Predetermined motion time system
A predetermined motion time system (PMTS) is frequently used to perform Labor Minute Costing in order to set piece-rates, wage-rates and/or incentives in labor (labour) oriented industries by quantifying the amount of time required to perform specific tasks under defined conditions. Today the PMTS is mainly used in work measurement for shorter cycles in labour oriented industries such as apparel and footwear. This topic comes under wider industrial and production engineering.
One of such a system is known as "Work Factor" and more popular Methods-time measurement, (MTM) released in 1948 exist today in several variations and used in some commercial applications.
New legislation in developed markets following sustainability issues, Living Wage movement and the 2013 disaster in Rana Plaza, Bangladesh have brought labor costing and standards back to the focus of activists and global fashion retailers. Occupational safety and health (OSH, OHS), Ergonomics, Skills development and job satisfaction are some of the other factors influenced by Labor Standards Act (Japan).
Predetermined Motion Time Standard and Predetermined Time standards (PTS), Pre-determined Time Systems are other terms that describe same concept by different authors. Main outcome of PMTS application is quantifying labor inputs in terms of SMV (Standard Minute Value) or SAM (Stranded Allocated Minute).
- 1 APD- Apparel Production Data
- 2 MOST
- 3 MODAPTS
- 4 MODSEW
- 5 GSD (General Sewing Data) - Part of Coats Global Services
- 6 Pro SMV
- 7 SATRA TimeLine
- 8 SewEasy GSD
- 9 TMU
- 10 ILO & Manchester University research during 2009 to 2013
- 11 Comparison of GSD PMTS systems by Walmart
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 External links
APD- Apparel Production Data
APD- Singapore origin web based software platform to determine SMV, SAM of the Cutting, Sewing, Packing of the Garment, Footwear, Bag manufacturing production units.
Apparel Production Data which is a tool to help to factory production to increase their productivity and efficiency by identifying waste motions specially in this very challenging market. All production operators can be analysis the SAM / SMV to accomplished their job task. Operation database will indicate all the step by steps to complete a garment. APD allows user to customize the ADD parameter such as machinery allowance, Fabric type, Stitch per centimeter etc. APD is MTMII based analytic followed by ILO stranded protocols for work-study for personal fatigue, environment rating, contingency allowance etc
SAM and SMV can helping factory to increase productivity and to eliminate unnecessary process. To Increase workers efficiency. To Improve Factory efficiency and also categories of product line. To reduce production cost. To preventive any losses of happens during production activities.
Structure by web-based Generate two types of reports to Portable Document Format, Excel (.xlsx) All export document processing is required only two tools browser and third party reader (like Adobe Reader, Microsoft Excel). Mobile, PC based Video streaming for accurate communication of the methodology via web.
Users can be defined with access to only certain options using a role based model. Functions which they do not have access to will not be shown. User permission can be authorized to control and limited to some of the categorized and others locations. Main menu is present by the user permission authority, it make some of the options will not provide to the main screen to allow user to access it.
Another popular PMTS is the Maynard Operation Sequence Technique, which was first released in 1972. H.B. Maynard was acquired by Accenture in 2007. That method also has several variations, with the most commonly used being BasicMOST, and others being MiniMOST, MaxiMOST, and AdminMOST. The variations of both systems differ from each other based on their level of focus. MTM-1 and MiniMOST are optimal for short processes with only small hand motions. BasicMOST, MODAPTS and MTM-UAS are more suitable for processes that average around 1 to 5 minutes, while MTM-B and MaxiMOST are more properly used for longer processes that are less repetitive.
Yet another popular PMTS used today in the automotive, sewing and healthcare industries is the MODAPTS technique. This technique was introduced in 1966 by G. C. "Chris" Heyde who originally learned the MTM-1 and MTM-2 methods in the 1950s and sought a simpler technique to use and apply. Unlike the MTM and MOST standards, MODAPTS uses a MOD as its basic unit of measurement (1 MOD = 0.129 seconds). However, like Basic-MOST, MODAPTS uses a coding technique that consists of a letter and an integer number (all but 1 code), where the integer numbers each represent MODS that can be easily added to determine a coded task's time.
MODSEW is a software application of MODAPTS for the sewn products and apparel industries. It uses very intuitive codes to represent the various motion patterns prevalent in the industry and allows the user to configure their own codes for those unique to their operation. The software is used to determine the standard time to complete an operation and has provisions to collect and maintain groups of operations in a style (product). MODSEW is owned, maintained, sold and supported by Byte Software Services, LLC of Charleston South Carolina.
GSD (General Sewing Data) - Part of Coats Global Services
General Sewing Data is a PMTS for the sewn products and apparel industries and is based on MTM Core Data both proprietary data systems of GSD (Corporate) Ltd who are based in Derby UK. The Time standards for General Sewing Data are used in GSD Enterprise and GSD QUEST.
