Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories
Claims of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact relate to visits to, the discovery of or interaction with the Americas and/or indigenous peoples of the Americas by people from Africa, Asia, Europe, or Oceania prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean in 1492.
Two classical cases of pre-Columbian contact have widespread support amongst the scientific and scholarly mainstream. There is considerable evidence in support of successful explorations which led to Norse settlement of Greenland and the L'Anse aux Meadows settlement in Newfoundland some 500 years prior to Columbus.
The scientific and scholarly responses to other pre-Columbian contact claims have varied. Some such contact claims are examined in reputable peer-reviewed sources. Other contact claims, typically based on circumstantial and ambiguous interpretations of archaeological finds, cultural comparisons, comments in historical documents, and narrative accounts, have been dismissed as fringe science or pseudoarcheology.
- 1 Norse trans-oceanic contact
- 2 Claims of Polynesian contact
- 3 Claims of East Asia contact
- 4 Claims of South Asia contact
- 5 Claims of Africa and Middle East contact
- 6 Claims of European contact
- 7 Trans-oceanic travel originating from the New World
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Norse trans-oceanic contact
Norse journeys to Greenland and Canada are supported by historical and archaeological evidence. A Norse colony in Greenland was established in the late 10th century, and lasted until the mid 15th century, with court and parliament assemblies (þing) taking place at Brattahlíð and a bishop located at Garðar. The remains of a Norse settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, Canada, were discovered in 1960 and are dated to around the year 1000 (carbon dating estimate 990–1050 CE), L'Anse aux Meadows is the only site widely accepted as evidence of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. It was named a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1978. It is also notable for its possible connection with the attempted colony of Vinland established by Leif Erikson around the same period or, more broadly, with Norse exploration of the Americas.
Few sources describing contact between indigenous peoples and Norse people exist. Contact between the Thule people (ancestors of the modern Inuit) and Norse between the 12th or 13th centuries is known. The Norse Greenlanders called these incoming settlers "skrælingar". Conflict between the Greenlanders and the "skrælings" is recorded in the Icelandic Annals. The term skrælings is also used in the Vínland sagas, which relate to events during the 10th century, when describing trade and conflict with native peoples.
Claims of Polynesian contact
Claims involving sweet potato
The sweet potato, which is native to the Americas, was widespread in Polynesia when Europeans first reached the Pacific. Sweet potato has been radiocarbon-dated in the Cook Islands to 1000 CE, and current thinking is that it was brought to central Polynesia c. 700 CE and spread across Polynesia from there. It has been suggested that it was brought by Polynesians who had traveled to South America and back, or that South Americans brought it to the Pacific. It is possible that the plant could successfully float across the ocean if discarded from the cargo of a boat. Phylogenetic analysis supports the hypothesis of at least two separate introductions of sweet potatoes from South America into Polynesia, including one before and one after European contact. (see also #Linguistics.)
Claims involving Peruvian mummies
A team of academics headed by the University of York's Mummy Research Group and BioArch, while examining a Peruvian mummy at the Bolton Museum, found that it had been embalmed using a tree resin. Before this it was thought that Peruvian mummies were naturally preserved. The resin, found to be that of an Araucaria conifer related to the 'monkey puzzle tree', was from a variety found only in Oceania and probably New Guinea. "Radiocarbon dating of both the resin and body by the University of Oxford's radiocarbon laboratory confirmed they were essentially contemporary, and date to around CE 1200."
Claims involving California canoes
Researchers including Kathryn Klar and Terry Jones have proposed a theory of contact between Hawaiians and the Chumash people of Southern California between 400 and 800 CE. The sewn-plank canoes crafted by the Chumash and neighboring Tongva are unique among the indigenous peoples of North America, but similar in design to larger canoes used by Polynesians for deep-sea voyages. Tomolo'o, the Chumash word for such a craft, may derive from kumula'au, the Hawaiian term for the logs from which shipwrights carve planks to be sewn into canoes. The analogous Tongva term, tii'at, is unrelated. If it occurred, this contact left no genetic legacy in California or Hawaii. This theory has attracted limited media attention within California, but most archaeologists of the Tongva and Chumash cultures reject it on the grounds that the independent development of the sewn-plank canoe over several centuries is well-represented in the material record.
Claims involving chickens
The existence of chicken bones dating from 1321 to 1407 in Chile and thought to be genetically linked to South Pacific Island chicken species suggested further evidence of South Pacific contact with South America. The genetic link between the South American Mapuche (to whom the chickens were thought to originally belong) chicken bones and South Pacific Island species has been rejected by a more recent genetic study which concluded that "The analysis of ancient and modern specimens reveals a unique Polynesian genetic signature" and that "a previously reported connection between pre-European South America and Polynesian chickens most likely resulted from contamination with modern DNA, and that this issue is likely to confound ancient DNA studies involving haplogroup E chicken sequences."
In recent years, evidence has emerged suggesting a possibility of pre-Columbian contact between the Mapuche people (Araucanians) of south-central Chile and Polynesians. Chicken bones found at the site El Arenal in the Arauco Peninsula, an area inhabited by Mapuche, support a pre-Columbian introduction of chicken to South America. The bones found in Chile were radiocarbon-dated to between 1304 and 1424, before the arrival of the Spanish. Chicken DNA sequences taken were matched to those of chickens in American Samoa and Tonga, and dissimilar to European chicken. However, a later report in the same journal looking at the same mtDNA concluded that the Chilean chicken specimen clusters with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America.
Dutch linguists and specialists in Amerindian languages Willem Adelaar and Pieter Muysken have suggested that two lexical items may be shared by Polynesian languages and language of South America. One is the name of the sweet potato, which was domesticated in the New World. Proto-Polynesian *kumala (compare Easter Island kumara, Hawaiian ʻuala, Māori kumāra; apparent cognates outside Eastern Polynesian may be borrowed from Eastern Polynesian languages, calling Proto-Polynesian status and age into question) may be connected with Quechua and Aymara k’umar ~ k’umara. A possible second is the word for 'stone axe', Easter Island toki, New Zealand Maori toki 'adze', Mapuche toki, and further afield, Yurumangui totoki 'axe'. According to Adelaar and Muysken, the similarity in the word for sweet potato "constitutes near proof of incidental contact between inhabitants of the Andean region and the South Pacific", though according to Adelaar and Muysken the word for axe is not as convincing. The authors argue that the presence of the word for sweet potato suggests sporadic contact between Polynesia and South America, but no migrations.
Similarity of features and genetics
In December 2007, several human skulls were found in a museum in Concepción, Chile. These skulls originated from Mocha Island, an island just off the coast of Chile in the Pacific Ocean, formerly inhabited by the Mapuche. Craniometric analysis of the skulls, according to Lisa Matisoo-Smith of the University of Otago and José Miguel Ramírez Aliaga of the Universidad de Valparaíso, suggests that the skulls have "Polynesian features" – such as a pentagonal shape when viewed from behind, and rocker jaws.
From 2007 to 2009, geneticist Erik Thorsby and colleagues have published two studies in Tissue Antigens that evidence an Amerindian genetic contribution to the Easter Island population, determining that it was probably introduced before European discovery of the island.
In 2014, geneticist Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas of The Center for GeoGenetics at the University of Copenhagen published a study in Current Biology that found human genetic evidence of contact between the populations of Easter Island and South America, approximately 600 years ago (i.e. 1400 CE ± 100 years).
Some members of the now extinct Botocudo people, who lived in the interior of Brazil, were found in research published in 2013, to have been members of mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a1, which is normally found only among Polynesians and other subgroups of Austronesians. This was based on an analysis of a 14 skulls. Two belonged to B4a1a1 (while twelve belonged to subclades of mtDNA Haplogroup C1 common among Native Americans). The research team examined various scenarios, none of which they could say for certainty were correct. They dismissed a scenario of direct contact in prehistory between Polynesia and Brazil as "too unlikely to be seriously entertained." While B4a1a1 is also found among the Malagasy people of Madagascar (which experienced significant Austronesian settlement in prehistory), the authors described as "fanciful" suggestions that B4a1a1 among the Botocudo resulted from the African slave trade (which included Madagascar).
