Pre-1890 North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons

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The years before 1890 featured the pre-1890 North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons. Each season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian tropical cyclone season has no bounds, but they tend to form between April and December, peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. Below are the most significant cyclones in the time period. Because much of the North Indian coastline is near sea level and prone to flooding, these cyclones can easily kill many with storm surge and flooding. These cyclones are among the deadliest on earth in terms of numbers killed.

Before 18th century[edit]

  • 1000 - A Cyclone with Hurricane force Winds struck North Cinque Island of Andaman Islands.[1]
  • 1484 - A Cyclone struck Chittagong Coast of Bangladesh with Hurricane force winds, killing 200000 people.[1]
  • 1582 – A tropical cyclone impacted the Sundarbans and West Bengal which killed 200,000 people. According to Banglapedia, a five-hour hurricane and thunderstorm destroyed houses and boats in the coast near Bakerganj (presently in Barisal and Patuakhali). Only Hindu temples with a strong foundation were spared.[2]
  • 1584 – A tropical cyclone impacted Bangladesh and killed 200,000 people.[3]
  • 15 May 1618- A tropical cyclone impacted Bombay and was described as "Disastrous" [4]
  • 1688 – A tropical cyclone impacted the Sundarbans and West Bengal.[citation needed]
  • September 1698- A Tropical cyclone struck Bombay [4]
  • 1699 – A tropical cyclone impacted Kolkata and killed 60,000 people.[citation needed]

18th century[edit]

  • 30 November 1702- A Tropical cyclone struck Bombay and destroyed all the small boats of the island, and the mango, jack and palm trees were blown down. The wind destroyed almost the whole produce of the island and wrecked the greater part of the shipping, The Cyclone was preceded with a plaque outbreak [4]
  • November 13–14, 1721 – A tropical cyclone impacted Madras.[citation needed]
  • October 7–12, 1737 – A tropical cyclone impacted the Sundarbans and West Bengal and killed 300,000 people.[5]
  • November 9, 1740- A tropical cyclone impacted Bombay [4]
  • September 11, 1742- A tropical cyclone struck Bombay ,the storm would force all the ships in the harbour from their anchors. Royal ships called Somerset and Salisbury, were damaged from the Tempest. The storm bought great devastation and was described as "The Records state that the gale was so excessive, ’as has not been exceeded in the memory of any one now on the spot" [6][7]
  • March 7, 1762- A Tropical cyclone struck Bombay [4]
  • December 1789 – A tropical cyclone impacted Coringa, India and killed 20,000.[citation needed]
  • November 1799- A tropical cyclone passed over Bombay [4]

Early 19th century[edit]

  • 1807 – A tropical cyclone impacted West Bengal and killed 90,000 people.[citation needed]
  • 1831 – An intense tropical cyclone impacted Odisha.[8]
  • 1833 – A tropical cyclone impacted West Bengal and killed around 50,000 people, with a record low of 891 milibar in North Indian Ocean, lowest over Indian Ocean.[9]
  • June 15, 1837- A cyclone struck Mumbai that destroyed 400 houses[6]
  • 1847 – A tropical cyclone impacted Bengal where it caused 75,000 deaths and 6000 cattle.[10]
  • 1854- A Tropical cyclone struck Bombay causing Considerable damage [4]

1839 India cyclone[edit]

Deadliest Tropical Cyclones
Rank Name/Year Region Fatalities
1 Bhola 1970 Bangladesh 500,000
2 India 1839 India 300,000
3 Nina 1975 China 229,000
4 Bangladesh 1991 Bangladesh 138,866
5 Nargis 2008 Myanmar 138,373
Sources: NOAA, MDR

A tropical cyclone impacted Andhra Pradesh, India on November 25, 1839 and killed around 300,000 people.[11]

Late 19th century[edit]

1864 Calcutta cyclone[edit]

The 1864 Calcutta Cyclone

On October 5, a powerful cyclone hit near Calcutta, India, killing around 300,100 people.[12] The anemometer in the city was blown away during the cyclone. Over 100 brick homes and tens of thousands of tiled and straw huts were leveled. Most ships in the harbor (172 out of 195) were either damaged or destroyed.[13] The cyclone of 1864 destroyed the ports at Khejuri and Hijli.[14]

November 1867 Great Calcutta cyclone[edit]

The anemometer in the city was blown away during the cyclone. A lack of storm surge minimized the overall damage from this system.[13]

October 1874 Bengal cyclone[edit]

This severe cyclone killed 80,000 people and caused significant damage.[10]

October 1876 Backergunge cyclone[edit]

