. ^ "Giant siphonophore, Deep Sea, Invertebrates, Praya sp at the Monterey Bay Aquarium". www.montereybayaquarium.org. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
  18. ^ "Episode two of Blue Planet II gives a glimpse of deep under the ocean". Mail Online. Retrieved 2018-01-30.

External links[edit]