It has been confirmed that "some Amazonian Native Americans descend partly from a ... founding population that carried ancestry more closely related to indigenous Australians, New Guineans and Andaman Islanders than to any present-day Eurasians or Native Americans", according to a genetic study published in the prestigious journal Nature in July 2015. The authors, who included David Reich, added: "This signature is not present to the same extent, or at all, in present-day Northern and Central Americans or in a ~12,600-year-old Clovis-associated genome, suggesting a more diverse set of founding populations of the Americas than previously accepted." This appears to conflict with an article published roughly simultaneously in Science which adopts the previous consensus perspective. "The ancestors of all Native Americans entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia (purple) no earlier than ~23 ka, separate from the Inuit (green), and diversified into "northern" and "southern" Native American branches ~13 ka. There is evidence of post-divergence gene flow between some Native Americans and groups related to East Asians/Inuit and Australo-Melanesians (yellow).
Claims of East Asia contact
Claims of Ecuador–East Asian contact
A 2013 genetic study suggests the possibility of contact between Ecuador and East Asia. The study suggests that the contact could have been trans-oceanic or a late-stage coastal migration that did not leave genetic imprints in North America. This contact could explain the alleged similarity between the pottery of the Valdivia culture of Ecuador and the Jōmon culture of Northeast Asia.
Claims of Chinese contact
Other researchers have argued that the Olmec civilization came into existence with the help of Chinese refugees, particularly at the end of the Shang dynasty. In 1975, Betty Meggers of the Smithsonian Institution argued that the Olmec civilization originated due to Shang Chinese influences around 1200 BCE. In a 1996 book, Mike Xu, with the aid of Chen Hanping, claimed that celts from La Venta bear Chinese characters. These claims are unsupported by mainstream Mesoamerican researchers.
Other claims have been made for early Chinese contact with North America.
In 1882 artifacts identified at the time as Chinese coins were discovered in British Columbia. A contemporary account states that:
In the summer of 1882 a miner found on De Foe (Deorse?) creek, Cassiar district, Br. Columbia, thirty Chinese coins in the auriferous sand, twenty-five feet below the surface. They appeared to have been strung, but on taking them up the miner let them drop apart. The earth above and around them was as compact as any in the neighborhood. One of these coins I examined at the store of Chu Chong in Victoria. Neither in metal nor markings did it resemble the modern coins, but in its figures looked more like an Aztec calendar. So far as I can make out the markings, this is a Chinese chronological cycle of sixty years, invented by Emperor Huungti, 2637 B. C., and circulated in this form to make his people remember it.
In 1885, a vase containing similar discs was also discovered, wrapped in the roots of a tree around 300 years old. Grant Keddie, Curator of Archeology at the Royal BC Museum, examined a photograph of a coin from Cassiar taken in the 1940s (whereabouts now unknown) and he believes that the character style and the evidence that it was machine-ground show it to be a 19th-century copy of a Ming Dynasty temple token.
A group of Chinese Buddhist missionaries led by Hui Shen before 500 CE claimed to have visited a location called Fusang. Although Chinese mapmakers placed this territory on the Asian coast, others have suggested as early as the 1800s that Fusang might have been in North America, due to perceived similarities between portions of the California coast and Fusang as depicted by Asian sources.
In his book 1421: The Year China Discovered the World, the British author Gavin Menzies made the controversial claim that the fleet of Zheng He arrived in America in 1421. Professional historians contend that Zheng He reached the eastern coast of Africa, and dismiss Menzies's hypothesis as entirely without proof.
In 1973 and 1975 doughnut-shaped stones were discovered off the coast of California that resembled stone anchors used by Chinese fishermen. These (sometimes called the Palos Verdes stones) were initially thought to be up to 1500 years old and proof of pre-Columbian contact by Chinese sailors. Later geological investigations showed them to be a local rock known as Monterey shale, and they are thought to have been used by Chinese settlers fishing off the coast in the nineteenth century.
In June 2016, Purdue University published the results of research on six metal and composite metal artifacts excavated from a late prehistoric archaeological context at Cape Espenberg on the northern coast of the Seward Peninsula in Alaska. Also part of the research team was Robert J. Speakman, of the Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia, and Victor Mair, of East Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University of Pennsylvania. The report is the first evidence that metal from Asia reached prehistoric North America prior to contact with Europeans, stating that X-ray fluorescence identified two of these artifacts as smelted industrial alloys with large proportions of tin and lead. The presence of smelted alloys in a prehistoric Inuit context in northwest Alaska was demonstrated for the first time and indicates the movement of Eurasian metal across the Bering Strait into North America before sustained contact with Europeans.
This is not a surprise based on oral history and other archaeological finds, and it was just a matter of time before we had a good example of Eurasian metal that had been traded [...] We believe these smelted alloys were made somewhere in Eurasia and traded to Siberia and then traded across the Bering Strait to ancestral Inuits [sic] people, also known as Thule culture, in Alaska. Locally available metal in parts of the Arctic, such as native metal, copper and meteoritic and telluric iron were used by ancient Inuit people for tools and to sometimes indicate status. Two of the Cape Espenberg items that were found – a bead and a buckle — are heavily leaded bronze artifacts. Both are from a house at the site dating to the Late Prehistoric Period, around 1100-1300 AD, which is before sustained European contact in the late 18th century. [...] The belt buckle also is considered an industrial product and is an unprecedented find for this time. It resembles a buckle used as part of a horse harness that would have been used in north-central China during the first six centuries before the Common Era.— H. Kory Cooper, Associate Professor of Anthropology.
Claims of Japanese contact
Smithsonian archaeologist Betty Meggers wrote that pottery associated with the Valdivia culture of coastal Ecuador dated to 3000–1500 BCE exhibited similarities to pottery produced during the Jōmon period in Japan, arguing that contact between the two cultures might explain the similarities. Chronological and other problems have led most archaeologists to dismiss this idea as implausible. The suggestion has been made that the resemblances (which are not complete) are simply due to the limited number of designs possible when incising clay.
Alaskan anthropologist Nancy Yaw Davis claims that the Zuni people of New Mexico exhibit linguistic and cultural similarities to the Japanese. The Zuni language is a linguistic isolate, and Davis contends that the culture appears to differ from that of the surrounding natives in terms of blood type, endemic disease, and religion. Davis speculates that Buddhist priests or restless peasants from Japan may have crossed the Pacific in the 13th century, traveled to the American Southwest, and influenced Zuni society.
In the 1890s, lawyer and politician James Wickersham argued that pre-Columbian contact between Japanese sailors and Native Americans was highly probable, given that from the early 1600s to the mid-1800s several dozen Japanese ships were carried from Asia to North America along the powerful Kuroshio Currents. Such Japanese ships landed from the Aleutian Islands in the north to Mexico in the south, carrying a total of 293 persons in the 23 cases where head-counts were given in historical records. In most cases, the Japanese sailors gradually made their way home on merchant vessels, but in 1833 one Japanese crew crashed near Cape Flattery and was enslaved by Makahs for a period before being rescued by members of the Hudson's Bay Company. Another Japanese ship crashed in about 1850 near the mouth of the Columbia River, Wickersham writes, and the sailors were assimilated into the local Native American population. While admitting there was no definitive proof of pre-Columbian contact between Japanese and North Americans, Wickersham thought it implausible that such contacts as outlined above would have started only after Europeans arrived in North America.
Claims of South Asia contact
In 1879, Alexander Cunningham described the carvings on the Stupa of Bharhut from c. 200 BCE and described some fruit like detail as a custard-apple (Annona squamosa). He was unaware of the geographical origins of the fruit and others quickly pointed out that it could not have been as the custard-apple was believed to have been brought into India in only after the Portuguese established trade in India (post 1492). This suggestion was generally disregarded but a 2009 study claimed to have found carbonized remains that date to 2000 BCE and appear like seeds of custard apple.