On October 31, a cyclone hit the Meghna River Delta area of India. The storm surge killed 100,000, and the disease after the storm killed another 100,000.[citation needed]

1877 season[edit]

season summary

1878 season[edit]

season summary

1879 season[edit]

season summary

1880 season[edit]

season summary

June 1885 Aden cyclone[edit]

A cyclone had formed near the Laccadive Islands on May 24, 555 kilometres (345 mi) west of southern India. The SS Mergui encountered the cyclone off the Horn of Africa, 400 kilometres (250 mi) east of Socotra on June 1 and reported it stronger than the tropical cyclone which struck Calcutta in 1864. Just before midnight on the night of June 1, the Diomed reported winds of hurricane force and a pressure of 984 millibars (29.1 inHg). The ship Peshawar reported a westerly hurricane at the east end of the Gulf of Aden towards midnight on the night of June 2. At noon on June 3, the Tantallon reported a pressure of 943 millibars (27.8 inHg) near 12.5N 45.5E. On June 3, the German corvette Augusta, the French dispatch boat Renard, and the British ship SS Speke Hall were lost in the storm in the Gulf of Aden. The system continued westward and shrank in scale as it moved into the entrance of the Red Sea, crossing the coast of Djibouti. It became the first north indian ocean tropical cyclone in recorded history to transit the gulf of Aden with fully hurricane intensity and held the record of westernmost landfalling North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone ever.[15]

1885 Odisha cyclone[edit]

An intense cyclone struck Odisha.[8] It killed one person.

1888 Gujarat Cyclone[edit]

On November a violent cyclonic storm with hurricane-force winds struck Gujarat causing a ship sunk, killing 1300 people.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Scroll Staff. "A new Catalogue of Tropical Cyclones". researchgate. Retrieved 2021-08-18.
  2. ^ Ain-i-Akbari, Riyaz-Us-Salatin, Bengal District Gazetteer, 24 Parganas-by L.S.S. O'Malley, ICS, 1914, published- by the Bengal SOC Dept.
  3. ^ "The 10 deadliest storms in history". NBC News. May 27, 2008. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Scroll Staff. "'The bay was strewn with shipwrecks': A short history of Mumbai storms in the 18th, 19th centuries". Scroll.in. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  5. ^ "Historical records of 12 most devastating cyclones, which formed in the Bay of Bengal and made landfall on the East coast of India". National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project. Archived from the original on June 5, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  6. ^ a b Jun 3, Sharmila Ganesan Ram / TNN / Updated; 2020; Ist, 19:32. "Bombay's tryst with cyclones | Mumbai News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2021-08-15.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Scroll Staff. "'The bay was strewn with shipwrecks': A short history of Mumbai storms in the 18th, 19th centuries". Scroll.in. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  8. ^ a b P. Chittibabu; S. K. Dube; J. B. Macnabb; T. S. Murty; A. D. Rao; U. C. Mohanty; P. C. Sinha (February 2004). "Mitigation of Flooding and Cyclone Hazard in Orissa, India". Natural Hazards. 31 (2): 455–485. doi:10.1023/B:NHAZ.0000023362.26409.22. ISSN 0921-030X. S2CID 129718601.
  9. ^ Longshore, David (2010-05-12). Encyclopedia of Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones, New Edition. ISBN 9781438118796.
  10. ^ a b Dipankar C. Patnaik; N. Sivagnanam (November 2007). "DISASTER VULNERABILITY OF COASTAL STATES: A Short Case Study of Orissa, India". Social Science Research Network: 4. SSRN 1074845. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ "The Worst Natural Disasters by Death Toll" (PDF). NOAA. April 6, 2008. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  12. ^ Gastrell, J. E.; Henry F. Blanford (1866). Report On The Calcutta Cyclone Of The 5th October 1864. Calcutta: Government Of Bengal. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
  13. ^ a b "Calcutta". 1902 Encyclopedia. 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
  14. ^ "Cyclones and floods at Contai (page 4)". contai.info. Archived from the original on 2011-10-03. Retrieved 2011-08-02.
  15. ^ David Membery (July 2002). "Monsoon Tropical Cyclones: Part 2". Weather. Royal Meteorological Society. 57 (7): 247–255. Bibcode:2002Wthr...57..246M. doi:10.1256/004316502760195911.

General references[edit]

  • "Cyclone, Hurricane, White squall, Typhoon.". The Cyclopaedia of Indian And Of Eastern And Southern Asia: Commercial, Industrial, and Scientific, 3rd Edition. I. London: Bernard Quaritch. 1885. pp. 866–868. Retrieved 2009-08-15.

External links[edit]