Following a acquisition by Coats Group plc, the world’s leading industrial thread and consumer textile crafts business, GSD became part of Coats Global Services. Together with Fast React Systems, Coats Global Services have unparalleled reach through the global fashion supply chain. They specialise in providing technology based solutions and industry best practice expertise that deliver significant and measurable cost, speed and productivity improvements to fashion brands, retailers, sewn product manufacturers and textile mills.
GSD – Simply the Best Way to Cost and Make a Garment
GSD Enterprise is a scientific and objective Methods Analysis process which creates a Method Standard to help Industrial and Production Engineers establish and optimise ‘International Standard Time Benchmarks’ Bold textfor all sewn products, using standard motion codes and predetermined times. It establishes International Time Standards by applying the appropriate Predetermined Motion Codes to each step in the Method Standard. These 39 Motion Codes, are used as building blocks to create 1000’s of Operations, 1000’s of Features and unlimited Product Styles. Motion Code building blocks are used whatever the product from a simple T-Shirt to more complex Outerwear and all garment styles in between.
Enterprise offers opportunity for Manufacturing Excellence
- Establish Accurate Operation Times, ensuring production lines are optimised with higher operator performance
- Create Realistic Efficiency Measurements to enable consistent and accurate planning and to improve on-time delivery performance
- Use Method Engineering to increase productivity and profit and to mitigate rising labour costs
- As labour costs increase and FOB prices do not, costing becomes a critical aspect of any business relationship.
GSD creates a common language to establish the real manufacturing time and cost, as well as a tool to engineer the costs to create more profit or manufacturing opportunities. GSD Enterprise can be deployed in all areas of the business, but is often focused in Industrial Engineering, Continuous Improvement, Manufacturing Excellence & Lean teams.
Quest - Designed for Manufacturing
GSD Quest is the company's easy to use software solution which enables non-technical staff, with little or no manufacturing expertise to develop a ‘time-cost analysis’ for any chosen apparel product.This is achieved through the use of standard product templates and a simple ‘drag and drop’ approach.
Create for Value Quest is used at an early stage in the product development cycle enabling design and cost variations to be assembled and assessed, and the optimum price/performance balance achieved as part of a cost & value comparison. Design teams can explore various ‘what-if’ scenarios with various product components to reduce the associated labour / manufacturing costs and achieve a lower ‘in store’ price points, and additional margin opportunities.
Pro SMV is another PMTS for the sewn product industry, offered by Methods Apparel Consultancy India Private ltd. as an individual module of their software series pack called Pro-Suite. Pro Suite is aimed at providing various IT solutions for various departments of Sewn product industry. It has made a very strong consumer base in India and neighboring countries.
SATRA TimeLine accurately predicts the time and labour costs of a footwear production line before production starts. At its core is a Predetermined Motion Time System (PMTS), that can calculate values for every single shoemaking operation based on industry accepted standards and SATRA’s vast experience and knowledge. This innovative system is offered by SATRA Tecknology Centre (UK). SATRA TimeLine is a unique production efficiency system, designed BY shoemakers FOR shoemakers and it is exclusively available to SATRA members. https://www.satra.com/timeline/
- SewEasy is a modern, MTM based, garment sewing data (GSD) system used by Fortune 500 apparel brands, sourcing companies and SME sector manufacturers alike. It was developed by Singer sewing engineers, to be used in Ready Made Garment (RMG) labour costing, supply chain capacity planning and professional management. Seweasy is more aligned with the lean concepts attributed to Toyota. This system focuses on providing Standard Minute Values (SMV), which is also known as Standard Allowed Minutes (SAM) quickly; for labour cost estimation in sewing; in line with ILO's Work Study, 4th revised edition. The living wage and escalating costs, "demand innovations and smooth work flow" in manufacturing location, to stay competitive and sustainable. The company provide free training on-site.
SewEasy Pvt. Ltd has trained many juniors and seniors alike, to quickly establish better methods, motion patterns and standards using this easy PMTS system. The SewEasy transparent garment sewing data is useful for “sewing load balancing" in line with Value Stream Mapping (VSM) and "added value" measurement known as "needle down time" among professionals. The process of SewEasy based sewing standardization leads to easier skills development, OHS, Safety Culture and worker empowerment useful in performing innovations at needle point. The Cost Engineering aspect is important for Living Wage bench-marking and incentive systems development for motivation.
Open Costing for Garment Sourcing Teams
Recent research by Manchester University, UK on Garment Labor Costs and demand for living-wage benchmark brought SewEasy open, transparent, quick garment sewing data and Methods-time measurement (MTM) to the notice of apparel industry's sourcing professionals, including Walmart, who adopted SewEasy to create a sustainable labour-costing model for sourcing garments and home textiles in 2013. This approach is explained by ASDA in Clean Clothes Campaign annual report too at https://www.cleanclothes.org/livingwage/tailoredwages/tailored-wages-position/asdaprofile.pdf.