Grafton Elliot Smith claimed that certain details in the Mayan stelae at Copán represented an Asian elephant. He wrote Elephants and Ethnologists, a book on the topic in 1924. Contemporary archaeologists suggested that it was based on a tapir and his suggestions have generally been dismissed by subsequent research.
Some carving details from around the 12th century in Karnataka that appeared like ears of maize (Zea mays), a crop from the New World, were interpreted by Carl Johannessen in 1989 as evidence of pre-Columbian contact. These suggestions were dismissed by multiple Indian researchers based on several lines of evidence. The object has been claimed by some to represent a Muktaphala, an imaginary fruit bedecked with pearls.
Claims of Africa and Middle East contact
Claims involving African contact
Proposed claims for an African presence in Mesoamerica stem from attributes of the Olmec culture, the presence of an African plant species in the Americas, and interpretations of certain European and Arabic historical accounts.
The Olmec culture existed from roughly 1200 BCE to 400 BCE. The idea that the Olmecs are related to Africans was suggested by José Melgar, who discovered the first colossal head at Hueyapan (now Tres Zapotes) in 1862. More recently, Ivan van Sertima has argued that these statues depict settlers or explorers from Africa, but his views have been the target of severe scholarly criticism.
North African sources describe what some consider to be visits to the New World by a Mali fleet in 1311. According to these sources, 400 ships from the Mali Empire discovered a land across the ocean to the West after being swept off course by ocean currents. Only one ship returned, and the captain reported the discovery of a western current to Prince Abubakari II; the off-course Mali fleet of 400 ships is said to have conducted both trade and warfare with the peoples of the western lands. It is claimed that Abubakari II abdicated his throne and set off to explore these western lands. In 1324, the Mali king Mansa Musa is said to have told the Arabic historian Al-Umari that "his predecessors had launched two expeditions from West Africa to discover the limits of the Atlantic Ocean."
According to the abstract of Columbus's log made by Bartolomé de las Casas, the purpose of Columbus’s third voyage was to test both the claims of King John II of Portugal that "canoes had been found which set out from the coast of Guinea [West Africa] and sailed to the west with merchandise" as well as the claims of the native inhabitants of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola that "from the south and the southeast had come black people whose spears were made of a metal called guanín...from which it was found that of 32 parts: 18 were gold, 6 were silver, and 8 copper."
Claims of Pre-Clovis immigration from Africa
Claims involving Arab contact
Early Chinese accounts of Muslim expeditions state that Muslim sailors reached a region called Mulan Pi ("magnolia skin") (Chinese: 木蘭皮; pinyin: Mùlán Pí; Wade–Giles: Mu-lan-p'i). Mulan Pi is mentioned in Lingwai Daida (1178) by Zhou Qufei and Zhufan Zhi (1225) by Chao Jukua, together referred to as the "Sung Document". Mulan Pi is normally identified as Spain of the Almoravid dynasty (Al-Murabitun), though some fringe theories hold that it is instead some part of the Americas.
One supporter of the interpretation of Mulan Pi as part of the Americas was historian Hui-lin Li in 1961, and while Joseph Needham was also open to the possibility, he doubted that Arab ships at the time would have been able to withstand a return journey over such a long distance across the Atlantic Ocean and points out that a return journey would have been impossible without knowledge of prevailing winds and currents.
According to Muslim historian Abu al-Hasan 'Alī al-Mas'ūdī (871-957), Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad (Arabic: خشخاش بن سعيد بن اسود) sailed over the Atlantic Ocean and discovered a previously unknown land (أرض مجهولة Ard Majhoola) in 889 and returned with a shipload of valuable treasures.
Claims involving ancient Phoenician contact
Scholar Cyrus H. Gordon believed that Phoenicians and other Semitic groups had crossed the Atlantic in antiquity, ultimately arriving in both North and South America. This opinion was based on his own work on the Bat Creek inscription Similar ideas were also held by John Philip Cohane; Cohane even claimed that many geographical names in America have a Semitic origin.
Using gold obtained by expansion of the African coastal trade down the west African coast, the Phoenician state of Carthage minted gold staters in 350 BCE bearing a pattern, in the reverse exergue of the coins, interpreted as a map of the Mediterranean with the Americas shown to the west across the Atlantic. Reports of the discovery of putative Carthaginian coins in North America are based on modern replicas, that may have been buried at sites from Massachusetts to Nebraska in order to confuse and mislead archaeological investigation.
Claims of European contact
The Solutrean hypothesis argues that Europeans may have immigrated to the New World during the Paleolithic era, circa 16,000 to 13,000 BCE. This hypothesis proposes contact partly on the basis of perceived similarities between the flint tools of the Solutrean culture in modern-day France, Spain and Portugal (which thrived circa 20,000 to 15,000 BCE), and the Clovis culture of North America, which developed circa 9000 BCE. The Solutrean hypothesis, first proposed in the mid-1990s, has had little support amongst the scientific mainstream, and subsequent genetic research has been cited as further weakening support for the idea.
Claims involving ancient Roman contact
Evidence of contacts with the civilizations of Classical Antiquity—primarily with the Roman Empire, but sometimes also with other cultures of the age—have been based on isolated alleged archaeological finds in American sites that originated in the Old World. The Bay of Jars in Brazil has been yielding ancient clay storage jars that resemble Roman amphorae for over 150 years. It has been proposed that the origin of these jars is a Roman wreck, although it has been suggested that they could be 15th or 16th century Spanish olive oil jars.
14th- and 15th-century Europe contact
Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney and feudal baron of Roslin (c. 1345 – c. 1400) was a Scottish nobleman. He is best known today because of a modern legend that he took part in explorations of Greenland and North America almost 100 years before Christopher Columbus. In 1784, he was identified by Johann Reinhold Forster as possibly being the Prince Zichmni described in letters allegedly written around the year 1400 by the Zeno brothers of Venice, in which they describe a voyage throughout the North Atlantic under the command of Zichmni.
Henry was the grandfather of William Sinclair, 1st Earl of Caithness, the builder of Rosslyn Chapel (near Edinburgh, Scotland). The authors Robert Lomas and Christopher Knight believe some carvings in the chapel to be ears of New World corn or maize. This crop was unknown in Europe at the time of the chapel's construction, and was not cultivated there until several hundred years later. Knight and Lomas view these carvings as evidence supporting the idea that Henry Sinclair travelled to the Americas well before Columbus. In their book they discuss meeting with the wife of the botanist Adrian Dyer, and that Dyer's wife told him that Dyer agreed that the image thought to be maize was accurate. In fact Dyer found only one identifiable plant among the botanical carvings and suggested that the "maize" and "aloe" were stylized wooden patterns, only coincidentally looking like real plants. Specialists in medieval architecture interpret these carvings as stylised depictions of wheat, strawberries or lilies.
Some have conjectured that Columbus was able to persuade the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon to support his planned voyage only because they were aware of some recent earlier voyage across the Atlantic. Some suggest that Columbus himself visited Canada or Greenland before 1492, because according to Bartolomé de las Casas he wrote he had sailed 100 leagues past an island he called Thule in 1477. Whether he actually did this and what island he visited, if any, is uncertain. Columbus is thought to have visited Bristol in 1476. Bristol was also the port from which John Cabot sailed in 1497, crewed mostly by Bristol sailors. In a letter of late 1497 or early 1498 the English merchant John Day wrote to Columbus about Cabot's discoveries, saying that land found by Cabot was "discovered in the past by the men from Bristol who found 'Brasil' as your lordship knows". There may be records of expeditions from Bristol to find the "isle of Brazil" in 1480 and 1481. Trade between Bristol and Iceland is well documented from the mid 15th century.
Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés records several such legends in his General y natural historia de las Indias of 1526, which includes biographical information on Columbus. He discusses the then-current story of a Spanish caravel that was swept off its course while on its way to England, and wound up in a foreign land populated by naked tribesmen. The crew gathered supplies and made its way back to Europe, but the trip took several months and the captain and most of the men died before reaching land. The ship's pilot, a man called Alonso Sánchez, and very few others finally made it to Portugal, but all were very ill. Columbus was a good friend of the pilot, and took him to be treated in his own house, and the pilot described the land they had seen and marked it on a map before dying. People in Oviedo's time knew this story in several versions, but Oviedo regarded it as myth.
In 1925, Soren Larsen wrote a book claiming that a joint Danish-Portuguese expedition landed in Newfoundland or Labrador in 1473 and again in 1476. Larsen claimed that Didrik Pining and Hans Pothorst served as captains, while João Vaz Corte-Real and the possibly mythical John Scolvus served as navigators, accompanied by Álvaro Martins. Nothing beyond circumstantial evidence has been found to support Larsen's claims.
Irish and Welsh legends
The legend of Saint Brendan, an Irish monk, involves a fantastical journey into the Atlantic ocean in search of Paradise in the 6th century. Since the discovery of the New World, various authors have tried to link the Brendan myth with an early discovery of America. The voyage was recreated in recent times by Tim Severin.
According to British legend, Madoc was a prince from Wales who explored the Americas as early as 1170. While most scholars consider this legend to be untrue, it was used as justification for British claims to the Americas, based on the notion of a Briton arriving before other European nationalities. Local legend holds that Devil's Backbone, a rock formation near Louisville, Kentucky, was used as a citadel by Madoc and his companions. One tribe which was said to be Welsh-speaking was the Mandan.
Biologist and controversial amateur epigrapher Barry Fell claims that Irish Ogham writing has been found carved into stones in the Virginias. Linguist David H. Kelley has criticized some of Fell's work but nonetheless argued that genuine Celtic Ogham inscriptions have in fact been discovered in America. However, others have raised serious doubts about these claims.
A small terracotta head sculpture, with a beard and European-like features, was found in 1933 (in the Toluca Valley, 72 kilometres southwest of Mexico City) in a burial offering under three intact floors of a pre-colonial building dated to between 1476 and 1510. The artifact has been studied by Roman art authority Bernard Andreae, director emeritus of the German Institute of Archaeology in Rome, Italy, and Austrian anthropologist Robert von Heine-Geldern, both of whom stated that the style of the artifact was compatible with small Roman sculptures of the 2nd century. If genuine and if not placed there after 1492 (the pottery found with it dates to between 1476 and 1510) the find provides evidence for at least a one-time contact between the Old and New Worlds.
According to ASU's Michael E. Smith, John Paddock, a leading Mesoamerican scholar, used to tell his classes in the years before he died that the artifact was planted as a joke by Hugo Moedano, a student who originally worked on the site. Despite speaking with individuals who knew the original discoverer (García Payón), and Moedano, Smith says he has been unable to confirm or reject this claim. Though he remains skeptical, Smith concedes he cannot rule out the possibility that the head was a genuinely buried Post-classic offering at Calixtlahuaca.
Claims of contact have often been based on occurrences of similar motifs in art and decoration, or on depictions in one World of species or objects that are thought to be characteristic of the other World. Famous examples include a Maya statuette claimed to depict a bearded man rowing, a cross in bas-relief at the Temple of the Cross in Palenque. Nevertheless, most of these finds can be explained as the result of misinterpretation. The Palenque "cross", for instance, is almost certainly a stylized maize plant.
In 1950, an Italian botanist, Domenico Casella, suggested that a depiction of a pineapple was represented among wall paintings of Mediterranean fruits at Pompeii. According to Wilhelmina Feemster Jashemski, this interpretation has been challenged by other botanists, who identify it as a pine cone from the Umbrella pine tree, which is native to the Mediterranean area.
The Bat Creek inscription and Los Lunas Decalogue Stone have led some to suggest the possibility that Jewish seafarers may have come to America after fleeing the Roman Empire at the time of the Jewish Revolt.
Claims from Mormon archaeology
The Book of Mormon, a holy text of the Latter Day Saint Movement that was allegedly translated by Joseph Smith, Jr from ancient gold plates in the early 1800s, states that some ancient inhabitants of the New World are descendants of Semitic peoples who sailed from the Old World. Mormon apologetics groups such as the Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies attempt to vindicate these ideas. However, mainstream archaeologists reject these claims. The National Geographic Society, in a 1998 letter to the Institute for Religious Research, stated "Archaeologists and other scholars have long probed the hemisphere's past and the society does not know of anything found so far that has substantiated the Book of Mormon." According to literature professor and active LDS member Terryl Givens, there is a lack of historical accuracy in the Book of Mormon as it relates to modern archaeological knowledge, and he dismisses it as a reliable source.
In the 1950s, Professor M. Wells Jakeman popularized a belief that the Izapa Stela 5 represented tree of life vision from the Book of Mormon and was a validation of the historicity of the claims of pre-Columbian settlement in the Americas. His interpretations of the carving and its connection to pre-Columbian contact have been widely discredited by both mainstream scholars and LDS scholars.
Trans-oceanic travel originating from the New World
Claims of Egyptian coca and tobacco
Traces of coca and nicotine found in some Egyptian mummies have led to speculation that Ancient Egyptians may have traveled to the New World. The initial discovery was made by a German toxicologist, Svetlana Balabanova, after examining the mummy of a female priestess called Henut Taui. Follow-up tests of the hair shaft, performed to rule out contamination, gave the same results.
A television show reported that examination of numerous Sudanese mummies undertaken by Balabanova mirrored what was found in the mummy of Henut Taui. Balabanova suggested that the tobacco may be accounted for since it may have also been known in China and Europe, as indicated by analysis run on human remains from those respective regions. Balabanova proposed that such plants native to the general area may have developed independently, but have since gone extinct. Other explanations include fraud, though curator Alfred Grimm of the Egyptian Museum in Munich disputes this. Skeptical of Balabanova's findings, Rosalie David, Keeper of Egyptology at the Manchester Museum, had similar tests performed on samples taken from the Manchester mummy collection and reported that two of the tissue samples and one hair sample did test positive for nicotine. Sources of nicotine other than tobacco and sources of cocaine in the Old World are discussed by the British biologist Duncan Edlin.
Mainstream scholars remain skeptical, and they do not see this as proof of ancient contact between Africa and the Americas, especially because there may be possible Old World sources. Two attempts to replicate Balabanova's finds of cocaine failed, suggesting "that either Balabanova and her associates are misinterpreting their results or that the samples of mummies tested by them have been mysteriously exposed to cocaine."
A re-examination in the 1970s of the mummy of Ramesses II revealed the presence of fragments of tobacco leaves in its abdomen. This became a popular topic in fringe literature and the media and was seen as proof of contact between Ancient Egypt and the New World. The investigator, Maurice Bucaille, noted that when the mummy was unwrapped in 1886 the abdomen was left open and that "it was no longer possible to attach any importance to the presence inside the abdominal cavity of whatever material was found there, since the material could have come from the surrounding environment." Following the renewed discussion of tobacco sparked by Balabanova's research and its mention in a 2000 publication by Rosalie David, a study in the journal Antiquity suggested that reports of both tobacco and cocaine in mummies "ignored their post-excavation histories" and pointed out that the mummy of Ramesses II had been moved five times between 1883 and 1975.
Icelander DNA finding
In 2010 Sigríður Sunna Ebenesersdóttir published a genetic study showing that over 350 living Icelanders carried mitochondrial DNA of a new type that is similar to the type found only in Native American and East Asian populations. Using the deCODE genetics database, Sigríður Sunna determined that the DNA entered the Icelandic population not later than 1700, and likely several centuries earlier. However Sigríður Sunna also states that "...while a Native American origin seems most likely for [this new haplogroup], an Asian or European origin cannot be ruled out".
Norse legends and sagas
In 1009, legends report that Norse explorer Thorfinn Karlsefni abducted two children from Markland, an area on the North American mainland where Norse explorers visited but did not settle. The two children were then taken to Greenland, where they were baptized and taught to speak Norse.