Home Textiles, Shoes, Leather, & Upholstery
SewEasy can be used in all needle based sewing industries such as Home Textiles, shoe, leather, and upholstery; where piece rate rationalization, open costing and living wage focus are under way.
SewEasy GSD Lean approach for Muda, Mura and Muri
Unlike 'time studies', in which an analyst uses a stopwatch and subjectively rates the operator's effort to calculate a standard time, Seweasy PMTS requires that the analyst break apart the process into its elemental sewing actions, and add-up the times to calculate the total standard time. Process of estimating cost of labour and workflow, professionally in such manner leads to improved productivity, lowered cost and higher earnings for all stake holders by way of eliminating wastes Muda, Mura and Muri.
Most predetermined motion time systems (MTM and MOST) use time measurement units (TMU) instead of seconds for measuring time. One TMU is defined to be 0.00001 hours, or 0.036 seconds. These smaller units allow for more accurate calculations without the use of decimals. In the most in-depth PMT systems, motions observed will be on the level of individual TMUs, like toss (3 TMUs in MiniMOST) and simple pick-up (2 TMUs in MTM-1). More general systems simplify things by grouping individual elements, and thus have larger time values – for example, a bend and arise (61 TMUs in MTM-2) and one or two steps (30 TMUs in BasicMOST). Systems with even less detail work with TMU values in the hundreds, like climbing 10 rungs on a ladder (300 TMUs in MaxiMOST) or passing through a door (100 TMUs in MaxiMOST).
The choice of which variation of a certain PMTS to use is dependent on the need for accuracy in contrast to the need for quick analysis, as well as the length of the operation, the distances involved in the operation, and the repetitiveness of the operation. Longer operations often take place on a larger spatial scale, and tend to be less repetitive, so these issues are often treated as one. For longer, less repetitive operations, statistical analysis demonstrates that the accuracy of less detailed systems will generally approach the accuracy of more detailed systems. Thus, in order to reduce the time required for analysis, less detailed systems (like MTM-B and MaxiMOST) are usually used when possible. Conversely, very short, repetitive processes are commonly analyzed with more exact methods like MTM-1 and MiniMOST because of the need for accuracy.
ILO & Manchester University research during 2009 to 2013
Manchester University researchers including Doug Miller, has gone deep into uses of PMTS in apparel labour costing in "Towards Sustainable Labour Costing in UK Fashion Retail." Doug says ..work measurement for arriving at a standard time should normally make provision for relaxation, contingency and special allowances. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), as of 1992 there were some 200 different PTS systems. In apparel manufacture, three PTS consultancy firms specializing in MTM appear to be operating in the sector– the US-based MODAPTS, the Sri Lankan-based SewEasy and the UK-headquartered GSD (Corporate) Ltd. Link to Doug's article is provided below in References.
Comparison of GSD PMTS systems by Walmart
Walmart has launched in house GSD PMTS system under lean cost reduction program across Asia.
A review appear here: http://www.onlineclothingstudy.com/2016/05/lean-management-program-and-pmts-system.html
Closely related manufacturing improvement methodologies:
- Toyota Production System
- Theory of Constraints
- Time and motion study
- Value Stream Mapping
- Wal-Mart GSD Lean Management Program: http://www.onlineclothingstudy.com/2016/05/lean-management-program-and-pmts-system.html
Modern Concepts and related Terminology:
- Production levelling
- Takt time
- Direct labor cost
- Sustainable Labour Costing in Apparel: http://www.onlineclothingstudy.com/2016/05/sustainable-labour-costing-and-its.html
- Labour Minute Costing: A TOOL FOR ESTABLISHING LIVING WAGE https://www.fairwear.org/ul/cms/fck-uploaded/documents/fwfpublications_reports/FWF-LabourMinuteCosting.pdf
- Zandin, Kjell B (2003). MOST Work Measurement Systems. New York: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-8247-0953-5
- Miller, Doug, Towards Sustainable Labour Costing in UK Fashion Retail (February 5, 2013). Available at SSRN: doi:10.2139/ssrn.2212100
- SewEasy GSD – A Software that Establishes Garment Standard Minute, OCS
- MTM-1 System
- MTM Organization
- The UK MTM Association
- MODAPTS Organization
- MODSEW Standard Data Engineering Software
- http://www.methodsworkshop.com/ Methods Workshop (ETC) Estimated True Cost
- What is Standard Time by Coats GSD http://gsdhq.com/defining-standard-time/
- Sew Easy GSD for Open Costing of Labor & Capacity Assurance
- MOST by Accenture
- AviX by Solme AB