In 1420, Danish geographer Claudius Clavus Swart wrote that he personally had seen "pygmies" from Greenland who were caught by Norsemen in a small skin boat. Their boat was hung in Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim along with another, longer boat also taken from "pygmies". Clavus Swart's description fits the Inuit and two of their types of boats, the kayak and the umiak. Similarly, the Swedish clergyman Olaus Magnus wrote in 1505 that he saw in Oslo Cathedral two leather boats taken decades earlier. According to Olaus, the boats were captured from Greenland pirates by one of the Haakons, which would place the event in the 14th century.
In Ferdinand Columbus' biography of his father Christopher, he says that in 1477 his father saw in Galway, Ireland two dead bodies which had washed ashore in their boat. The bodies and boat were of exotic appearance, and have been suggested to have been Inuit who had drifted off course.
There is also evidence of Inuit coming to Europe under their own power or as captives after 1492. A substantial body of Greenland Inuit folklore first collected in the 19th century told of journeys by boat to Akilineq, here depicted as a rich country across the ocean.
Pre-Columbian contact between Alaska and Kamchatka via the subarctic Aleutian Islands would have been conceivable, but the two settlement waves on this archipelago started on the American side and its western continuation, the Commander Islands, remained uninhabited until after Russian explorers encountered the Aleut people in 1741. There is no genetic or linguistic evidence for earlier contact along this route.
- Origins of Paleoindians
- Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas
- Davenport Tablets
- Diffusion (anthropology)
- Institute for the Study of American Cultures
- Kensington Runestone
- Maine Penny
- Newport Tower
- Timeline of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact
- Vinland map
- Westford Knight
- Columbian Exchange
- Gwennan Gorn
- Burrows Cave
- Hyperdiffusionism in archaeology
- Carroll L. Riley; J. Charles Kelley; Campbell W. Pennington; Robert L. Rands (2014). Man Across the Sea: Problems of Pre-Columbian Contacts. University of Texas Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4773-0478-5.
- Linda S. Cordell; Kent Lightfoot; Francis McManamon; George Milner (2008). Archaeology in America: An Encyclopedia [4 volumes]: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-0-313-02189-3.
- Alice Beck Kehoe (2003)The Fringe of American Archaeology: Transoceanic and Transcontinental Contacts in Prehistoric America. Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee – Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 19–36. 0892-3310/03
- Garrett G. Fagan (2006). Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public. Psychology Press. p. 405. ISBN 978-0-415-30592-1.
- S. A. Wurm; Peter Mühlhäusler; Darrell T. Tyron (1996). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1048. ISBN 978-3-11-013417-9.
- John Logan Allen (2007). North American Exploration. U of Nebraska Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-8032-1015-9.
- Axel Kristinsson (2010). Expansions: Competition and Conquest in Europe Since the Bronze Age. ReykjavíkurAkademían. p. 216. ISBN 978-9979-9922-1-9.
- Kirsten A. Seaver (2014). The Last Vikings: The Epic Story of the Great Norse Voyagers. I.B.Tauris. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-78453-057-0.
- Van Tilburg, Jo Anne. 1994. Easter Island: Archaeology, Ecology and Culture. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press
- Langdon, Robert (2001). "The Bamboo Raft as a Key to the Introduction of the Sweet Potato in Prehistoric Polynesia". The Journal of Pacific History. 36 (1): 51–76. doi:10.1080/00223340123312.
- Montenegro, Álvaro; Avis, Chris; Weaver, Andrew (2008). "Modeling the prehistoric arrival of the sweet potato in Polynesia". Journal of Archaeological Science. 35 (2): 355–367. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2007.04.004.
- Roullier, Caroline; et al. (January 22, 2013), "Historical collections reveal patterns of diffusion of sweet potato in Oceania obscured by modern plant movements and recombination", PNAS, 110 (6)
- "28801_April08.indd" (PDF). York.ac.uk. December 2, 2010. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
- From the University of York Magazine, page 9, April/May 2008
- Did ancient Polynesians visit California? Maybe so., San Francisco Chronicle
- Jones, Terry L.; Kathryn A. Klar (June 3, 2005). "Diffusionism Reconsidered: Linguistic and Archaeological Evidence for Prehistoric Polynesian Contact with Southern California". American Antiquity. 70 (3): 457–484. doi:10.2307/40035309. JSTOR 40035309. Archived from the original (– Scholar search) on September 27, 2006. Retrieved 2008-03-06. and Adams, James D.; Cecilia Garcia; Eric J. Lien (January 23, 2008). "A Comparison of Chinese and American Indian (Chumash) Medicine". Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 7 (2): 219–25. doi:10.1093/ecam/nem188. PMC . PMID 18955312. Retrieved 2008-03-06.. See also Terry Jones's homepage, California Polytechnic State University.
- For the argument against the Chumash—Polynesian contact theory, see Arnold, J.E. (2007). "Credit Where Credit is Due: The History of the Chumash Oceangoing Plank Canoe". American Antiquity. 72 (2): 196–209. doi:10.2307/40035811. JSTOR 40035811.
- Arnold, Jeanne E. (ed.) 2001. The Origins of a Pacific Coast Chiefdom: The Chumash of the Channel Islands. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
- Gamble, Lynn H. (2002). "Archaeological Evidence for the Origin of the Plank Canoe in North America". American Antiquity. 67 (2): 301–315. doi:10.2307/2694568. JSTOR 2694568.
- "Top 10 Discoveries of 2007 – Polynesian Chickens in Chile – Archaeology Magazine Archive". archaeology.org.
- Thomson, Vicki A; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Austin, Jeremy J.; Hunt, Terry L.; Burney, David A.; Denham, Tim; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Wood, Jamie R.; Gongor, Jaime; Flink, Linus Girdland; Linderholm, Anna; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan (April 1, 2014). "Using ancient DNA to study the origins and dispersal of ancestral Polynesian chickens across the Pacific". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 111 (13): 4826–4831. doi:10.1073/pnas.1320412111. PMC . PMID 24639505.
- Storey et al., p. 10335.
- Whipps, Heather (June 4, 2007). "Chicken Bones Suggest Polynesians Found Americas Before Columbus". Live Science. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
- Storey, A. A.; Ramirez, J. M.; Quiroz, D.; Burley, D. V.; Addison, D. J.; Walter, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hunt, T. L.; Athens, J. S.; Huynen, L.; Matisoo-Smith, E. A. (2007). "Radiocarbon and DNA evidence for a pre-Columbian introduction of Polynesian chickens to Chile". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (25): 10335–10339. doi:10.1073/pnas.0703993104. PMC . PMID 17556540.
- Gongora, J.; Rawlence, N. J.; Mobegi, V. A.; Jianlin, H.; Alcalde, J. A.; Matus, J. T.; Hanotte, O.; Moran, C.; Austin, J. J.; Ulm, S.; Anderson, A. J.; Larson, G.; Cooper, A. (2008). "Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (30): 10308–10313. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801991105. PMC . PMID 18663216.
- Greenhill, Simon J.; Clark, Ross; Biggs, Bruce (2010). "Entries for KUMALA.1 [LO] Sweet Potato (Ipomoea)". POLLEX-Online: The Polynesian Lexicon Project Online. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- "Genetic relations of South American Indian languages". In Adelaar & Muysken, eds, The Languages of the Andes. Cambridge University Press, 2004 p. 41.
- Lawler, Andrew (June 11, 2010). "Beyond Kon-Tiki: Did Polynesians Sail to South America?". Science. 328 (5984): 1344–1347. doi:10.1126/science.328.5984.1344. PMID 20538927.
- Lie, B. A.; Dupuy, B. M.; Spurkland, A.; Fernández-Viña, M. A.; Hagelberg, E.; Thorsby, E. (2007). "Molecular genetic studies of natives on Easter Island: evidence of an early European and Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool". Tissue Antigens. 69 (1): 10–18. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00717.x. PMID 17212703.
- Thorsby, E.; Flåm, S. T.; Woldseth, B.; Dupuy, B. M.; Sanchez-Mazas, A.; Fernandez-Vina, M. A. (2009). "Further evidence of an Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool on Easter Island". Tissue Antigens. 73 (6): 582–5. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2009.01233.x. PMID 19493235.
- Westerholm, Russell. "Easter Island Was Not Populated Solely by the Polynesians, According to New Genetic Study". University Herald. Retrieved 2014-12-24.
- Vanessa Faria Gonçalves; Jesper Stenderup; Cláudia Rodrigues-Carvalho; Hilton P. Silva; Higgor Gonçalves-Dornelas; Andersen Líryo; Toomas Kivisild; Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas; Paula F. Campos; Morten Rasmussen; Eske Willerslev; Sergio Danilo J. Pena (2013). "Identification of Polynesian mtDNA haplogroups in remains of Botocudo Amerindians from Brazil". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110 (16): 6465–6469. doi:10.1073/pnas.1217905110. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- Pontus Skoglund; Swapan Mallick; Maria Cátira Bortolini; Niru Chennagiri; Tábita Hünemeier; Maria Luiza Petzl-Erler; Francisco Mauro Salzano; Nick Patterson; David Reich (July 2015). "Genetic evidence for two founding populations of the Americas". Nature.
- "Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans". July 2015.
- Roewer, Lutz, Michael Nothnagel, Leonor Gusmão, Veronica Gomes, Miguel González, Daniel Corach, Andrea Sala et al. 2013. Continent-Wide Decoupling of Y-Chromosomal Genetic Variation from Language and Geography in Native South Americans. PLoS Genetics.
- Estrada, E,; Meggers, B,; Evans, C, (1962), "Possible Transpacific Contact on the Coast of Ecuador", Science, 135 (3501): 371–372, doi:10.1126/science.135.3501.371, PMID 17782632
- Pool, p. 92, who cites Gordon Ekholm (1964) "Transpacific Contacts" in Prehistoric Man in the New World JD Jennings and E. Norbeck, eds., Chicago: University of Chicago, pp. 489—510.
- This theory is mentioned in the history book The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community (1963) by William H. McNeill
- Xu, Origin of the Olmec civilization.
- Dr. Mike Xu's Transpacific website, comparing Olmec and Chinese Shang period artifacts.
- Dean, James (January 1884). "Anthropology". The American Naturalist. University of Chicago Press for The American Society of Naturalists. 18 (1): 98–99. doi:10.1086/273578. JSTOR 2450831.
- Chow, Lily (2000). "The Gold Fever". Chasing their dreams : Chinese settlement in the Northwest region of British Columbia = Zhui qun meng xiang. Prince George, B.C.: Caitlin Press. ISBN 0-920576-83-4.
- Megan Merry McCormick (1984). "Chinese Coins and Pre-Columbian Asian Contacts with the Pacific Northwest". In Herbert C Taylor and Garland F Grabert. Western Washington Indian socio-economics: papers in honor of Angelo Anastasio. Western Washington University. p. 172.
- Anonymous (1892). "The Land of Fu-Sang,' Science 20:148; reprinted in William R. Corliss, ed. (1978) Ancient Man: A Handbook of Puzzling Artifacts, Glen Arm, Maryland: Sourcebook Project, ISBN 0-915554-03-8 p. 767
- Feder, Kenneth L., Frauds, Myths and Mysteries, Third Edition, Mayfield Publishing Company, 1999 pp. 103–104
- Menzies, Gavin. 1421: The Year China Discovered the World (Transworld Publishers, 2003).
- "The 1421 myth exposed". Retrieved March 22, 2007.
- "Zheng He in the Americas and Other Unlikely Tales of Exploration and Discovery". Archived from the original on March 17, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
- "1421: The Year China Discovered the World by Gavin Menzies". Retrieved March 22, 2007.
- Finlay, Robert (2004). "How Not to (Re)Write World History: Gavin Menzies and the Chinese Discovery of America" (PDF). Journal of World History. 15 (2): 229–242. doi:10.1353/jwh.2004.0018.
- Feder, Kenneth L. (2010). Encyclopedia of Dubious Archaeology: From Atlantis to the Walam Olum. Westport, CN: Greenwood. page 209. ISBN 978-0-313-37919-2
- "Old World metals were traded on Alaska coast several hundred years before contact with Europeans". Purdue University. 2016.
- Valdivia, Jomon Fishermen, and the Nature of the North Pacific: Some Nautical Problems with Meggers, Evans, and Estrada's (1965) Transoceanic Contact Thesis Gordon F. McEwan, D. Bruce Dickson American Antiquity, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Jul. 1978), pp. 362–371.
- Prehistory of the Americas By Stuart J. Fiedel pp 188–189.
- Davis, Nancy Yaw (200). The Zuni Enigma. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-32230-0, ISBN 978-0-393-32230-9
- Wickersham, James (1892). "Origin of the Indians--The Polynesian Route." American Antiquarian, 16:323-335, partly reprinted in William R. Corliss, ed. (1978) Ancient Man: A Handbook of Puzzling Artifacts, Glen Arm, Maryland: Sourcebook Project, ISBN 0-915554-03-8 pp. 705-709
- Cunningham, Alexander (1879). The Stupa of Bharhut. London: W.H.Allen. p. 47.
- Pokharia, Anil Kumar; Sekar, B.; Pal, Jagannath; Srivastava, Alka (2009). "Possible evidence of pre-Columbian transoceaic voyages based on conventional LSC and AMS 14C dating of associated charcoal and a carbonized seed of custard apple (Annona squamosa L.)". Radiocarbon. 51 (3): 923–930.
- Yetts, W. Perceval (1924). "Elephants and Maya Art". The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs. 45 (261): 262–265, 268–269. JSTOR 862358.
- Johannessen, Carl L.; Parker, Anne Z. (1989). "Maize ears sculptured in 12th and 13th century A.D. India as indicators of pre-columbian diffusion". Economic Botany. 43 (2): 164–180. doi:10.1007/bf02859857.
- Payak, M.M.; Sachan, J.K.S (1993). "Maize ears not sculpted in 13th century Somnathpur temple in India". Economic Botany. 47 (2): 202–205. doi:10.1007/BF02862023.
- Veena, T.; Sigamani, N. (1991). "Do objects in friezes of Somnathpur temple (1286 AD) in South India represent maize ears?" (PDF). Current Science. 61 (6): 395–397.
- Stirling, p. 2, who cites Melgar, Jose (1869) "Antigüedades mexicanas, notable escultura antigua", in Boletín de la Sociedad Mexicana de Geografía y Estadística, época 2, vol. 1, pp. 292–297, Mexico, as well as Melgar, Jose (1871) "Estudio sobre la antigüedad y el origen de la Cabeza Colosal de tipo etiópico que existe en Hueyapan del cantón de los Tuxtlas" in Boletín de la Sociedad Mexicana de Geografía y Estadística, época 2, vol. 3, pp. 104–109; Mexico.
- "CA Forum on Anthropology in Public: Robbing Native Cultures: Van Sertima's Afrocentricity and the Olmecs," in Current Anthropology, Vol. 38, no. 3 (June 1997), 419-441
- Joan Baxter (December 13, 2000). "Africa's 'greatest explorer'". BBC News. Retrieved February 12, 2008.
- Morison, Samuel Eliot (1963). Journals & Other Documents on the Life & Voyages of Christopher Columbus. New York: The Heritage Press. pp. 262, 263.
- Thacher, John Boyd (1903). Christopher Columbus: his life, his work, his remains, as revealed by original printed and manuscript records, together with an essay on Peter Martyr of Anghera and Bartolomé De Las Casas, the first Historians of America. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. pp. 379, 380.
- Romero, Simon (27 March 2014). "Discoveries Challenge Beliefs on Humans' Arrival in the Americas". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
- Qiong Zhang (2015-06-05). Making the New World Their Own: Chinese Encounters with Jesuit Science in the Age of Discovery. Brill. pp. 134–135. ISBN 9789004284388.
- Joseph Needham & Colin A. Ronan (1986). The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China. 3. Cambridge University Press. pp. 119–20. ISBN 0-521-31560-3.
- Hui-lin Li; Li, Hui-lin (1960–1961). "Mu-lan-p'i: A Case for Pre-Columbian Transatlantic Travel by Arab Ships". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. Harvard-Yenching Institute. 23: 114–126. doi:10.2307/2718572. JSTOR 2718572.
- Joseph Needham & Colin A. Ronan (1986). The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China. 3. Cambridge University Press. p. 120. ISBN 0-521-31560-3.
- Tabish Khair (2006). Other Routes: 1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing, p. 12. Signal Books. ISBN 1-904955-11-8
- Ali al-Masudi (940). Muruj Adh-Dhahab (The Book of Golden Meadows), Vol. 1, p. 268.
- Pace, Eric (April 9, 2001). "Cyrus Gordon, Scholar of Ancient Languages, Dies at 92". The New York Times.
- Robert C. Mainfort, Jr., and Mary L. Kwas, "The Bat Creek Stone: Judeans In Tennessee?" Tennessee Anthropologist Vol. XVI, No. 1, Spring 1991
- Cyrus Herzl Gordon, Before Columbus; links between the Old World and ancient America, Crown, 1971, p. 138
- Weigand, Phil C. (1978). "Review of In Search of Noah's Ark by Dave Balsiger; Charles E. Sellier,; Remote Kingdoms by Tertius Chandler; The Key by John Philip Cohane; Gods of the Cataclysm: A Revolutionary Investigation of Man and his Gods before and after the Great Cataclysm by Hugh Fox". American Anthropologist. 80 (3): 731–733. doi:10.1525/aa.1978.80.3.02a00760.
- McMenamin, M. A. 1996. Carthaginian Cartagraphy: A Stylized Exergue Map. Meanma Press, South Hadley, Massachusetts; McMenamin, M. A. 1997. The Phoenician World Map. Mercator's World 2(3):46-51; Scott, J. M. 2005. Geography in Early Judaism and Christianity. Cambridge University Press, pp. 182-183.
- McMenamin, M. A. 2000. Phoenicians, Fakes and Barry Fell: Solving the Mystery of Carthaginian Coins Found in America. Meanma Press, South Hadley, Massachusetts.
- Bradley, Bruce; Stanford, Dennis (2004). "The North Atlantic ice-edge corridor: a possible Palaeolithic route to the New World" (PDF). World Archaeology. 36 (4): 459–478. doi:10.1080/0043824042000303656. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
- Carey, Bjorn (19 February 2006). "First Americans may have been European". Live Science. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
- Meltzer, David J. (2009). First Peoples in the New World, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009, p. 188
- Fagundes, Nelson J.R.; Kanitz, Ricardo; Eckert, Roberta; Valls, Ana C.S.; Bogo, Mauricio R.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Smith, David Glenn; Silva, Wilson A.; Zago, Marco A.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K.; Santos, Sidney E.B.; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Bonatto, Sandro L. (2008). "Mitochondrial Population Genomics Supports a Single Pre-Clovis Origin with a Coastal Route for the Peopling of the Americas". American journal of human genetics 82 (3): 583–592. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.11.013. PMC 2427228. PMID 18313026.
- Kashani, Baharak Hooshia; Ugo A. Perego, Anna Olivieri, Norman Angerhofer, Francesca Gandini1,Valeria Carossa1, Hovirag Lancioni, Ornella Semino1, Scott R. Woodward, Alessandro Achilli, Antonio Torroni (January 2012). "Mitochondrial haplogroup C4c: A rare lineage entering America through the ice-free corridor?". American Journal of Physical Anthropology (FEE) (Wiley Periodicals) 147 (1): 34–39. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21614. PMID 22024980. "Recent analyses of mitochondrial genomes from Native Americans have brought the overall number of recognized maternal founding lineages from just four to a current count of 15. However, because of their relative low number, almost nothing is known about some of these lineages. This leaves a considerable void in understanding the events that led to the colonization of the Americas following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In this study, we identified and completely sequenced 14 mitochondrial DNAs belonging to one extremely rare Native American lineage known as haplogroup C4c. Its age and geographical distribution raise the possibility that C4c marked the Paleo-Indian group(s) that entered North America from Beringia through the ice-free corridor between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. The similarities in ages and geographical distributions for C4c and the previously analyzed X2a lineage provide support to the scenario of a dual origin for Paleo-Indians." (subscription required)
- "Earl Henry Sinclair". Orkneyjar. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
- Johann Reinhold Forster, History of the Voyages and Discoveries Made in the North, Printed for G.G.J. and J. Robinson, London, 1786
- T. J. Oleson, "ZENO, NICOLÒ," in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 1, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed October 1, 2014
- Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas. The Hiram Key. Fair Winds Press, 2001 ISBN 1-931412-75-8.
- Turnbull, Michael TRB (2009-08-06). "Rosslyn Chapel". BBC. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- Mark Oxbrow & I. Robertson. Rosslyn and the Grail. Mainstream Publishing, 2005 ISBN 1-84596-076-9.
- Historian Mark Oxbrow, quoted in "The ship of dreams" by Diane MacLean, Scotsman.com, May 13, 2005
- "It is most probable that Columbus visited Bristol, where he was introduced to English commerce with Iceland." Bedini, Silvio A. and David Buisseret (1992). The Christopher Columbus encyclopedia, Volume 1, University of Michigan press, republished by Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-13-142670-2, p. 175
- Seaver (1995) p.222
- Seaver, K.A.(1995) The Frozen Echo Stanford University Press ISBN 0-8047-3161-6 p.221
- Columbus, Christopher; Cohen, J. M. (translator) (May 5, 1992). The Four Voyages, pp. 27–37. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-044217-0.
- Soren, Larsen. (1925) The Pining voyage: The Discovery of North America Twenty Years Before Columbus.
- Thomas L. Hughes, The German Discovery of America: A Review of the Controversy over Didrik Pining’s Voyage of Exploration in 1473 in the North Atlantic in: German Historical Institute Bulletin, No. 33 (Fall 2003)
- Williams, Gwyn A (1979): Madoc: The Making of a Myth. London: Eyre Methuen
- Falls of the Ohio – Legends & Stories
- Sisson, David (September 1984)"Did the Irish discover America?". The Saturday Evening Post. Retrieved July 23, 2006.
- "I have no personal doubts that some of the inscriptions which have been reported [in the Americas] are genuine Celtic ogham. […] Despite my occasional harsh criticism of Fell's treatment of individual inscriptions, it should be recognized that without Fell's work there would be no [North American] ogham problem to perplex us. We need to ask not only what Fell has done wrong in his epigraphy, but also where we have gone wrong as archaeologists in not recognizing such an extensive European presence in the New World." D. H. Kelley, "Proto-Tifinagh and Proto-Ogham in the Americas:Review of Fell; Fell and Farley; Fell and Reinert; Johannessen, et al.; McGlone and Leonard; Totten", The Review of Archaeology, Spring 1990, http://www.reviewofarchaeology.com/pastissues.html
- Oppenheimer, Monroe; Wirtz, Willard (Spring 1989). "A Linguistic Analysis of Some West Virginia Petroglyphs". The West Virginia Archeologist. 41 (1). Retrieved August 8, 2007.
- "Roman 'head' found in Mexico". Econ.ohio-state.edu. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
- Forbes, Jack D. The American Discovery of Europe University of Illinois Press; April 16, 2007 ISBN 978-0-252-03152-6 p.108
- Hristov and Genovés (1999).
- Smith, Michael E., "The 'Roman Figurine' Supposedly Excavated at Calixtlahuaca". Accessed: February 13, 2012. (Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/65PlUfqJr)
- "NEARA 36-2 first draft.indd" (PDF). Retrieved February 3, 2011.
- Jashemski, Wilhelmina (2002). The natural history of Pompeii. Cambridge University Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-521-80054-9.
- Biblical Archaeology Review, July–August 1993.
- "National Geographic Society Statement on the Book of Mormon". August 12, 1998. Letter from Julie Crain addressed to Luke Wilson of the Institute for Religious Research.
- Givens, Terryl (2004-01-01). The Latter-day Saint Experience i n America. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 145–. ISBN 978-0-313-32750-6. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- *Brewer, Stewart W., (1999); "The History of an Idea: The Scene on Stela 5 from Izapa, Mexico, as a Representation of Lehi's Vision of the Tree of Life", (p. 12)
- Paulson, Matthew A. (2000-09-01). Breaking the Mormon Code. WingSpan Press. pp. 236–. ISBN 978-1-59594-067-4. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- "Curse of the Cocaine Mummies" written and directed by Sarah Marris. (Producers: Hilary Lawson, Maureen Lemire and narrated by Hilary Kilberg). A TVF Production for Channel Four in association with the Discovery Channel, 1997.
- "A look at the Evidence for Cocaine in Mummies". Thehallofmaat.com. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- "The Stoned Age?". Hall of Maat. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
- Buckland, P.C.; Panagiotakopulu, E. "Rameses II and the tobacco beetle". Antiquity. 75 (549–56): 2001.
- Counsell, D. C., "Intoxicants in Ancient Egypt? Opium, nymphea, coca, and tobacco," in David, Ann Rosalie, ed. Egyptian Mummies and Modern Science, Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-521-86579-1 p.213
- Bucaille, M. Mummies of the Pharaohs: Modern Medical Investigations NY: St. Martin’s Press pp 186-188
- Ebenesersdóttir, Sigríður Sunna; Sigurðsson, Ásgeir; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Stefánsson, Kári; Helgason, Agnar (2011). "A new subclade of mtDNA haplogroup C1 found in icelanders: Evidence of pre-columbian contact?". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 144 (1): 92–9. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21419. PMID 21069749.
- Eirik the Red's Saga by John Sephton paragraph 14
- Forbes, Jack D. (2007). The American Discovery of Europe. University of Illinois Press. p. 163. ISBN 0-252-03152-0. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
- Forbes, Jack D. (1993). Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples. University of Illinois Press. pp. 18–21. ISBN 0-252-06321-X. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
- Seaver (1995), p. 208
- Fossett, Renée (2001). In Order to Live Untroubled: Inuit of the Central Arctic, 1550–1940. University of Manitoba Press. pp. 75–77. ISBN 0-88755-647-7.
- "The Peopling of the Aleutians". Science. 335 (6065). January 13, 2012. pp. 158–161. doi:10.1126/science.335.6065.158.
- Ashe, Geoffrey, The Quest for America (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971);
- Blench, Roger (2010). "Remapping the Austronesian expansion". In Evans, Bethwyn. Festschrift for Malcolm Ross (PDF). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 1–25. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
- Fagan, Brian M. The Great Journey. Thames and Hudson. (1987)
- Feder, Kenneth L. (1999) "Frauds, myths, and mysteries: science and pseudoscience in archaeology" (3rd ed., Mountain View, Calif. : Mayfield Pub. Co.
- Fell, Barry (1984) America B.C. : Ancient Settlers in the New World (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984)
- William J. Hamblim Archaeology and the Book of Mormon (Provo, Utah: Maxwell Institute, 1993), Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 250–272, Text ;
- Gerol, E. Harry Dioses, Templos y Ruinas.
- Guernsey, Julia (2006) Ritual and Power in Stone: The Performance of Rulership in Mesoamerican Izapan Style Art, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, ISBN 978-0-292-71323-9.
- Hey, J. (2005). "On the number of New World founders: A population genetic portrait of the peopling of the Americas". PLoS Biology. 3 (6): e193. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030193. PMC . PMID 15898833.
- Howgaard, William (1971) The Voyages of the Norsemen to America (New York: The American-Scandinavian Foundation, 1914, Kraus Reprint Co., 1971);
- Hristov, Romeo H. and Santiago Genovés T. (2001) "The Roman Head from Tecaxic-Calixtlahuaca, Mexico: A Review of the evidence", Paper prepared for the 66th—Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, New Orleans (2001).
- Huyghe, Patrick (1992) Columbus was Last: A Heretical History of who was First (New York: Hyperion, 1992; Anomalist Books, 2005)
- Ingstad, Helge Westward to Vinland (New York: St. Martins, 1969);
- Johnson, Adrian America Explored (New York: The Viking Press, 1974);
- Jones, Gwyn A History of the Vikings (Oxford University Press, 1984);
- Jones, Peter N. American Indian mtDNA, Y Chromosome Genetic Data, and the Peopling of North America. Boulder: Bauu Press. 2004;
- Lawrence, Harold G. (1962). African Explorers of the New World. John Henry and Mary Louisa Dunn Bryant Foundation. ASIN B0007HV7US.
- Arlington Mallery and Mary Roberts Harrison, The Rediscovery of Lost America (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1979);
- Marcus, G. J., "The Conquest of the North Atlantic" (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980);
- Mowat, Farley (1998) The Farfarers (Toronto, Key Porter Books, 1998) ISBN 1-55013-989-4;
- Frederick J. Pohl, The Lost Discovery (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1952);
- Frederick J. Pohl, The Viking Explorers (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1966);
- Gary A. Rendsburg, "'Someone Will Succeed in Deciphering Minoan': Minoan Linear A as a West Semitic Dialect," Biblical Archaeologist, 59:1 (1996), pp. 36–43, esp. p. 40.
- Seaver, K.A.(1995) The Frozen Echo: Greenland and the Exploration of North America ca A.D. 1000–1500 Stanford University Press ISBN 0-8047-3161-6
- Smith, Michael E. "The 'Roman Figurine' Supposedly Excavated at Calixtlahuaca", accessed December 2007.
- Sorenson, John L. and Johannessen, Carl L. (2006) "Biological Evidence for Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Voyages." In: Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World. Ed. Victor H. Mair. University of Hawai'i Press. Pp. 238–297. ISBN 978-0-8248-2884-4; ISBN 0-8248-2884-4
- Sorenson, John L.; Raish, Martin H. (1996) Pre-Columbian Contact with the Americas Across the Oceans: An Annotated Bibliography. 2v. 2d ed., rev., Provo, Utah: Research Press, ISBN 0-934893-21-7.
- Sorenson, John L. and Johannessen, Carl L. (2009) World Trade and Biological Exchanges Before 1492, Bloomington, IN: iUniverse, ISBN 978-0-595-52441-9;
- Stirling, Matthew (1967) "Early History of the Olmec Problem", in Dumbarton Oaks Conference on the Olmec, E. Benson, ed., Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
- Storey, Alice A.;Ramırez, Jose Miguel; Quiroz, Daniel; Burley, David V.; Addison, David J.; Walter, Richard; Anderson, Atholl J.; Hunt, Terry L.; Athens, J. Stephen; Huynen, Leon; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A. (2007) "Radiocarbon and DNA evidence for a pre-Columbian introduction of Polynesian chickens to Chile", in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 19, 2007, v. 104, n. 25, pp. 10335–10339.
- Van Sertima, Ivan (1976). They Came Before Columbus. Random House. ISBN 0-394-40245-6.
- Von Wuthenau, Alexander (1975). Unexpected Faces in Ancient America: The Historical Testimony of Pre-Columbian Artists. Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-517-51657-8.
- Wauchope, Robert (1962) Lost Tribes & Sunken Continents. University of Chicago Press.
- Williams, Stephen (1991) "Fantastic Archaeology: The Wild Side of North American Prehistory", Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 0-8122-8238-8/0-8122-1312-2.
- Man across the sea: Problems of Pre-Columbian contacts (Austin and London: University of Texas Press, 1971).
- Report of Severin's trip in the National Geographic Magazine, Volume 152, Number 6 (December 1977).
- Erik Wahlgren The Vikings and America (1986, 2000) ISBN 0-500-28199-8.
- Stacy Kowtko Nature and the Environment in Pre-Columbian American Life (2006) ISBN 978-0-313-33472-6
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact hypotheses.|